Bulletin Article

3727
 

Considerable effort has been devoted to the development of simulation algorithms for facies modeling, whereas a discussion of how to combine those techniques has not existed. The integration of multiple geologic data into a three-dimensional model, which requires the combination of simulation techniques, is yet a current challenge for reservoir modeling. This article presents a thought process that guides the acquisition and modeling of geologic data at various scales. Our work is based on outcrop data collected from a Jurassic carbonate ramp located in the High Atlas mountain range of Morocco. The study window is 1 km (0.6 mi) wide and 100 m (328.1 ft) thick. We describe and model the spatial and hierarchical arrangement of carbonate bodies spanning from largest to smallest: (1) stacking pattern of high-frequency depositional sequences, (2) facies association, and (3) lithofacies. Five sequence boundaries were modeled using differential global position system mapping and light detection and ranging data. The surface-based model shows a low-angle profile with modest paleotopographic relief at the inner-to-middle ramp transition. Facies associations were populated using truncated Gaussian simulation to preserve ordered trends between the inner, middle, and outer ramps. At the lithofacies scale, field observations and statistical analysis show a mosaiclike distribution that was simulated using a fully stochastic approach with sequential indicator simulation.

This study observes that the use of one single simulation technique is unlikely to correctly model the natural patterns and variability of carbonate rocks. The selection and implementation of different techniques customized for each level of the stratigraphic hierarchy will provide the essential computing flexibility to model carbonate settings. This study demonstrates that a scale-dependent modeling approach should be a common procedure when building subsurface and outcrop models.

Explorer Article

2494
 
Explorer Article

The AAPG Europe Region joined with the Moroccan Association of Petroleum Geologists to hold the second International Joint MAPG and AAPG Conference and Exhibition in Marrakech in early October.

2232
 
Explorer Article

Play Fairway study available for free: 400-KM integrated dataset used in study .

301
 
Explorer Article

Europe needs a remedy: Years of worry about reliable gas supply from Russia has Europe looking north for gas exploration. Algeria may be just what the doctor ordered.

Explorer Division Column EMD

2796
 

Despite discouraging economic conditions over the last two years, development of the world’s vast resources of oil shale continues to make progress.

Explorer Emphasis

2605
 
Explorer Emphasis Article

After decades spent visiting Morocco and neighboring Algeria, an AAPG member who's led countless field trips to some of the earth's most exotic places says the two old countries are evolving into modern times.

2783
 
Explorer Emphasis Article

Deeper targets, higher excitement: Industry enthusiasm for shale gas (and oil) plays just keeps escalating – and the interest is going global.

2742
 

The impact of the rapid economic growth of “Asian giants” China and India is such that African oil supplies now face increased demand to fuel this growth and, therefore, increased E&P activity.

Explorer Regions and Sections

13213
 

Since establishment of AAPG Africa in 2000, the Region’s leadership teams over the years have shown strong commitment and passion toward the Association achieving its goals for the region. Their dedicated efforts have resulted in not only an increased awareness of AAPG, but also steady growth of the Region’s membership, from 450 in 1999 to over 3,060 in June 2014.

2199
 
Explorer Regions and Sections

For those of us in the AAPG European Region, 2011 began where 2010 left off – very busy.

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