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Petrophysics and Well Logs

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8486
 
Explorer Article

Robert G. Loucks, a senior research scientist at the Bureau of Economic Geology, University of Texas at Austin, is one of this year’s Robert R. Berg Outstanding Research Award winners. 

8473
 
Explorer Article

Shale formations can confound even the savviest geoscientist when it comes to determining the inner workings of the rock. After expert evaluation, even the most attractive prospecting deal can be a tough sell. And there’s almost always a new piece to each of these puzzles that requires some sophisticated high-tech explaining.

8065
 

Seismic data is an important asset in finding sweet spots in shale plays, as AAPG member Joanne Wang discussed at a recent workshop.

7969
 

Diagenesis significantly impacts mudstone lithofacies. Processes operating to control diagenetic pathways in mudstones are poorly known compared to analogous processes occurring in other sedimentary rocks. Selected organic-carbon-rich mudstones, from the Kimmeridge Clay and Monterey Formations, have been investigated to determine how varying starting compositions influence diagenesis.

7961
 

Offshore sequences of volcaniclastic rocks (such as hyaloclastite deposits) are poorly understood in terms of their rock properties and their response to compaction and burial. As petroleum exploration targets offshore volcanic rifted margins worldwide, understanding of volcanic rock properties becomes important both in terms of drilling and how the rocks may behave as seals, reservoirs, or permeability pathways. The Hawaiian Scientific Drilling Project phase II in 2001 obtained a 3 km-(2-mi)-long core of volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks that records the emergence of the largest of the Hawaiian islands. Core recovery of 2945 m (9662 ft) resulted in an unparalleled data set of volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks. Detailed logging, optical petrology, and major element analysis of two sections at depths 1831–1870 and 2530–2597 m (6007–6135 and 8300–8520 ft) are compared to recovered petrophysical logs (gamma ray, resistivity, and P-wave velocity). This study concludes deviation in petrophysical properties does not seem to correlate to changes in grain size or clast sorting, but instead correlates with alteration type (zeolite component) and bulk mineralogy (total olivine phenocryst percentage component). These data sets are important in helping to calibrate well-log responses through hyaloclastite intervals in areas of active petroleum exploration such as the North Atlantic (e.g., Faroe-Shetland Basin, United Kingdom, and Faroe Islands, the Norwegian margin and South Atlantic margins bordering Brazil and Angola).

5777
 

The influence of moisture, temperature, coal rank, and differential enthalpy on the methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) sorption capacity of coals of different rank has been investigated by using high-pressure sorption isotherms at 303, 318, and 333 K (CH4) and 318, 333, and 348 K (CO2), respectively. The variation of sorption capacity was studied as a function of burial depth of coal seams using the corresponding Langmuir parameters in combination with a geothermal gradient of 0.03 K/m and a normal hydrostatic pressure gradient. Taking the gas content corresponding to 100% gas saturation at maximum burial depth as a reference value, the theoretical CH4 saturation after the uplift of the coal seam was computed as a function of depth. According to these calculations, the change in sorption capacity caused by changing pressure, temperature conditions during uplift will lead consistently to high saturation values. Therefore, the commonly observed undersaturation of coal seams is most likely related to dismigration (losses into adjacent formations and atmosphere). Finally, we attempt to identify sweet spots for CO2-enhanced coalbed methane (CO2-ECBM) production. The CO2-ECBM is expected to become less effective with increasing depth because the CO2-to-CH4 sorption capacity ratio decreases with increasing temperature and pressure. Furthermore, CO2-ECBM efficiency will decrease with increasing maturity because of the highest sorption capacity ratio and affinity difference between CO2 and CH4 for low mature coals.

5774
 

Sandstone pressures follow the hydrostatic gradient in Miocene strata of the Mad Dog field, deep-water Gulf of Mexico, whereas pore pressures in the adjacent mudstones track a trend from well to well that can be approximated by the total vertical stress gradient. The sandstone pressures within these strata are everywhere less than the bounding mudstone pore pressures, and the difference between them is proportional to the total vertical stress. The mudstone pressure is predicted from its porosity with an exponential porosity-versus-vertical effective stress relationship, where porosity is interpreted from wireline velocity. Sonic velocities in mudstones bounding the regional sandstones fall within a narrow range throughout the field from which we interpret their vertical effective stresses can be approximated as constant. We show how to predict sandstone and mudstone pore pressure in any offset well at Mad Dog given knowledge of the local total vertical stress. At Mad Dog, the approach is complicated by the extraordinary lateral changes in total vertical stress that are caused by changing bathymetry and the presence or absence of salt. A similar approach can be used in other subsalt fields. We suggest that pore pressures within mudstones can be systematically different from those of the nearby sandstones, and that this difference can be predicted. Well programs must ensure that the borehole pressure is not too low, which results in borehole closure in the mudstone intervals, and not too high, which can result in lost circulation to the reservoir intervals.

5773
 

This article describes a 250-m (820-ft)-thick upper Eocene deep-water clastic succession. This succession is divided into two reservoir zones: the lower sandstone zone (LSZ) and the upper sandstone zone, separated by a package of pelitic rocks with variable thickness on the order of tens of meters. The application of sequence-stratigraphic methodology allowed the subdivision of this stratigraphic section into third-order systems tracts.

The LSZ is characterized by blocky and fining-upward beds on well logs, and includes interbedded shale layers of as much as 10 m (33 ft) thick. This zone reaches a maximum thickness of 150 m (492 ft) and fills a trough at least 4 km (2 mi) wide, underlain by an erosional surface. The lower part of this zone consists of coarse- to medium-grained sandstones with good vertical pressure communication. We interpret this unit as vertically and laterally amalgamated channel-fill deposits of high-density turbidity flows accumulated during late forced regression. The sandstones in the upper part of this trough are dominantly medium to fine grained and display an overall fining-upward trend. We interpret them as laterally amalgamated channel-fill deposits of lower density turbidity flows, relative to the ones in the lower part of the LSZ, accumulated during lowstand to early transgression.

The pelitic rocks that separate the two sandstone zones display variable thickness, from 35 to more than 100 m (115–>328 ft), indistinct seismic facies, and no internal markers on well logs, and consist of muddy diamictites with contorted shale rip-up clasts. This section is interpreted as cohesive debris flows and/or mass-transported slumps accumulated during late transgression.

The upper sandstone zone displays a weakly defined blocky well-log signature, where the proportion of sand is higher than 80%, and a jagged well-log signature, where the sand proportion is lower than 60%. The high proportions of sand are associated with a channelized geometry that is well delineated on seismic amplitude maps. Several depositional elements are identified within this zone, including leveed channels, crevasse channels, and splays associated with turbidity flows. This package is interpreted as the product of increased terrigenous sediment supply during highstand normal regression.

3090
 

Earth modeling, from the construction of subsurface structure and stratigraphy, to the accurate understanding of rock physics, through the simulation of seismic and nonseismic responses, is an enabling technology to guide decisions in acquisition, processing, imaging, inversion and reservoir property inference, for both static and time-lapse understanding. So it is crucial to capture those earth elements that most influence the geophysical phenomena we seek to study. This is notoriously difficult, probably because we regularly underestimate how clever the earth can be in producing various geophysical phenomena.

3091
 

Earth modeling, from the construction of subsurface structure and stratigraphy, to the accurate understanding of rock physics, through the simulation of seismic and nonseismic responses, is an enabling technology to guide decisions in acquisition, processing, imaging, inversion and reservoir property inference, for both static and time-lapse understanding. So it is crucial to capture those earth elements that most influence the geophysical phenomena we seek to study. This is notoriously difficult, probably because we regularly underestimate how clever the earth can be in producing various geophysical phenomena.

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In-Person Training
Houston Texas United States 02 December, 2014 04 December, 2014 1516
 
Houston, Texas, United States
2-4 December 2014

Here is an introduction to the tools and techniques that geologists and geophysicists use to locate gas and oil, that drillers use to drill the wells and that petroleum engineers use to test and complete the wells and produce the gas and oil. Exercises throughout the course provide practical experience in well log correlation, contouring, interpretation of surface and subsurface, contoured maps, seismic interpretation, well log interpretation, and decline curve analysis.

Bogotá, D. C. Colombia 10 December, 2014 11 December, 2014 11015
 
Bogotá, D. C. , Colombia
10-11 December 2014
Join the GTW Colombia 2014 discussion with leading operators in Latin America, North America and across the globe to expand the science of unconventional resources in Colombia. Build on lessons learned since GTW Colombia 2011. Develop new knowledge from lively discussions with experienced practitioners and researchers. Gain greater understanding by sharing first-hand experiences and best practices in applying geology, geophysics and engineering to the challenges of exploration, appraisal, development drilling, reservoir characterization and simulation, and advances in recovery processes.
Houston Texas United States 02 March, 2015 03 March, 2015 1348
 
Houston, Texas, United States
2-3 March 2015

The course starts with patterns of carbonate deposition and moves on to an examination of modern analogs for ancient sediments, diagenesis, and select case histories of Paleozoic and Mesozoic basin reservoirs.

Houston Texas United States 02 March, 2015 03 March, 2015 13405
 
Houston, Texas, United States
2-3 March 2015

Geoscientists, petrophysicists, engineers, and managers who are seeking to improve their effectiveness in exploring, appraising, and developing shale reservoirs will learn critical geoscience and engineering aspects to help quantify uncertainty to help book more reserves.

Oklahoma City Oklahoma United States 03 March, 2015 05 March, 2015 13584
 
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States
3-5 March 2015

Here is an introduction to the tools and techniques that geologists and geophysicists use to locate gas and oil, that drillers use to drill the wells and that petroleum engineers use to test and complete the wells and produce the gas and oil. Exercises throughout the course provide practical experience in well log correlation, contouring, interpretation of surface and subsurface, contoured maps, seismic interpretation, well log interpretation, and decline curve analysis.

Houston Texas United States 05 March, 2015 06 March, 2015 13406
 
Houston, Texas, United States
5-6 March 2015

This short course is designed to provide information to facilitate exploration for microbial carbonate buildups and associated reservoir facies and to assist with the formulation of development plans for fields producing from microbial carbonates. The course consists of a series of seven lectures supplemented by core samples.

Houston Texas United States 05 March, 2015 05 March, 2015 13407
 
Houston, Texas, United States
5 March 2015

The course is designed to be of benefit to geologist, engineers and technical support people who are involved in oil and gas exploration and production in shaly sandstone reservoirs.

Houston Texas United States 06 March, 2015 06 March, 2015 13408
 
Houston, Texas, United States
6 March 2015

This one day course will include background material on hydrocarbon-bearing shales, methods of evaluation, and case studies of both gas and oil bearing shales.

Houston Texas United States 14 April, 2015 16 April, 2015 13604
 
Houston, Texas, United States
14-16 April 2015

Here is an introduction to the tools and techniques that geologists and geophysicists use to locate gas and oil, that drillers use to drill the wells and that petroleum engineers use to test and complete the wells and produce the gas and oil. Exercises throughout the course provide practical experience in well log correlation, contouring, interpretation of surface and subsurface, contoured maps, seismic interpretation, well log interpretation, and decline curve analysis.

Austin Texas United States 20 April, 2015 24 April, 2015 1512
 
Austin, Texas, United States
20-24 April 2015

This course assumes no logging knowledge and seeks to establish an understanding of basic petrophysical measurements and interpretation techniques which can be applied to routine tasks, and upon which more complex and advanced information and interpretive techniques can be built. It strives to provide a strong and coherent foundation for the understanding of other, specialized interpretation techniques involving well log data.

Austin Texas United States 21 April, 2015 23 April, 2015 1518
 
Austin, Texas, United States
21-23 April 2015

The overall goal of this course is to provide tools for efficient and effective re-exploration and development. It uses a two-part approach. First it uses petrophysical analysis to understand all that can be derived from examination of standard open-hole logs. This is followed by integrated approaches to discover key factors controlling oil and gas distribution in carbonate reservoirs in the greater Midcontinent USA. Methodologies and workflows reviewed include geosteering and evaluation of horizontal wells and optimizing carbon storage utilization and management.

Salt Lake City Utah United States 01 May, 2015 08 May, 2015 49
 
Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
1-8 May 2015

The seminar focuses on the lithologic variations that characterize clastic reservoir facies and on development of models that can be used to predict these variations in the subsurface.

Denver Colorado United States 23 June, 2015 25 June, 2015 13606
 
Denver, Colorado, United States
23-25 June 2015

Here is an introduction to the tools and techniques that geologists and geophysicists use to locate gas and oil, that drillers use to drill the wells and that petroleum engineers use to test and complete the wells and produce the gas and oil. Exercises throughout the course provide practical experience in well log correlation, contouring, interpretation of surface and subsurface, contoured maps, seismic interpretation, well log interpretation, and decline curve analysis.

Golden Colorado United States 13 July, 2015 17 July, 2015 1507
 
Golden, Colorado, United States
13-17 July 2015

This course assumes no logging knowledge and seeks to establish an understanding of basic petrophysical measurements and interpretation techniques which can be applied to routine tasks, and upon which more complex and advanced information and interpretive techniques can be built. It strives to provide a strong and coherent foundation for the understanding of other, specialized interpretation techniques involving well log data.


Houston Texas United States 18 August, 2015 20 August, 2015 13607
 
Houston, Texas, United States
18-20 August 2015

Here is an introduction to the tools and techniques that geologists and geophysicists use to locate gas and oil, that drillers use to drill the wells and that petroleum engineers use to test and complete the wells and produce the gas and oil. Exercises throughout the course provide practical experience in well log correlation, contouring, interpretation of surface and subsurface, contoured maps, seismic interpretation, well log interpretation, and decline curve analysis.

Casper Wyoming United States 24 August, 2015 28 August, 2015 1513
 
Casper, Wyoming, United States
24-28 August 2015

Take advantage of this unique opportunity to learn all the aspects related to the understanding and modeling of fractured reservoirs. Attendees will take geologic concepts and use them in reservoir modeling through hands-on sessions devoted to the examination of outcrop, core and log data. They will use that information and a software to create 3D fractured reservoir models. Using actual Teapot Dome (Wyoming, USA) field data from the Tensleep and Niobrara Shale formations and a hands-on approach, the workshop allows the geoscientist to identify fractures and to construct predictive 3D fracture models that can be used to identify productive zones, plan wells and to create fracture porosity and permeability models for reservoir simulation.

Salt Lake City Utah United States 20 September, 2015 27 September, 2015 151
 
Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
20-27 September 2015

Participants will learn a specific and comprehensive methodology for finding and developing conventional and unconventional oil and gas resources associated with lake deposits. The seminar will start with the Quaternary Bonneville basin in Utah, to build familiarity with lacustrine depositional processes. Participants then examine world-famous exposures of organic-rich mudstone, fluvial sandstone, and carbonate microbialite facies in Wyoming.

Grand Junction Colorado United States 23 September, 2015 30 September, 2015 86
 
Grand Junction, Colorado, United States
23-30 September 2015

Participants will learn through the use of spectacular outcrops, subsurface datasets, and stratigraphic modeling how these systems tracts and key surfaces (flooding surfaces and sequence boundaries) may be recognized.

Abu Dhabi United Arab Emirates 05 October, 2015 07 October, 2015 13097
 
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
5-7 October 2015

This workshop is the outgrowth of continued cooperation between AAPG & EAGE to develop a series of multi-disciplined gatherings dedicated to understanding, completing & producing tight sandstone & carbonate reservoirs.

Tulsa Oklahoma United States 06 October, 2015 08 October, 2015 13608
 
Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States
6-8 October 2015

Here is an introduction to the tools and techniques that geologists and geophysicists use to locate gas and oil, that drillers use to drill the wells and that petroleum engineers use to test and complete the wells and produce the gas and oil. Exercises throughout the course provide practical experience in well log correlation, contouring, interpretation of surface and subsurface, contoured maps, seismic interpretation, well log interpretation, and decline curve analysis.

Houston Texas United States 01 December, 2015 03 December, 2015 13609
 
Houston, Texas, United States
1-3 December 2015

Here is an introduction to the tools and techniques that geologists and geophysicists use to locate gas and oil, that drillers use to drill the wells and that petroleum engineers use to test and complete the wells and produce the gas and oil. Exercises throughout the course provide practical experience in well log correlation, contouring, interpretation of surface and subsurface, contoured maps, seismic interpretation, well log interpretation, and decline curve analysis.

14 February, 3000 14 February, 3000 7816
 
14 February, 3000 14 February, 3000 7815
 
14 February, 3000 14 February, 3000 7812
 
Online Training
02 October, 2014 02 October, 2014 10593
 
2 October 2014
This course is ideal for individuals involved in Midland Basin exploration and development. Successful development of Wolfcamp shale oil relies on complex inter-relationships (ultimately interdependencies) within and between a wide variety of scientific disciplines, financial entities, and company partnerships. 
09 September, 2014 09 September, 2014 10591
 
9 September 2014
Water cut is a big factor in gauging the success of horizontal drilling in the Mississippi Lime Play (MLP). The contributing factors are related in part to the spectrum of producing lithofacies and reservoir quality encountered that varies laterally and vertically, sometimes dramatically. 
07 June, 2012 07 June, 2012 1488
 
7 June 2012

Unger Field, discovered in1955, has produced 8.6 million barrels of oil from a thinly (several ft) bedded, locally cherty dolomite containing vuggy and intercrystalline porosity.

06 October, 2011 06 October, 2011 1479
 
6 October 2011

The e-symposium contains several case studies and log examples of bypassed pay and unconventional resources including Niobrara, Bakken, Marcellus, offshore GOM and others examples including processed log quality issues.

21 February, 2013 21 February, 2013 1495
 
21 February 2013

The course will review core data, petrophysical comparisons, rock physics modeling (including pseudo logs and mechanical properties).

30 August, 2012 30 August, 2012 1489
 
30 August 2012

The entire Middle Pennsylvanian–to–top Precambrian basement (500 m) interval was cored in early 2011 in the BEREXCO Wellington KGS #1-32 well in Wellington Field, Sumner County, KS.

16 February, 2012 16 February, 2012 1483
 
16 February 2012

This presentation describes a proven workflow that uses a standard narrow azimuth 3D seismic, conventional logs, image logs and core data to build five key reservoir properties required for an optimal development of shale plays.

15 March, 2012 15 March, 2012 1484
 
15 March 2012

This e-symposium presents techniques for predicting pore pressure in seals by examining case studies from the Gulf of Mexico and incorporating the relationship between rocks, fluids, stress, and pressure.

24 October, 2013 24 October, 2013 1499
 
24 October 2013

This e-symposium will be introducing signal processing techniques as a means to maximize extracting geomechanical data from petrophysical logs.

13 December, 2012 13 December, 2012 1494
 
13 December 2012

The course will review core data, petrophysical comparisons, rock physics modeling (including pseudo logs and mechanical properties).

10 November, 2011 10 November, 2011 1481
 
10 November 2011

This work investigates how heterogeneity can be defined and how we can quantify this term by describing a range of statistical heterogeneity (e.g. coefficient of variation and the Lorenz coefficient).

31 October, 2012 31 October, 2012 1492
 
31 October 2012

This e-symposium will focus on how surface geochemical surveys and Downhole Geochemical Imaging technologies can be utilized jointly to directly characterize the composition of hydrocarbons vertically through the prospect section.

29 September, 2011 29 September, 2011 1478
 
29 September 2011

This study will focus in the combination of λρ – μρ inversion with clustering analysis techniques in order to discriminate brittle zones in the Barnett Shale.

10 September, 2013 10 September, 2013 1498
 
10 September 2013

The goal of this e-symposium is to review an important dimension in the ways geologist can build and update geological models using information from performance data.

07 November, 2013 07 November, 2013 1500
 
7 November 2013

This e-symposium presentation places the interpretation of deep-water turbidites discernible in 3-D seismic inversion data within a geological context.

25 August, 2011 25 August, 2011 1475
 
25 August 2011

This e-symposium provides highlights of the hydraulic fracturing mechanics, analysis, and design, and is derived from a two and one-half (2-1/2) day course which is designed for drilling, completion, production engineers, engineering technicians, geologists, well-site and completion supervisors, and managers, who desire to possess a comprehensive and integral knowledge of Hydraulic Fracturing.

17 March, 2011 17 March, 2011 1470
 
17 March 2011

This e-symposium will provide information on which tools, processes, and procedures all geoscientists, engineers, and technical professionals working in shale plays need to understand and implement.

17 February, 2011 17 February, 2011 1469
 
17 February 2011

This presentation is designed for exploration/production geologists and geological managers or reservoir engineers.

25 March, 2010 25 March, 2010 1458
 
25 March 2010

The presentation describes a well established fracture modeling workflow that uses a standard 3D seismic, conventional logs, image logs and data from one core to build predictive 3D fracture models that are validated with blind wells.

25 January, 2011 25 January, 2011 1454
 
25 January 2011

This esymposium takes a close look at workflows associated with resource plays, and analyzes where integration must occur between disciplines, data, and workflows at all phases of the process.

22 October, 2009 22 October, 2009 1452
 
22 October 2009

This course can help you gain the ability to describe the complex and highly variable reservoirs, which are typified by complex internal heterogeneity.

11 February, 2010 11 February, 2010 1441
 
11 February 2010

Gas hydrates, ice-like substances composed of water and gas molecules (methane, ethane, propane, etc.), occur in permafrost areas and in deep water marine environments.

14 February, 3000 14 February, 3000 7817
 
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