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Recently Added in Bulletin
 
The Tan-Lu fault system in the central Liaodong Bay subbasin, Bohai Bay Basin, has complex structural characteristics, and its tectonism during the Cenozoic is an important factor in oil accumulation. Three-dimensional seismic data were used to document the structural features and evolution of the system.
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Statistical data documenting past exploration success and failure can be used to inform the estimate of future chance of success, but this is not appropriate to every situation. Even where appropriate, past frequency is not numerically equivalent to future expectation unless the sample size is very large.
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Kela-2 is a giant gas field with a proven reserve of 597 tcf in the Kuqa depression, northern Tarim Basin. Widespread overpressures have been encountered in the Eocene and Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs of the field, with pressure coefficients up to 2.1 from drill-stem tests and well-log data analysis.
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To date, most condensates and gases found in the Hammerfest Basin exist in distal, central basin settings, in traps with tight cap rocks of class 1 traps, whereas low-gas–oil-ratio (GOR) oils occur systematically in proximal basin settings, where cap rocks of class 3 traps prevail.
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The Lower Cretaceous McMurray Formation of northeastern Alberta hosts most of the bitumen resources of the Athabasca Oil Sands. Despite its importance, the sedimentary provenance and corresponding Early Cretaceous paleodrainage system associated with these fluvial deposits remain poorly understood. We collected 18 sandstone samples from five cored wells drilled in the McMurray Formation and analyzed these for detrital zircon uranium–lead (U–Pb) geochronology.
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Mass-transport events are virtually ubiquitous on the modern continental slope and are also frequent in the stratigraphic record, but the potential they create for stratigraphic trapping within the sea-floor topography is not generally appreciated.
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We illustrate recently developed techniques of three-dimensional (3-D) geomechanical structural restoration applied to resolve the kinematics of deformation in the sedimentary cover above mobile salt. Our study area is one of the hydrocarbon-bearing domes in eastern Arabia.
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Outcrop analogs are routinely used to constrain models of subsurface fluvial sedimentary architecture built through stochastic modeling or interwell sand-body correlations. Correlability models are analog-based quantitative templates for guiding the well-to-well correlation of sand bodies, whereas indicator variograms used as input to reservoir models can be parameterized from data collected from analogs, using existing empirical relationships.
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An estimate or measurement of organic matter density is required for converting between the weight percent of total organic carbon (TOC) and the volume percent of organic matter for wireline log calibration; it is therefore important to recognize when significant changes in organic matter density occur.
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The prolific Los Angeles basin in California may be the most petroliferous province on Earth per volume of sedimentary fill. However, because most exploration in the basin occurred prior to the advent of modern geochemical methods, genetic relationships among the various petroleum accumulations and their source rocks have remained speculative.
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Recently Added in Interpretation
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Recently Added in Environmental Geosciences
 

Net fluid production and pressure data were gathered to estimate the amount of CO2 storage space available and the potential for additional oil recovery using CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the Phacoides sandstone, McKittrick oilfield, San Joaquin Valley, California. 

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One of the challenges confronting carbon dioxide capture and sequestration (CCS) in geologic media over extended periods of time is determining the caprock sealing capacity. If the pressure of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) injected in the repository overcomes the caprock sealing capacity, leaking of scCO2 may enter other porous formations, compromising the storage formation, or even may go back to the atmosphere, and thus the process of sequestration becomes futile.

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This study simulated the injection of supercritical phase CO2 into the South Georgia Rift (SGR) basin to evaluate the feasibility of long-term storage. Because of the lack of basin data, an equilibrium model was used to estimate the initial hydrostatic pressure, temperature, and salinity gradients that represent our study area. 

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Examination of historical water-quality data (major cations and anions and total dissolved solids [TDS]) for Rock Creek, located in eastern Nebraska’s saline wetlands north of the Platte River, revealed that concentrations of sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), and TDS increased significantly in the downstream reach below the town of Ceresco, exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) secondary drinking water standards of 250 mg/L for Cl and 500 mg/L for TDS.

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We use sediment ages and mercury (Hg) concentrations to estimate past and future concentrations in the South River, Virginia, where Hg was released between 1930 and 1950 from a manufacturing process related to nylon production. In a previous study, along a 40 km (25 mi) reach, samples were collected from 26 of 54 fine-grained deposits that formed in the lee of large wood obstructions in the channel and analyzed for grain size, Hg concentration, and organic content. We also obtained radiometric dates from six deposits. To create a history that reflects the full concentration distribution (which contains concentrations as high as 900 mg/kg [900 ppm]), here, we treat the deposits as a single reservoir exchanging contaminated sediments with the overlying water column, and assume that the total sediment mass in storage and the distribution of sediment ages are time invariant. We use reservoir theory to reconstruct the annual history of Hg concentration on suspended sediment using data from our previous study and new results presented here. Many different reconstructed histories fit our data. To constrain results, we use information from a well-preserved core (and our estimate of the total mass of Hg stored in 2007) to specify the years associated with the peak concentration of 900 mg/kg. Our results indicate that around 850 kg (1874 lb) of Hg was stored in the deposits between 1955 and 1961, compared to only 80 kg (176 lb) today. Simulations of future Hg remediation suggest that 100-yr timescales will be needed for the South River to remove Hg-contaminated sediments from the channel perimeter through natural processes.
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 SONAR, historical and aerial photographs, and vibracoring were used to assess the type and thickness distribution of sediments impounded by Gold Ray Dam on the Rogue River in southern Oregon. From these data, a volume of about 400,000 cubic yards (

Equation EG13006eq1

) of sediment was determined for the inundated area of the reservoir.

Overall, sediment volumes in the impounded part of the reservoir were less than expected. There are three possibilities that may explain the perceived absence of sediment: (1) the gradient of the Rogue River in this stretch is less, and therefore sediment yields are less; (2) the extraction of gravels and/or other impediments upstream decreased the availability of sediments delivered into the reservoir; and/or (3) sediment was deposited by a prograding delta that filled in the inundated area of the floodplain upstream from Gold Ray Dam. The amount of sediment deposited on this inundated floodplain may have been as much as 1,800,000 cubic yards (Equation EG13006eq2), bringing the total amount of sediment impounded by Gold Ray Dam to Equation EG13006eq3 yards (Equation EG13006eq4).

Applied sedimentology is not only vital to developing a depositional model for the filling of a reservoir, but also providing insights into depositional and erosional changes that will occur upon the removal of a dam. In particular, the processes of delta formation, reoccupation of abandoned channels, and avulsion are paramount in determining sediment accumulation and distribution in reservoirs.

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Shales are becoming the most important source of natural gas in North America, and replacement of coal by natural gas is reducing CO2 emissions and improving air quality. Nevertheless, shale gas is facing strong opposition from environmental nongovernmental organizations. Although these organizations have greatly exaggerated the potential negative environmental impacts of shale gas and shale oil, methane leakage and contamination of groundwater and surface water by flowback and produced waters are serious concerns. These contamination pathways are not unique to shale gas and shale oil, and they are manageable.
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The West Virginia Division of Energy is currently evaluating several deep saline formations in the Appalachian Basin of West Virginia that may be potential carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration targets. The Silurian Newburg Sandstone play, developed in the 1960s and 1970s, primarily involved natural-gas production from reservoir rock with well-developed porosity and permeability. High initial pres-sures encountered in early wells in the Newburg indicated that the overlying Silurian Salina Formation provides a competent seal. Be-cause of the large number of CO2 point sources in the region and the favorable reservoir properties of the formation (including an esti-mated 300 bcf of natural-gas production), the Newburg Sandstone was evaluated for the potential geologic storage of CO2. Within the Newburg play, there are several primary fields separated geographi-cally and geologically by saltwater contacts and dry holes. Previous studies have determined the storage potential within these individual fields. This study shows that the Newburg is more suitable for small-scale injection tests instead of large-scale regional storage operations.
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