The Latin America and Caribbean Region (LACR) video library includes a collection of recordings from the 2020 Virtual Research Symposia series and from free events, including the Tuesday Talks Visiting Geoscientist series, Thursday Thoughts interview sessions with LACR leadership. Symposium videos are available for on-demand viewing by symposium participants and available for purchase post-event. Tuesday Talks and Thursday Thoughts videos are available for viewing on demand to all individuals registered on the AAPG website.

Featured South Atlantic Basins Presentations

South Atlantic Basins Virtual Research Symposium

South Atlantic Basins: Offshore Basins of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay: the Next Exploration Frontier | Virtual Research Symposium held 3-4 December 2020. Video access included with symposium registration.

Authors: Randall Etherington (presenter), Eric Newman, TGS Onshore, compressional structures are evident in the pre-rift rocks of the Sierras Australes. Similar compressional structures of the Sierras Australes can be traced with seismic data into the offshore. The individual rift basins along this margin initially formed from intracratonic rifting within the paleo-continent of Gondwana during the middle Mesozoic. The Colorado Basin that formed following north-west to south-east extension prior to the east/west extension that resulted in the opening of the South Atlantic can be clearly seen superimposed on the predominantly compressional pre-rift architecture. As evidenced by the Colorado Basin 2D survey, many structures have been eroded at the break-up unconformity level but the forelimbs and backlimbs of the folds are still present. This truncated stratigraphic relationship as well as the uneroded anticlines may act as hydrocarbon traps sourced by Permian, Carboniferous, and Early Cretaceous syn-rift source rocks. Exploration activities of the offshore Colorado Basin started in the 1970s. Only 26 exploration wells have been drilled on the northern margin (north of 47°S), with none in water depths greater than 100 meters and all located at least 15 km inboard from the continental shelf edge. These wells were drilled, mostly by major oil companies, without any commercial success. However, four wells with hydrocarbon shows confirmed syn-rift and Permian to Jurassic marine and lacustrine source. The pre-rift Structure Play of Paleozoic through Lower Cretaceous rocks is the primary play type of the Colorado Basin. Petroleum Systems include oil-generating source rocks proven in Permian - Jurassic pre-rift and Cretaceous syn-rift sediments. Reservoir rocks include pre-rift Permian-Jurassic, Cretaceous and Cenozoic sandstones. Bio: Randall Etherington, TGS-NOPEC Geophysical Company Randall earned a bachelor’s degree in Engineering from Utah State University, and a MSc in Geology from Brigham Young University. His more than 40 years of experience in the industry include several positions in companies as ExxonMobil, Chevron, Shell, Phillips, Devon, YPF-Regsol, Pennzoil, Cobalt, Murphy; Maersk, among others. Currently, he is Exploration Advisor at TGS-NOPEC Geophysical Company, where is responsible for geophysical interpretation and basin analysis. Randall is a member of AAPG and SEG.
Authors: Vitor Abreu, ACT Geosciences (presenter); Carlos Mikael Arnemann Batista, ANP; Sidnei Rostirolla, Consultant The Pelotas basin is a volcanic continental margin formed as a result of the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean during the Early Cretaceous. It is located offshore SE Brazil and Uruguay, limited by the Florianopolis High (Brazil) to the north and the Polonio Arch (Uruguay) to the south. It is marked by a volcanic basement dominated by Seaward Dipping Reflections (SDR’s) emplaced during the late phases of rifting and early drifting as an Initial Oceanic Crust. Bio: Vitor Abreu, ACT-GEO Vitor is an internationally recognized consultant, considered one of the world leaders in sequence stratigraphy and deep-water reservoirs, proposing deep-water models with strong impact in reservoir characterization. He received his PhD degree at Rice University (Houston). He has 35 years of experience in the oil industry in petroleum exploration, retired from ExxonMobil in 2016 and currently the owner of Abreu Consulting and Training – ACT-GEO. Vitor is Past-President of the Society of Sedimentary Geology (SEPM) and an Adjunct Professor at Rice University. More than 1000 students from around the globe have taken his short course on “Sequence Stratigraphy for Applied to Exploration” in the last 15 years. He is also one of the industry leaders on Sequence Stratigraphy and is the chief editor of SEPM’s book “Sequence Stratigraphy of Siliciclastic Systems”, which has sold almost 4000 copies since publication in 2010. He was the recipient of the AAPG’s Jules Braunstein Memorial Award and was appointed AAPG’s inaugural International Distinguished Instructor in 2006.
Authors: Tom Wilson (presenter), Joseph Whiting, Corneliu Cosovanu, Ann Watkins, Anne McAfee, Core Laboratories UK The emergence of a significant submarine fan play, in the ultra-deep waters of the Sergipe Basin, is exemplified by 6 discoveries since 2010. This paper integrates biostratigraphic and sedimentological data to better understand the evolution of the Late Cretaceous deep-water fan systems. Success in the Calumbi play, for example in the Barra, Moita Bonita and Farfan discoveries, is characterised by accumulations within stratigraphic traps basinwards of the Alagoas Hinge Line. Biostratigraphic analysis of exploration wells shows Upper Cretaceous sediment packages, which are thin or absent on the present-day shelf, thicken outboard of the Hinge Line. These packages can be related to the Drift-Transgressive and Regressive sequences and are associated with channel and fan sands. The marked increase in accommodation space occurred during the transition and drift phases, initiated by a basinward shift in the rift / spreading axis. Hyperextension of the continental crust, emplacement of magmatic crust and SDRs gave way to thermal sag and an increase in accommodation space in the outboard region. Extensive core logging of Upper Cretaceous Calumbi sections allowed the differentiation of interbedded coarse-grained sand and gravel-rich intervals into turbidity current and hyperpycnal surge facies, driven by increased fluvial discharge (figure A.). These sediments were transported across a narrow shelf and preserved within stacked channel systems on the steep and terraced slope. Observed facies include inboard bypass deposits giving way to levee-confined slope systems consisting of amalgamated channel complex sets and associated mass transport deposits, and distal lobes characterised by discrete low-density flows. These rock-based observations are integrated with downhole logs and information on the regional geology to extrapolate the sedimentary succession and create palaeogeographic maps. Bio: Tom Wilson, Core Laboratories Tom is a geologist from Kingston University and holds a MSc in Palynology from Sheffield University. With 24 years of experience in the industry, he is Senior Geological Advisor at Core Laboratories, UK, where, as part of the regional studies group his main technical role is reviewing stratigraphic data, coordinating new analyses and interpreting the results to produce consistent stratigraphic interpretations and well correlations; working with regional and reservoir geologists to place the well data in tectono-stratigraphic context, better understanding basin evolution, reservoir distribution and reservoir quality. He spent 16 years at Robertson, initially as a palynologist working principally on West African basins. Subsequently moved to multi-client studies as a Petroleum Geologist looking at basins in the South Atlantic and then around the globe. A move to the proprietary studies department resulted in a change to working on license rounds and prospect analysis, later becoming a Technical Advisor in this department. Upon leaving Robertson he went to Xodus as a Senior Geologist looking at exploration opportunities in Africa and then spent 3 years in the Central North Sea exploration team at Eon E&P, before joining Core Lab early 2017. Tom is a member of AAPG, PESGP and Micropalaeontological Society,
Moderators: Sylvia Anjos, Petrobras; Antonio Velásquez, Ecopetrol Brasil Participants: Pedro Victor Zalán, ZAG Consulting in Petroleum Exploration; Francyne Bochi do Amarante, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - Imperial College London; Roberto A. Scasso, IGeBA-CONICET-Universidad de Buenos Aires; Lucas Cazelli Vasconcelos, Rio de Janeiro State University (UERJ); Gustavo Camelo Acevedo, Ecopetrol Óleo e gas do Brasil; Adriana Henao, Rio de Janeiro State University (UERJ) Conveners Sylvia Anjos and Antonio Velásquez moderate a discussion with presenters, who answer questions and share final thoughts to conclude Session III, Post-Salt and Pre-Salt Basins, at the South Atlantic Basins Virtual Research Symposium. Bios: Convener: Sylvia Anjos, Petrobras Sylvia holds a bachelor’s degree in geology from the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and a master’s and a PhD in geology from the University of Illinois in the United States. Anjos has worked in the energy industry since 1979 and has dedicated her years of service to Petrobras in Rio de Janeiro. She served as manager of Stratigraphy, Sedimentology, Petrology and Biostratigraphy and manager of Rock Technologies at the Petrobras Research Center, then moved to Petrobras Exploration in 2005. She started as manager of the Petroleum Systems Modelling before being named general manager of geology for Petrobras Exploration, a position she held for 10 years. From 2016-2019 Anjos served as deputy general manager for the Libra Joint Project Team, representing Petrobras and overseeing applied technologies projects for the Libra field in the Brazilian pre-salt. Currently, she works as Geoscience and Engineering Business Advisor. Sylvia was founding member of the Brazilian Association of Petroleum Geologists (ABGP) and served two terms as president. She has been an active member of AAPG since 2001 and served as Latin America and Caribbean Region president from 2017-2019. Since 2018, she has served as member and co-founder of the Diversity Committee at the Brazilian Petroleum Institute (IBP). Convener: Antonio Velásquez, Ecopetrol Brasil Antonio obtained his Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees in Geology from the National University of Colombia. Also, earned a Master’s degree in Geophysics and Seismology form the Colorado School of Mines. With 15 years of experience in the industry, he started out his career in Ecopetrol and has been working continuously in different roles in exploration and as a Professor at National University of Colombia. Currently, he is Exploration Assets Manager at Ecopetrol Brazil, where he leads exploration efforts of Ecopetrol in offshore Brazil, including Ecuatorial Margin, Santos Presalt blocks and new bidding rounds. He is an active member of AAPG, EAGE and ACGGP. Pedro Victor Zalán, ZAG Consulting in Petroleum Exploration Pedro holds a MSc and a PhD from the Colorado School of Mines. With 42 years of experience in the industry, he is independent consultant in petroleum exploration at ZAG Consulting in Petroleum Exploration, in Rio de Janeiro. He worked for 34 years in Petrobras. Pedro is a member of AAPG and ABGP. Francyne Bochi do Amarante, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Imperial College London Francyne earned a BSc in Geology at Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Brazil; a MSc in Geosciences with focus on Stratigraphy and Sedimentology at UFRGS; and currently is a PhD Candidate in Geosciences with focus on Basin Analysis at UFRGS; she also is a Visiting Researcher at Imperial College London during her PhD researching salt tectonics. Her professional experience includes research projects funded by Shell and Petrobras at UFRGS. Roberto A. Scasso, University of Buenos Aires - CONICET Roberto holds a PhD in Geological Sciences from the University of Buenos Aires. He is Professor of Sedimentology and Head Researcher at the University of Buenos Aires – CONICET, focused on Neuquén and Cañadón Asfalto basins. Roberto is a member of AGA (Argentine Geological Association), Argentine Association of Sedimentology, IAS and SEPM. Lucas Cazelli Vasconcelos, Rio de Janeiro State University Lucas is a geologist from Rio de Janeiro State University (UERJ). Currently, he is a Master’s student at UERJ’s post-graduate program with accepted project entitled “Organic Geochemestry and high resolution Chemostratigraphy: Upper Cretaceous of the Southern Santos Basin, Brasil”. He received a research grant for Geology Graduation Student at UERJ’s Stratigraphy and Paleontology Departament (2018/2019). Lucas is a member of SBG (Brazilian Geological Society). Gustavo Andres Camelo Acevedo, Ecopetrol Brasil Gustavo holds a MSc from the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. With 5 years of experience in the industry, he is Exploration Geologist at Ecopetrol Brasil, in Rio de Janeiro, where he elaborates multi 1D, 2D and 3D basin and petroleum systems models with the aim of evaluate petroleum charge effectiveness through the study of oil generation, migration and accumulation in different basins along the Brazilian continental margin; nowadays he focuses in the Pre-salt of Campos and Santos Basins. He also performs source rock potential evaluation based in geochemical and seismic data; regional analysis and evaluation of exploration opportunities (blocks and prospects) to Ecopetrol Brasil including the analysis of regional tectonics and structural geology. Gustavo is a member of AAPG, ALAGO, EAFE and SPWLA. Adriana Henao, Rio de Janeiro State University Adriana graduated from Rio de Janeiro State University (UERJ). With 10 years of experience in the industry, she is Research and Associate Professor at America University, in Bogota, Colombia, where she teaches Geology, Petroleum Geology and Environment Sediments. Prior to being a Professor, Adriana worked as Exploration Geologist at GranTierra Energy. Adriana is a member of EAGE and SPE.
Mexican Basins Virtual Research Symposium

Mexican Basins: Advancing the Understanding of Mexico's Geology and Hydrocarbon Potential | Virtual Research Symposium held 19-20 November 2020. Video access included with symposium registration.

Moderator:Faustino Monroy Santiago, President, AMGP Panelists: Ricardo José Padilla y Sánchez, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; Sandra Ortega Lucach, Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo (IMP); Gustavo Murillo Muñetón, IMP; Jorge Mendoza-Amuchastegui, IMP A panel discussion held virtually on 20 November 2020 as part of the Mexican Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Moderator: Jorge Mendoza-Amuchastegui, Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo; Rodrigo Hernández, Comsión Nacional de Hidrocarburos Participants: Humberto Salazar Soto, Pemex Exploración y Producción; Marco Antonio Arreguin, Western Geco; Rubén Nicolás-López, Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo; Edilberto R. Hernández Flores, Independent Consultant; Moises Huicochea Campos, Schlumberger; David López Palacios, Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo A discussion held virtually on 20 November 2020 as part of the Mexican Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Author(s): David López Palacios (presenter); J.M. Espinosa Ortega, Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo AVO Analysis and Characterization of Shallow Geo-Risks: a Case Study in Deep-Water Gulf of Mexico. A talk by David López Palacios and J.M. Espinosa Ortega held virtually on 20 November 2020 as part of the Mexican Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Author(s): Moises Huicochea Campos, Schlumberger (presenter); F. Rocha Legorreta, Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo; D. M. Tellez Castro, Universidad Central de Venezuela, S. R. Mata Garcia, Schlumberger Methodology for Regional Velocity Models Using 2D and 3D Data for Depth Conversion. A talk by Moises Huicochea Campos, F. Rocha Legorreta, D. M. Tellez Castro and S. R. Mata Garcia held virtually on 20 November 2020 as part of the Mexican Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Author(s): Edilberto R. Hernández Flores, Independent Consultant Qualitative Interpretation of Potential Methods in the Terrestrial Portion of the Geological Province of the Yucatan Platform: the Extension to Mexico of the Sedimentary Basins of Corozal (Belize) and Petén (Guatemala) – Spanish Presentation. A talk by Edilberto R. Hernández Flores held virtually on 20 November 2020 as part of the Mexican Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Author(s): Rubén Nicolás-López (presenter), J. M. Espinosa-Ortega, J.A. España-Pinto, O.C. Valdiviezo-Mijangos, Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo Lithology’s Petroelastic Characterization of the Eagle Ford Group by Using Modern Rock Physics Templates. A talk by Rubén Nicolás-López, J. M. Espinosa-Ortega, J.A. España-Pinto and O.C. Valdiviezo-Mijangos held virtually on 20 November 2020 as part of the Mexican Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Author(s): Hugo Avalos Torres (presenter), L. Velasquez-Contreras, M.A. Porras Vazquez, O. Fabela-Rodriguez, Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) Results of the Application of Rock Physics in Unconventional Resources – Spanish Presentation. A talk by Hugo Avalos Torres, L. Velasquez-Contreras, M.A. Porras Vazquez and O. Fabela-Rodriguez held virtually on 20 November 2020 as part of the Mexican Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Author(s): Marco Antonio Arreguin, Western Geco Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean From Data to Discovery in the Gulf of Mexico South: New Methods for Digital and Subsurface Integration. A talk by Marco Antonio Arreguin held virtually on 20 November 2020 as part of the Mexican Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Author(s): Humberto Salazar Soto (presenter), Leonardo Enrique Aguilera Gómez, Alfredo Vazquez Cantú, Pemex Exploración y Producción Integration of Seismic Methods and Potential Methods for Geophysical Image Building. A talk by Humberto Salazar Soto, Leonardo Enrique Aguilera Gómez and Alfredo Vazquez Cantú held virtually on 20 November 2020 as part of the Mexican Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Moderator: Sandra Ortega, Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo; Lourdes Clara, AMGP Participants: Andrew Pepper, Alfredo E. Guzmán, Mark Shann, Mario Martínez-Yáñez and Demetrio Santamaría-Orozco A discussion held virtually on 20 November 2020 as part of the Mexican Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Author(s): Demetrio Santamaría-Orozco, Univerisdad Nacional Autónoma de México The Southern Gulf of Mexico: A Natural Laboratory of Petroleum Formation – Spanish Presentation. A talk by Demetrio Santamaría-Orozco held virtually on 20 November 2020 as part of the Mexican Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Author(s): Mario Martínez-Yáñez (presenter), SEPI-ESIA Unidad Ticoman, Instituto Politécnico Nacional; F. Núñez-Useche, Instituto de Geología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Environmental Drivers of Organic Matter Deposition into the Pimienta Formation During the Jurassic–Cretaceous Transition in Central-Eastern Mexico. A talk by Mario Martínez-Yáñez and F. Núñez-Useche held virtually on 20 November 2020 as part of the Mexican Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Author(s): Mark Shann (presenter), K. Vazquez Reyes, M.B. Canchola, Geomarcas SRL and Wintershall DEA New Exploration Play Concepts in the Tampico-Misantla Basin, from an Understanding of its Thermal Burial History and Source Rock Maturation. A talk by Mark Shann, K. Vazquez Reyes and M.B. Canchola held virtually on 20 November 2020 as part of the Mexican Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Author(s): Alfredo E. Guzmán, Mexican Petroleum Company Oil and Gas Resources of the Tampico - Misantla Basin. A talk by Alfredo E. Guzmán held virtually on 20 November 2020 as part of the Mexican Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Author(s): Andrew Pepper (presenter), L. Heister, A. Pradono, M. Moldowan, This is Petroleum Systems LLC The 'Missing Source Rocks' of the Gulf of Mexico Mega-Basin. A talk by Andrew Pepper held virtually on 20 November 2020 as part of the Mexican Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Moderator: Gustavo Murillo Muñetón, Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo; Ricardo Torres, Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo Participants: John W. Snedden, Institute for Geophysics, The University of Texas at Austin; Roberto Molina Garza, Centro de Geociencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; Stephen P. J. Cossey, Cossey and Associates Inc.; Karyna Rodriguez, Searcher; José Aurelio España Pinto, Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo; Baltazar Hernández Sánchez, Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) A discussion held virtually on 19 November 2020 as part of the Mexican Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Author(s): Afsoon Kazerouni, Bemidji State University. Influence of Depositional Sedimentary Record on Diagenesis and Reservoir Quality: Assessment of Preserved Aeolian Norphlet Sandstone (Upper Jurassic) Mexico: Current Understanding and Future Prospects. A talk held by Afsoon Kazerouni virtually on 19 November 2020 as part of the Mexican Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Author(s): Baltazar Hernández Sánchez, Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). Bioevents and Microfacies from the Upper Jurassic Tithonian (Pimienta Formation) in the Northeast of Mexico: Biostratigraphic, Paleonvironmental and Economic Implications – Spanish Presentation. A talk held by Baltazar Hernández Sánchez virtually on 19 November 2020 as part of the Mexican Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Author(s): José Aurelio España Pinto (presenter), D.M. Anaya-Saldívar, J.A. España-Pinto, R. Nicolás-López, O.C. Valdiviezo-Mijangos y J.M. Espinosa-Ortega, Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo Sedimentologic Characterization of Sandstones in Chicontepec Basin. A talk held by José Aurelio España Pinto, D.M. Anaya-Saldívar, J.A. España-Pinto, R. Nicolás-López, O.C. Valdiviezo-Mijangos and J.M. Espinosa-Ortega virtually on 19 November 2020 as part of the Mexican Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Author(s): Karyna Rodriguez (presenter), N. Hodgson, Searcher. Near Shore Untapped Hydrocarbon Potential from Burgos to Southeast Offshore Mexico. A talk held by Karyna Rodriguez and N. Hodgson virtually on 19 November 2020 as part of the Mexican Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Author(s): Roberto Molina Garza (presenter), Centro de Geociencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; J. Pindell, Tectonic Analysis. Paleo-Canyons and Hydrocarbon Trapping in the Tampico-Misantla Basin, Eastern Mexico. A talk held by Stephen P. J. Cossey and Mark R. Bitter virtually on 19 November 2020 as part of the Mexican Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Author(s): Roberto Molina Garza (presenter), Centro de Geociencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; J. Pindell, Tectonic Analysis. New Perspectives on the Todos Santos “Group”, the Chontal an Allochthon, and the Rotation History of the Chiapas Massif, Southern Mexico. A talk held by Roberto Molina Garza and J. Pindell virtually on 19 November 2020 as part of the Mexican Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Author(s): John W. Snedden, Institute for Geophysics, The University of Texas at Austin The Importance of Regional to Basin-scale Paleogeographic Reconstructions for Exploration in Offshore Mexican Basins. A talk held by John W. Snedden virtually on 19 November 2020 as part of the Mexican Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Author(s): Ulises Neri Flores, General Director for the Promotion of Productive Chains and Investment in the Energy Sector, Economy Secretariat, Government of Mexico The Role of Geology in Exploration and Production: Opportunities for Technology Transfer in Mexico. A talk held by Ulises Neri Flores virtually on 19 November 2020 as part of the Mexican Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Moderators: Ricardo José Padilla y Sánchez, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; Jorge Jacobo Albarrán, Instituto Politécnico Nacional Participants: James Pindell, Tectonic Analysis; Md Nahidul Hasan, University of Houston; Rod Graham, Imperial College London; Daniel Olivares Ramos, Petroleum Geology Consultant; Marlen Medina Macedo, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México A discussion held virtually on 19 November 2020 as part of the Mexican Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Author(s): Bernardo Ignacio García Amador (presenter), B. Ortega-Guerrero, L. Alva-Valdivia, Instituto de Geofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Paleomagnetism of the Barremian Chivillas Formation, NW Cuicateco Terrane: Evidence for a final Stage Opening of the Gulf of Mexico?. A talk by Bernardo Ignacio García Amador, B. Ortega-Guerrero, L. Alva-Valdivia held virtually on 19 November 2020 as part of the Mexican Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Author(s): Marlen Medina Macedo, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Balanced Structural Geological Model of the Zaap Field – Spanish Presentation. A talk by Marlen Medina Macedo held virtually on 19 November 2020 as part of the Mexican Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Author(s): Daniel Olivares Ramos, Petroleum Geology Consultant. Comments on the Regional Structure of the Salina del Istmo Basin, Southern Gulf of Mexico. A talk by Daniel Olivares Ramos held virtually on 19 November 2020 as part of the Mexican Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Author(s): Rod Graham (presenter), Imperial College London; J. Pindell, D. Villagomez, Tectonic Analysis; R. Molina-Garza, M. Sierra Rochas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; J. Granath, Granath and Associates Integrated Cretaceous Plate Tectonics and Structural Geology in Southern Mexico. A talk by Rod Graham, J. Pindell, D. Villagomez, R. Molina-Garza, M. Sierra Rochas and J. Granath held virtually on 19 November 2020 as part of the Mexican Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Author(s): Md Nahidul Hasan (presenter), P. Mann, University of Houston Relating Structural Style of Campeche Salt Basin, Southwestern Gulf of Mexico to Subtle, Northward Dip Variations in its Underlying Basement. A talk by Md Nahidul Hasan and P. Mann held virtually on 19 November 2020 as part of the Mexican Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Author(s): James Pindell (presenter), Tectonic Analysis, Rice University; R. Molina-Garza, Centro de Geociencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; R. Graham, Imperial College London; D. Villagómez, Tectonic Analysis; B. Weber, Ensenada Center for Scientific Research and Higher Education (CICESE) Key highlights of Mexico’s Mesozoic-Cenozoic Plate Tectonic Evolution. A talk by James Pindell, R. Molina-Garza, R. Graham, D. Villagómez and B. Weber held virtually on 19 November 2020 as part of the Mexican Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Author(s): Marco Antonio Osorio Bonilla, Director, Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo (IMP) Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo: Solutions for the Petroleum Industry. A special presentation by Marco Antonio Osorio Bonilla held virtually on 19 November 2020 as part of the Mexican Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Pacific Basins Virtual Research Symposium

Pacific Basins: Exploring South America’s Active Margin (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Chile) | Virtual Research Symposium held 22–23 October 2020. Video access included with symposium registration.

Moderator: Pedro Alarcón, Past-President, AAPG LACR, Independent E&P Consultant Panelists: Carlos Rodríguez, Technical Vice President, ANH Colombia; Johnny Rebaza, Senior Exploration Geologist, Perupetro; Federico Seminario, Geological Exploration Advisor, Pluspetrol, Freddy Corredor, Founder and Director, GeoStrAp; Kiko Valencia, Independent Consulting Geologist Industry experts from Colombia and Peru debate the true exploration potential of South American Pacific Basins. This panel discussion was held on 23 October, 2020 as part of the Pacific Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Moderator: Andrea Ortiz-Karpf, Ecopetrol S.A. Participants: Afsoon Kazerouni, Bemidji State University; Jaime Reyes-Abril, Servigecol; Angel Carlos Salas Colca, Universidad Nacional Daniel Alcides Carrión; Stephen Hubbard, University of Calgary Session IV: Stratigraphy and Sedimentology (English and Spanish Discussion). A panel with Afsoon Kazerouni, Jaime Reyes-Abril, Angel Carlos Salas Colca and Stephen Hubbard held virtually on 23 October, 2020.
Author(s): Stephen Hubbard (presenter), Ben Daniels, Tom Peploe, University of Calgary; Brian Romans, Virginia Tech; Lisa Stright, Colorado State; Erin Pemberton, ConocoPhillips The Identification and Implications of Large-Scale Clinoforms in the Austral-Magallanes Basin Outcrop Belt, Southern Chile. A talk by Stephen Hubbard (presenter), Ben Daniels, Tom Peploe, Brian Romans, Lisa Stright and Erin Pemberton held virtually on 23 October, 2020.
Author(s): Angel Carlos Salas Colca, Universidad Nacional Daniel Alcides Carrión Zircon Geochronology and Morphology to Decode the Evolution of Arequipa-Tarapacá Basin During the Middle Jurassic To Lower Cretaceous - Spanish Presentation. A talk by Angel Carlos Salas Colca held virtually on 23 October, 2020.
Author(s): Jaime Reyes-Abril (presenter), Juan Patiño, Servigecol; Carlos Rey, ANH Colombia; Freddy Corredor, GeoStrAp Miocene Turbiditic Successions of the San Juan Sub-basin, Potential Reservoir and Seal Rocks in the Colombian Pacific Active Margin - Spanish Presentation. A talk by Jaime Reyes-Abril, Juan Patiño, Carlos Rey and Freddy Corredor held virtually on 23 October, 2020.
Author(s): Afsoon Kazerouni, Bemidji State University, Center for Sustainability Studies Effects of Local Basin Analysis Evolution on Anatomy Of Sedimentological Morphology and Dynamics for the Delivery of Mud to Deep-Water Environments Characteristics- Pleistocene Gulf of Guayaquil. A talk by Afsoon Kazerouni held virtually on 23 October, 2020.
Author(s): Thierry P.A. Sempere, Independent Consulting Geologist Stratigraphy and Tectonics Along Coastal Southernmost Peru (15.6°S–18.3°S). A talk by Thierry P.A. Sempere held virtually on 23 October, 2020.
Author(s): Carlos Rodríguez Taborda, Technical Vice President, ANH Colombia Acquiring Information for Understanding Colombia’s Pacific Basins. A talk by Carlos Rodríguez Taborda held virtually on 23 October, 2020.
Moderator: Alejandro Chalco, Exploration Geologist Participants: Douwe G. van der Meer, CNOOC International; Alejandro Quispe, Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería; Kiko Valencia, Independent Consulting Geologist; Roberto Aguilera, RA Geologia E.U.; Diana Ochoa, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia Session III: Regional Geology and Basin Analysis Wrap Up. A panel discussion with Douwe G. van der Meer, Alejandro Quispe, Kiko Valencia, Roberto Aguilera and Diana Ochoa held virtually on 23 October, 2020.
Author(s): Diana Ochoa (presenter), Kelly Quispe, Matthieu Carré, Rodolfo Salas-Gismondi, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia; Thomas DeVries, University of Washington Chronostratigraphic Control and Evolution of the Southern East Pisco Basin (Peruvian Continental Margin) from the Late Miocene to the Present. A talk by Diana Ochoa, Kelly Quispe, Matthieu Carré, Rodolfo Salas-Gismondi and Thomas DeVries held virtually on 23 October, 2020.
Author(s): Roberto Aguilera, RA Geologia E.U. Tumaco Basin: Exploratory Insights from Basin Modeling and Sequence Stratigraphy. A talk by Roberto Aguilera held virtually on 23 October, 2020.
Author(s): Diego Timoteo (presenter), Fritz Palacios, Hound Exploration S.A.C.; Alejandro Quispe, Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería Hunting for the First Play Opener in Salaverry Basin, Offshore Central Peru. A talk by Diego Timoteo, Fritz Palacios and Alejandro Quispe held virtually on 23 October, 2020.
Author(s): Kiko Valencia, Independent Consulting Geologist Petroleum Systems Evidence and Exploration Opportunities in the Peruvian Offshore Frontier Areas (Salaverry and Pisco Basins). A talk by Kiko Valencia at the Pacific Basins Virtual Research Symposium, held virtually on 23 October, 2020.
Author(s): Alejandro Quispe, Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería (presenter); Diego Timoteo, Fritz Palacios, Luis Pairazaman, Hound Exploration S.A.C. The Overlooked Mollendo Basin in Offshore Southern Peru: Is There a Working Petroleum System?. A talk by Alejandro Quispe, Diego Timoteo, Fritz Palacios and Luis Pairazaman at the Pacific Basins Virtual Research Symposium, held virtually on 23 October, 2020.
Author(s): Douwe G. van der Meer, CNOOC International Mantle Impressions of Latin American Subduction History. A talk by Douwe G. van der Meer, at the Pacific Basins Virtual Research Symposium, held virtually on 23 October, 2020.
Moderator: Karyna Rodríguez, Searcher. Participants: Eloi Carola, CGG GeoSpec; Roberto Ruiz, PGS; Edgar Borda, Energy Resources Consulting; Lila Bishop, The University of Houston. Geophysical Methods & Interpretation Wrap Up Session at the Pacific Basins Virtual Research Symposium, held virtually on 22-23 October, 2020.
Author(s): Lila Bishop (presenter), Paul Mann, The University of Houston. Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators Associated with Oligocene-Recent Folds of the Sandino Forearc Basin, Offshore Pacific Margin of Nicaragua. A talk by Lila Bishop at the Pacific Basins Virtual Research Symposium, held virtually on 22-23 October, 2020.
Author(s): Edgar Borda, Energy Resources Consulting (presenter); Carlos Bianchi, SK Innovation. 2D/3D Seismic Activity Along Offshore Peru and its Contribution to Increasing the Basins’ Prospectivity. A talk by Edgar Borda at the Pacific Basins Virtual Research Symposium, held virtually on 22-23 October, 2020.
Author(s): Roberto Ruiz (presenter), William Powell, Adriana Sola, Cyrille Reiser, PGS. Developing an Interactive RockAVO Modelling Atlas for Improved Geological Understanding of Offshore Peru. A talk by Roberto Ruiz at the Pacific Basins Virtual Research Symposium, held virtually on 22-23 October, 2020.
Author(s): Karyna Rodriguez (presenter), Neil Hodgson, Searcher. Hydrocarbon Prospectivity Implications of BSR-derived Geothermal Gradient Offshore Peru. A talk by Karyna Rodriguez at the Pacific Basins Virtual Research Symposium, held virtually on 22-23 October, 2020.
Author(s): Eloi Carola (presenter), David Spofforth, Shona Culwick and Emmanuel Nformi, CGG GeoSpec. Data Reprocessing, Enhancement and Integration to Unlock Hydrocarbon Potential of the Peruvian Offshore. Examples from the Underexplored Salaverry and Trujillo Basins. A talk by Eloi Carola at the Pacific Basins Virtual Research Symposium, held virtually on 22-23 October, 2020.
Author(s): Eris Gabriel, Exploration Manager, Perupetro. Exploration Opportunities in Northwest and Offshore Peru. A talk by Eris Gabriel at the Pacific Basins Virtual Research Symposium, held virtually on 22-23 October, 2020.
Moderator: Freddy Corredor, GeoStrAp Participants: Yi-Wei Chen, University of Houston; Pablo Sebastian González Godoy, Universidad Andres Bello; Daniel Peña, Repsol; Carlos Llerena, Savia Peru, S.A.; Carlos Aizprua, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, University of Lille; Cesar Witt, University of Lille. Structural Geology & Tectonics Wrap Up Session at the Pacific Basins Virtual Research Symposium, held virtually on 22-23 October, 2020.
Author(s): Cesar Witt, University of Lille (presenter); Carlos Aizprua, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, University of Lille; Marco Brøner, Geological Survey of Norway; Diego Barba, PetroAmazonas. Crustal Structure Of The Southernmost Northern Andes: A Trapped Oceanic Sliver. A talk by Cesar Witt at the Pacific Basins Virtual Research Symposium, held virtually on 22-23 October, 2020.
Author(s): Carlos Aizprua, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, University of Lille (presenter); Cesar Witt, Jean-Yves Reynaud, University of Lille; Diego Barba, PetroAmazonas. Forearc Basin Development Along the Southernmost Boundary of the Northern Andes. A talk by Carlos Aizprua at the Pacific Basins Virtual Research Symposium, held virtually on 22-23 October, 2020.
Author(s): Carlos Llerena (presenter), Diego Escobedo, Christopher Villafuerte, Savia Peru, S.A. Structural Analysis of the Talara Basin - E&P Implications. A talk by Carlos Llerena at the Pacific Basins Virtual Research Symposium, held virtually on 22-23 October, 2020.
Author(s): Daniel Peña (presenter), Repsol; Diego Timoteo, Hound Exploration; Pedro Alarcon, Independent. Cenozoic Structural Style and Tectonic Evolution of East Pisco Basin, Offshore Peru: Implications for an Active Petroleum System. A talk by Daniel Peña at the Pacific Basins Virtual Research Symposium, held virtually on 22-23 October, 2020.
Author(s): Pablo Sebastian González Godoy (presenter), Cristian Rodrigo Ramirez. Universidad Andres Bello, Sede Viña del Mar, Chile. Tectonic-Structural Analysis of the Chilean Forearc (Offshore) Between 28.5° and 37.5°: Effects of Subduction in Submarine Morph-Structures - Spanish Presentation. A talk by Pablo Sebastian González Godoy at the Pacific Basins Virtual Research Symposium, held virtually on 22-23 October, 2020.
Author(s):Yi-Wei Chen (presenter), Jonny Wu and John Suppe, University of Houston Building an Andes Plate Tectonic Reconstruction Back to the Late Cretaceous ~80 Ma Using Unfolded Slabs From Seismic Tomography: Implications for Flat Slab Tectonics. A talk by Yi-Wei Chen, Jonny Wu and John Suppe, at the Pacific Basins Virtual Research Symposium, held virtually on 22-23 October, 2020.
SE Caribbean & Guiana Basins Virtual Research Symposium

SE Caribbean & Guiana Basins: Recent Studies and Advances in Understanding the Geology of Barbados, Guyana, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuela | Virtual Research Symposium held 17–18 September 2020. Video access included with symposium registration.

Moderator: Javed Razack, Ramps Logistics Panelists: Neil Evans, BHP; Katy Henderson-Moses, BP Trinidad & Tobago; James Shipka, Touchstone Exploration; Ryan Ramsook, University of the West Indies; Randy Hiscock, Bahamas Petroleum; Brian Glover, Staatsolie; Ken Nibbelink, JHI Americas; Kevin Ramnarine, Guyana Local Content Committee Industry experts from across Barbados, Guyana, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuela debate about current activity and exploration potential in Southeastern Caribbean and Guiana Basins. The panel took place on 18 September 2020, as a part of the Southeast Caribbean and Guiana Basins Virtual Research Symposium. Bios: Moderator: Javed Razack, Ramps Logistics Javed earned a BSc in Petroleum Geoscience from the University of the West Indies, Trinidad, and a MSc in Oil and Gas Enterprise Management from the University of Aberdeen. In his 10 years of experience in the industry, he has worked at the Ministry of Energy, Trinidad (was a Geophysicist with the Contract Management Department and worked on over a dozen onshore and offshore seismic surveys, as well as the regulation of over 25 PSCs and Licences), and at Ramps where he has been for four years. At Ramps Logistics, he is Head of Energy Sales, in charge of all tenders, contract negotiation and contract management covering all our clients across Trinidad, Guyana, Suriname, Mexico, USA and new territories. Clients include approx. 100 operators and service companies including ExxonMobil, Petronas, Tullow Oil, Schlumberger, Technip, Valaris and many more. Javed is former AAPG YP Vice President for T&T, Current Director Geological Society of T&T, Member of and frequent presenter at SPE, Board Member Couva/Pt LIsas Chamber of Commerce, Trinidad. Neil Evans, BHP Neil earned a BSc in Geology from Imperial College London and a PhD in structural geology from the University of Leeds in the UK. With 23 years of experience in the industry, he is Practice Lead Exploration Excellence in BHP Petroleum at Houston, where he is responsible for providing geoscience guidance and best practices to the Exploration and Appraisal teams at BHP. Prior to BHP, he undertook several post docs around the world in structural geology and salt tectonics. Neil is a member of AAPG.  Katy Henderson-Moses, BP Trinidad & Tobago Katy earned a BSc in Geology & Geophysics from Yale University and a MSc in Petroleum Geoscience from the Imperial College London. With 16 years of experience in the industry, she works at BP Trinidad & Tobago as Greater Cassia Area Manager, Reservoir Development, where is responsible for production delivery and resource progression of the Greater Cassia hub fields in the Columbus Basin. Previous responsibilities as Exploration Manager included prospect evaluation and drill-out of infrastructure-led exploration inventory and JV partnership in deepwater Barbados Trough. Katy is a member of GSTT. James Shipka, Touchstone Exploration James earned a BSc in Geology from the University of Calgary. His 32 years of experience include exploration and development of mature assets in developed basins, enhanced oil recovery planning and implementation, conventional and unconventional gas exploration and prospect generation, field development and geological interpretation. Currently, he is Chief Operating Officer at Touchstone Exploration Inc. in Calgary, Canada and Fyzabad, Trinidad & Tobago, where he is responsible for the oversight of all technical aspects of the company’s operations, including exploration and development, subsurface (geology and geophysics), engineering, production, and business development. James is Fellow of the Geological Society of London, Member of the Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists (CSPG) and the Geological Society of Trinidad and Tobagpo (GSTT). Ryan Ramsook, The University of the West Indies Ryan earned a BSc in Earth Sciences, MPhil Geology and a PhD in Geology from the University of the West Indies. In his 15 years of experience, he has worked at Sagres Energy Inc (South America, Caribbean, Canada); and at Trinity Exploration and Production Ltd (Trinidad). Currently, Ryan is Senior Lecturer and Petroleum Geoscience Coordinator at the Univeristy of the West Indies, St. Augustine. Ryan is a member of AAPG, GSL and SPE. Randolph (Randy) Hiscock, Bahamas Petroleum (BPC Limited) Randy earned a MSc / MBA from the Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada. With 35 years of experience in the industry, he has worked as GM New Ventures & Business Development-Americas, Shell, and VP Latin America, Encana. Currently, he is Business Development & Uruguay, Managing Director at BPC Limited in Nassau, Bahamas. Randy is a member of AAPG, SEG and PESGB. Brian Glover, Staatsolie Brian holds a Bsc from the University of Aberdeen, and a PhD from Keele University. With 32 years of experience in the industry on Exploration, Development & General Management, Brian has worked in companies as Shell, Tullow, MOL Group and Seacrest Azimuth. Currently, he is Vice President Offshore at Staatsolie Maatschappij Suriname N.V., where is responsible for the Upstream Offshore Value chain for Staatsolie. Kevin Ramnarine, Guyana Local Content Committee Kevin earned a BSc in Chemistry, a MSc in Petroleum Engineering and an MBA, all from the University of the West Indies at St. Augustine. With 17 years of experience in the industry, Kevin is Senior Adviser at Triple Junction Energy Advisors at Aranguez. He is Former Minister of Energy of Trinidad and Tobago. He is a member of SPE.  Ken Nibbelink, JHI Associates Ken earned his BA degree in Geology from the Western State College of Colorado, a MS in Geology from Colorado State University, and a MS in Finance from the University of Houston. In his 40 years of experience in the industry, he has worked in companies as Union Pacific, Amoco, Devon, Hyperdynamics and JHI Associates (BVI), where he currently is VP Exploration in Steamboats Springs, Colorado, responsible for exploration Canje Block, Guyana. Ken is a member of AAPG, HGS, RMAG and PESGB.
Moderator: John B. Wagner, Pluspetrol Participants: Ken Nibbelink, JHI Associates; Jacob Miller, University of Houston; Ariana Osman, The University of the West Indies Convener John B. Wagner moderates a discussion with presenters, who answer questions and share final thoughts to conclude Session IV, Stratigraphy and Sedimentology, at the Southeast Caribbean and Guiana Basins Virtual Research Symposium. Bios: Convener: John Wagner, Pluspetrol Dr. Wagner began his petroleum career as a scientist on board the 1985 USGS/IOS GLORIA survey of the deep-water Mississippi Fan, Gulf of Mexico which was a significant expedition in regards to our understanding of deep-water submarine fan systems. He then joined Mobil Research & Development in 1987, where his areas of investigation included the deep-water Gulf of Mexico, Sakhalin Island, Russia, offshore West Africa, North Sea, offshore Vietnam and South America. John was appointed Chief Geologist for Nexen Petroleum U.S.A. in 2002, with involvement in worldwide projects from exploration through development. In 2012, Dr. Wagner became a founding member of the Technical Management Team for Venari Resources where he served as Chief Geologist and directed their exploration success within the ultra-deep-water Paleogene of the Gulf of Mexico. Concurrent with his Technical management roles, John served as Professor of geology for 14 years at Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas. In November of 2018, John joined Pluspetrol as Global Exploration Manager for ongoing exploration and appraisal within unconventional, conventional and deep-water assets worldwide. Ken Nibbelink, JHI Associates Ken earned his BA degree in Geology from the Western State College of Colorado, a MS in Geology from Colorado State University, and a MS in Finance from the University of Houston. In his 40 years of experience in the industry, he has worked in companies as Union Pacific, Amoco, Devon, Hyperdynamics and JHI Associates (BVI), where he currently is VP Exploration in Steamboats Springs, Colorado, responsible for exploration Canje Block, Guyana. Ken is a member of AAPG, HGS, RMAG and PESGB. Jacob Miller, University of Houston Ariana Osman, The University of the West Indies Ariana earned a BSc from Western, Canada and a MSc from the University of Texas at Austin. With 3 years of experience in the industry, she currently is PhD student at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad, where she researches and teaches courses in Sedimentology, Stratigraphy and Petroleum Geology. Previously, she has worked at BP Trinidad and Tobago, and Leibniz University Hannover. Ariana is a member of AAPG, SEPM, IAS and GSA.
Author(s): Luisa Man (presenter), Simon Greenfield, Anne McAfee, Tom Wilson, Core Laboratories UK Regional geological studies undertaken along the Atlantic margin including Suriname-Guyana have revealed the presence of ambiguous silica-rich (biogenic) non-reservoir lithologies, which are difficult to differentiate using seismic and log interpretation techniques. These lithologies can show major variations from prognosis to the sediments penetrated during drilling and may contribute to well failure. A rock-based approach to geological evaluation, revisiting the exploration legacy of core and cuttings material provides important insights into these problematic rock types, which in some cases were not identified during visual description at the wellsite.  Bio: Luisa Man, CoreLab Luisa holds a PhD in Sedimentology from the University of Bucharest. With 9 years of experience in the industry, she is Staff Geologist at Core Laboratories in Redhill, UK, where is a sedimentologist who leads reservoir description in regional projects. Luisa is a member of PESGB.
Author(s): Ariana Osman (presenter), Ryan Ramsook, The University of the West Indies; Ron J. Steel, Cornel Olariu, The University of Texas at Austin; Si Chen; China University of Geosciences The continuous eastward migration of the Caribbean plate altered paleo-drainage directions since the middle Eocene, diverting the once north flowing mighty Orinoco to its current west-east trajectory across eastern Venezuela and Trinidad. In the late Miocene, the Cruse Formation marks the arrival of the delta on Trinidad, depositing a clastic wedge of >2500 ft which accreted eastwards by shallow to deepwater clinoform increments driven mainly by a huge sediment flux and glacio-eustatic climate cycles (ca. 100 ky), but modulated by Caribbean tectonics. In this study, 58 well logs and outcrop data were integrated to construct a 3D picture for 15 continental-margin clinoforms (C10-C24) to unravel the impact of tectonics on the sedimentation trends observed for the Cruse. The clinoforms have an average height of 550 m, continental slope of 2.5˚ tapering to 1˚, and a distance from shelf-edge to near-base of slope of >10 km, and can be grouped into three developmental phases: 1) C10-C13 have a flat shelf-edge trajectory, suggesting a high supply of sediment during periods of repeated icehouse rise and fall of eustatic sea-level, with fall outpacing subsidence rates. These topset sands are interpreted to have a strong fluvial regime that may have been influenced by the development of NE-SW directed growing thrusts, creating an embayed paleo-Columbus Channel area protected from strong wave energy; 2) C14-20 has an aggradational pattern with a rising shelf-edge trajectory, possibly resulting from increased tectonic induced subsidence as the Caribbean plate migrated eastwards post the culmination of collision in the Middle Miocene; 3) C21-24 show strong margin progradation, similar to C10-13, but, their topsets have a much stronger wave influence as the delta prograded past the subtle thrusts. Bio: Ariana Osman, The University of the West Indies Ariana earned a BSc from Western, Canada and a MSc from the University of Texas at Austin. With 3 years of experience in the industry, she currently is PhD student at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad, where she researches and teaches courses in Sedimentology, Stratigraphy and Petroleum Geology. Previously, she has worked at BP Trinidad and Tobago, and Leibniz University Hannover. Ariana is a member of AAPG, SEPM, IAS and GSA.
Author(s): Jacob Miller (presenter), Paul Mann, The University of Houston Using a single, 645-km long, deep-penetration seismic and OBS-refraction line, Aitken et al. (2011) proposed that the southern segment of the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc migrated 220 km to the east to its present location in the southern Lesser Antilles from its late Cretaceous location along the Aves Ridge. We use a grid of 9,320-km 2D industry seismic data, satellite gravity data, and a compilation of radiometric ages to better define the Oligocene emergence of the southern Lesser Antilles volcanic arc (LAVA) into a broad, forearc basin setting. The study area spans a 400-km-wide transect across the Lesser Antilles subduction system that includes from east to west: Tobago forearc basin (TFB), LAVA; Grenada back-arc basin (GBAB); and Aves remnant arc (ARA). To test the Aitken et al. hypothesis, we: 1) improved seismic stratigraphic correlations of the three major sequences filling the 12-km-thick TFB and 14-km-thick GBAB that flank the LAVA; 2) mapped tilted late Eocene and older sedimentary units adjacent to both sides of the LAVA that are onlapped by Oligocene to recent sections that include mass transport complexes. These stratigraphic results for Oligocene emplacement of the southern Lesser Antilles arc are consistent with: 1) radiometric age dates on the oldest volcanic units in the southern Lesser Antilles (37-25 Ma); and 2) emplacement of Middle Eocene forearc-related, oceanic crust along with the intruding volcanic arc (Speed and Walker 1993). Stratigraphic control of the GBAB and TB were improved by direct ties to Venezuelan offshore wells and include: Sequence 1: chaotic to semi-continuous and wedge-shaped reflectors of Middle Eocene to Late Eocene age that were deposited prior to arc emergence; Sequence 2: continuous reflectors of Oligocene to middle Miocene age that onlap sequence 1 in the GBAB and TB and post-date arc emergence; and Sequence 3: Late Miocene to Recent chaotic to semi-continuous reflectors in the Grenada basin and semi-continuous in the Tobago basin that reflect the presence of the Lesser Antilles arc separating the two basins.
Author(s): Lorena Moscardelli (presenter), Equinor Houston Lorena Moscardelli discusses mass-transport complexes and associated processes in the offshore area of Trinidad and Venezuela after 14 years of publishing, and evaluate what’s new and relevant for the New Boom in the region. This presentation was part of the Southeast Caribbean Basins Virtual Research Symposium held on September 2020. Bio: Lorena Moscardelli, Equinor Lorena is a Geological Engineer from the Universidad Central de Venezuela (2000) and earned a PhD in Geological Sciences from the University of Texas at Austin (2007). In her 10 years of experience she has worked at PDVSA (2000-2003) and BEG (2003-2013). Currently, she is Principal Researcher Exploration at Equinor in The Matrix (Austin, TX and Bergen, Norway), where is responsible for field development activities in the Norwegian Continental Shelf. Lorena is a member of AAPG, SEPM, AGU and GSA.
Author(s): Ken Nibbelink (presenter), Dick Boyce, Mosab Nasser and John Boyce, JHI Associates, Inc (BVI) The Guyana/Suriname Basin deep water hydrocarbon system can be summarized by the interaction between three river systems, Aptian Demerara, Upper Cretaceous Berbice and Miocene/Pliocene Amazon and two source rocks, Lower Albian 108 ma, Oceanic Anoxic Event, OAE-1 and the Cenomanian/Turonian 90 ma, OAE-2. The basin is located at the southern end of the North Atlantic rift where thick Lower Cretaceous/Jurassic carbonate platforms rim the deep water Jurassic oceanic crust and the massive Aptian, Demerara river system flowed northwest into Suriname between Africa and South America. The OAE-1 source was deposited in deep water between the Demerara deltaic system and the carbonate platform rim. The Berbice river during the Upper Cretaceous was draining the entire northern part of South America and formed a 1000m deep canyon across the shelf that delivered over 1 second of sediment to the deep water, including the second cycle Campanian/Maastrichtian reservoirs from a Pre-Cambrian Quartzite provenance. The Berbice overburden matured the OAE-1 source rock at 60 ma. The OAE-2 source, known locally as the Canje Shale was subsequently deposited across the entire deep water portion of the Guyana/Suriname Basin. The Berbice drainage system is captured during the Lower Tertiary and reorganized into a series of smaller river systems where sediment is stored in the fluvial, near shore and shelf environments, so the deep water basin receives very little sediment. The Berbice overburden allows the OAE-1 source to start generating oil, then the very low sedimentation rate allows continuous oil generation from the OAE-1 source for 40 million years when the Campanian/Maastrichtian reservoirs are below the oil biodegradation risk and above the reservoir cementation risk. The Amazon River sediment is sweep northwest by shelf currents into the Guyana/Suriname Basin demonstrated by Devonian palynological evidence present in Miocene/Pliocene sediments in wells from both Foz de Amazonas and Guyana, Mapes + Torres. This recent overburden matures the OAE-2 source in the deeper parts of the Guyana/Suriname Basin, around 6 ma. The hydrocarbon system is driven by four key elements, the Aptian, Demerara and Lower Cretaceous/Jurassic carbonate platform defining the location of the Lower Albian, OAE-1 source, the Upper Cretaceous, Berbice Campanian/Maastrichtian reservoirs and overburden to mature the OAE-1 source. Then the Lower Tertiary capture of the Berbice and low sedimentation rate in deep water, which allowed 40 million years of oil generation and migration from the OAE-1 source and preserved excellent reservoir quality for effective DHI’s AVO, flat events and down dip conformance. Finally, the Miocene/Pliocene, Amazon system provides the overburden to mature the Cenomanian/Turonian, OAE-2 source and put the Campanian/Maastrichtian reservoirs in water depths that current technology can economically develop. Bio: Ken Nibbelink, JHI Associates Ken earned his BA degree in Geology from the Western State College of Colorado, a MS in Geology from Colorado State University, and a MS in Finance from the University of Houston. In his 40 years of experience in the industry, he has worked in companies as Union Pacific, Amoco, Devon, Hyperdynamics and JHI Associates (BVI), where he currently is VP Exploration in Steamboats Springs, Colorado, responsible for exploration Canje Block, Guyana. Ken is a member of AAPG, HGS, RMAG and PESGB.
Author(s): Vitor Abreu (presenter), ACT Geosciences Vitor Abreu discusses risk analysis of deep water stratigraphic traps with examples from the Jubilee Field and the Liza discovery. This presentation was part on the Southeast Caribbean Basins Virtual Research Symposium held on September 2020. Bio: Vitor Abreu, ACT-GEO Dr. Vitor Abreu is an internationally recognized consultant, considered one of the world leaders in sequence stratigraphy and deep-water reservoirs, proposing deep-water models with strong impact in reservoir characterization. He received his Ph.D. degree at Rice University (Houston). He has 30 years of experience in the oil industry in petroleum exploration, retired from ExxonMobil in 2016 and currently the owner of Abreu Consulting and Training – ACT-GEO. Vitor is Past-President of the Society of Sedimentary Geology (SEPM) and an Adjunct Professor at Rice University. More than 1000 students from around the globe have taken his short course on “Sequence Stratigraphy for Applied to Exploration” in the last 15 years. He is also one of the industry leaders on Sequence Stratigraphy and is the chief editor of SEPM’s book “Sequence Stratigraphy of Siliciclastic Systems”, which has sold almost 4000 copies since publication in 2010. He was the recipient of the AAPG’s Jules Braunstein Memorial Award and was appointed AAPG’s inaugural International Distinguished Instructor in 2006.
Moderator: Susan Morrice, Co-Founder and Chair, BNE Ltd Panelists: Marlowe Neal, CEO, BNE Ltd; Albert Garcia, Chair, BNE Trust; Sharon Roberts, Director of Special Projects In the current climate, energy companies are accountable to shareholders, investors and government leaders for how their actions affect the people and environment in countries where they operate. Environment, Social and Governance (ESG) considerations and Socially Responsible Investing (SRI) criteria are key components of risk analysis and are crucial to securing investment and attracting top quality personnel. Just how can companies make ESG and SRI a part of their practice and not only survive but thrive in a new global economy? Find out in a panel discussion with executives from Belize Natural Energy (BNE), an award-winning company whose holistic business model transformed a country and set the standard for sustainable development. Belize Natural Energy Ltd was born from the vision to make a sustainable and empowering difference in Belize. In addition to discover first oil, BNE has been the number one revenue generator in the country for more than 10 years. The company forged a unique partnership based on the New Holistic Business Model with the United Arab Emirates and has received the Green Award, Employees of the Year Award and the Global GetEnergy Educational Award for bringing the Sustainable Educational Model to the people of Belize. During this special session, BNE executives will share the steps they have taken over the past 15 years to develop a model company that is drawing global attention. Bios: Moderator: Susan Morrice, Belize Natural Energy Susan earned a Degree in Natural Sciences from Trinity College Dublin, specializing in Geology. She is currently the Co-Founder and Chairperson of Belize Natural Energy. Her company has the Educo Holistic Business Model at its core. Against all the odds, this Model was the vital difference that enabled Susan (and her late business partner Mike Usher) to find the first oil in Belize in 2005. BNE won the Global GetEnergy Award for empowering the people of Belize (beating 43 other countries), has consistently been the number 1 revenue generator in Belize and has inspired world leaders, resulting in a major trade treaty being signed with the United Arab Emirates. Susan was awarded the Norman Foster Outstanding Explorer Award and the Presidential Award for Exemplary Service by the AAPG in recognition for her work in geoscience. Marlowe Neal, CEO, BNE Ltd. Albert Garcia, Chair, BNE Trust Sharon Roberts, Director of Special Projects for Susan Morrice Sharon has over 30 years’ event management and project management experience, working across several industries, including the motor, finance and oil & gas sectors. She has always had a fascination as to how corporate culture impacts productivity, innovation and fulfillment. It was not until attending the Educo Educational Seminar (at the heart of Susan Morrice’s company Belize Natural Energy) that Sharon came across the answer to having the ultimate corporate culture founded on ensuring employees and associates utilize their latent potential to bring about exceptional results in sustainable and holistic ways. It is her passion to share this through her work as Director of Special Projects.
Moderator: Stanley Wharton, Subsurface Imaging Participants: Mark Longacre, MBL, Inc; Mei Liu, University of Houston; Max A. Torres, Plata Energy; Craig Schiefelbein, Geochemical Solutions International, Inc; Anthony Aming, Seisnetics Convener Stanley Wharton moderates a discussion with presenters, who answer questions and share final thoughts to conclude Session III, Geophysical Interpretation and Play Assessment, at the Southeast Caribbean and Guiana Basins Virtual Research Symposium. Bios: Convener: Stanley Wharton, Subsurface Imaging Company Stanley holds a MSc and has more than 33 years of experience in the industry. He currently is President and Principal Consultant at Subsurface Imaging Company. Stanley is a member of AAPG, EAGE and SEG. Mark Longacre, MBL Mark earned a BS in Geology from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and a MSc in Geophysics from Purdue University. With 39 years of experience in the industry, he is President of MBL, Inc., in Denver, Colorado, where he is responsible for detailed Interpretation integrating gravity and magnetics with other geological and geophysical data. Mark is a member of AAPG, SEG, EAGE, AGU, PESGB, and Fellow at the Geological Society of London. Mei Liu, University of Houston Mei has her PhD in progress at the University of Houston. She currently is graduate research assistant, and is a member of AAPG, AGU, Houston geological society, Geophysical society of Houston and SPE. Max Antonio Torres, Plata Energy Max is a Geologist from the Universidad de Tucuman, Argentina, and earned a MSc from Georgia State University. His 35 years of experience in the industry includes positions as VP Exploration at Ecopetrol (2018 -2014) and Exploration Director at Repsol (2014 -2000). He currently is Managing Partner at Plata Energy in Houston. Max is AAPG member since 1987. Craig Schiefelbein, Geochemical Solutions International, Inc. Craig holds BS and MS degrees both from the University of Tulsa. He has 45 years of experience in the industry as Petroleum Geochemist. He currently is Director of Geochemical Solutions International, Inc. in Houston, and is a member of AAPG, HGS, PESGB, EAOG and ALAGO. Anthony Aming, Seisnetics Anthony earned a BS with honors in Geophysics from the University of Manitoba. With 40 years of experience in the industry, he has worked with Amoco Production Company in exploration and exploitation for Oil & Gas in projects in Canada, USA, United Arab Emirates and Oman; has also worked for the Trinidad and Tobago Oil Company (TRINTOC), Amoco Trinidad Oil Company and Western Geophysical. Using his Enterprise Architecture (Business Domain) at Baker Hughes, a GE Company, he has led several successful global projects and initiatives in digital transformation, remote operations, information technology, finance, technology and operations. He currently is a seasoned full stream digital transformation expert sharing his knowledge and expertise throughout the Oil & Gas industry globally; Director Americas Business Development, Marketing & Support at Seisnetics, working with NOC’s, IOC’s, MOC’s and OFS’s to digitally transform processes to reduce risk and uncertainty resulting in improved capital efficiency and profitability. Anthony is a member of SEG and a past member of AAPG, SPE, EAEG and PIDX.
Author(s): Anthony Aming (presenter), Seisnetics; Ibraheem Ali; PetroCom Technologies This paper presents how Artificial Intelligence (AI) / Machine Learning (ML) technology uses unsupervised genetics algorithms to drive the new seismic attribute “Fitness” and how it is used to interpret paleo geomorphology/facies. 3D Seismic and the Human Genome Each waveform within a seismic volume is characterised by a unique suite of attributes (i.e. location, amplitude, neighbour trace shape, etc.). Similarly, DNA is comprised of a unique arrangement of base pairs. During the Human Genome Project, significant advances were made in the field of sequence analysis. Here we show how these advances can be leveraged to enhance the interpretation of 3D seismic data. Genetic Processing Algorithms Using Seisnetics® patented genetic processing algorithm to automatically segment seismic trace data into populations of related waveforms, artificial intelligence populations (known as ‘GeoPopulations’) are ‘grown’ by the software from random and disordered seed points, eliminating any bias that might be introduced by user defined seed points. The resultant GeoPopulations (which represent a group of genetically and spatially related waveforms), appear similar to a ‘user-propagated surface’, but critically are based on waveform characteristics rather than amplitude-based propagation used in the majority of E&P software packages, and are imbedded with seismic attributes. Bio: Anthony Aming, Seisnetics Anthony earned a BS with honors in Geophysics from the University of Manitoba. With 40 years of experience in the industry, he has worked with Amoco Production Company in exploration and exploitation for Oil & Gas in projects in Canada, USA, United Arab Emirates and Oman; has also worked for the Trinidad and Tobago Oil Company (TRINTOC), Amoco Trinidad Oil Company and Western Geophysical. Using his Enterprise Architecture (Business Domain) at Baker Hughes, a GE Company, he has led several successful global projects and initiatives in digital transformation, remote operations, information technology, finance, technology and operations. He currently is a seasoned full stream digital transformation expert sharing his knowledge and expertise throughout the Oil & Gas industry globally; Director Americas Business Development, Marketing & Support at Seisnetics, working with NOC’s, IOC’s, MOC’s and OFS’s to digitally transform processes to reduce risk and uncertainty resulting in improved capital efficiency and profitability. Anthony is a member of SEG and a past member of AAPG, SPE, EAEG and PIDX.
Author(s): Craig Schiefelbein (presenter), James Brooks, David Stansbury, Zvi Sofer, Adolpho Requejo, Geochemical Solutions International, Inc. An integrated geochemical study of Petroleum Systems active in the Southeast Caribbean area has been conducted. The study is based on the analysis of >400 crude oils and condensates from major fields in order to evaluate: (1) source facies, (2) thermal maturity, and (3) degree of alteration (biodegradation; migration/fractionation; mixing). Several seafloor oil seeps recovered in piston cores at various deep-water sites were also analyzed and, in some instances, correlated to known production on the shelf. Samples included in this study are from onshore and offshore (Columbus Basin) Trinidad, Barbados, Guyana, and Suriname. Crude oil samples were characterized through the use of a detailed analytical program including gas chromatography, stable carbon isotopes, and quantitative biomarker analysis of saturate and aromatic fractions by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A regional framework was established by determining the number of distinct oil families. Source inferences with regard to age and paleoenvironment were made and source to oil correlations were established through comparison with source rock information mainly available from the literature. Oil chemistries were also used to identify complex processes determining oil quality which include, source facies variations, relative maturity, biodegradation, water washing, evaporative fractionation, gas stripping and remigration, and mixing of hydrocarbons. Detailed understanding of all these processes has important implications for exploration activity in the region. Analysis of >100 gas samples from major producing fields indicates variable mixtures of thermogenic and biogenic origin in the Columbus Basin. A mixing model based on gas hydrocarbon and isotopic compositions is used to identify areas of mixing. Bio: Craig Schiefelbein, Geochemical Solutions International, Inc. Craig holds BS and MS degrees both from the University of Tulsa. He has 45 years of experience in the industry as Petroleum Geochemist. He currently is Director of Geochemical Solutions International, Inc. in Houston, and is a member of AAPG, HGS, PESGB, EAOG and ALAGO.
Author(s): Max A. Torres (presenter), Plata Energy The Jurassic rift related Guyana Suriname basin long journey to become a world class producer started with the discovery of organic rich Aptian Albian / Cenomanian Turonian dark shales with up to 30% TOC content at the DSDP 143/144 site near the Demarara High, hinting the existence of new large oil prone deep water basin. During 1960s and 70s shallow water drilling by Shell, Conoco, Exxon and others targeting reef buildups, listric rotated fault blocks and subtle basement closures produced in excess of a dozen dry holes. First oil to surface was 1975 Shell’s Abary 1 well In Guyana in shelf edge Maastrichtian sands that proved the existence of liquid hydrocarbons in the basin. Since then, several plays were investigated by large independents and majors, with massive success in Exxon’s Starbroek Block (Guyana) and in Apache’s Block 58 (Suriname) Campanian Cenomanian slope and basin floor fans. The stratigraphic architecture of the successful traps also included canyon heads and slope canyons related to a large Cenomanian (90 ma) incision known as the Berbice Canyon in Guyana. Although the outstanding and undisputed success of the Campanian Cenomanian lowstands reservoirs, the future exploration and new potential of the basin may be related to different plays that include an Albian Aptian rotated fault block play on the flank of the Demarara High analog to discoveries such as Skrugard field (250 MBO) in the Barents Sea of Norway or the Baobab field (200 MBO) in the Ivory Coast, incised valley sands in deltaic progradational units within the Berbice Canyon analog to the Tocito sandstone fields in the San Juan basin of the USA or a large Aptian reef buildup. With access to a prolific proven source rock and reservoir quality sands, the basin will most likely deliver additional success to creative explorers. Bio: Max Antonio Torres, Plata Energy Max is a Geologist from the Universidad de Tucuman, Argentina, and earned a MSc from Georgia State University. His 35 years of experience in the industry includes positions as VP Exploration at Ecopetrol (2018 -2014) and Exploration Director at Repsol (2014 -2000). He currently is Managing Partner at Plata Energy in Houston. Max is AAPG member since 1987.
Author(s): Ranvir Soenessardien (presenter), Staatsolie Ranvir Soenessardien discusses the evolving understand of the Suriname-Guyana Basin. This presentation was part on the Southeast Caribbean Basins Virtual Research Symposium held on September 2020. Bio: Ranvir Soenessardien, Staatsolie Maatschappij Suriname N.V. Ranvir earned a BSc in Geology from ADEKUS Suriname. With 9 years of experience in the industry, he has worked in Singal processing, quantitative interpretation and geophysical reconnaissance at Tullow Oil PLC. He currently is Senior Geophysicist at Staatsolie Maatschappij Suriname N.V. in Paramaribo, where he is responsible for technical deliverability of exploration and appraisal projects and managing G&G Teams. Ranvir is a member of AAPG and SPE.
Author(s): Mei Liu (presenter), Paul Mann, University of Houston We use regional gravity and magnetic maps to better define the crustal types and crustal structures of the area of recent, giant oil discoveries in Guyana and Suriname. The main crustal provinces include: 1) Precambrian craton of northeastern America that is 30 to 45 km thick and includes a prominent, near-right-angle in the area of the Orinoco delta; 2) a 134-km-wide area of thinned, continental crust that is characterized by two, parallel rift zones of inferred Triassic-Jurassic age which can be followed as semi-continuous features from the southern edge of the Orinoco delta to northernmost Brazil; we call these the Outer and Inner rifts; the more seaward, Outer rift is bounded to the northeast by a narrow high that also marks the continent-ocean boundary: recent giant oil discoveries occur in a passive margin sag above the Inner rift; 3) the Guyana basin is underlain by 6-9 km thick oceanic crust that exhibits faint, northeast-trending fracture zone trends and is buried by 8-10 km of sedimentary rocks; previous workers have inferred that this crust is late Jurassic in age based on its depth relations and opened in a NW-SE direction; and 4) the western Demerara is overlain by a ~10-km thick section of volcanic flows of inferred Jurassic age; these folds were folded during the Aptian opening of the Equatorial Atlantic. A sweet spot for giant discoveries is found on the southeastern end of the Inner rift that changes its strike and closes near the Suriname border. This feature also is seen to deepen in northwestern Guyana. We have also used the gravity map to map several basement arch in northern Guyana. None are obviously related to the peripheral bulge of the Eastern Venezuelan foreland basin which appears to terminate in the onland area to the west. Bio: Mei Liu, University of Houston Mei has her PhD in progress at the University of Houston. She currently is graduate research assistant, and is a member of AAPG, AGU, Houston geological society, Geophysical society of Houston and SPE.
Author(s): Mark Longacre (presenter), MBL, Inc. This study, based on the integration of high-resolution long offset seismic data with 2-1/2 and 3-dimensional gravity and magnetic modeling, has revealed the crustal / basement structure of the Ranger discovery offshore deep-water Guyana. Two (2) 2-1/2D and one (1) 3D gravity and magnetic models have been generated showing the unique basement structure underpinning the Ranger discovery. The Central Atlantic opening generated Jurassic aged oceanic crust and resulted in a trans-extensional margin in relationship to the Guyana Craton continental crust. This trans-extensional opening created unique basement structures one of which is associated with the Ranger discovery. Determining the tectonic origin of the Ranger basement structure will help in exploring for other similar features along the Atlantic margin. Bio: Mark Longacre, MBL Mark earned a BS in Geology from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and a MSc in Geophysics from Purdue University. With 39 years of experience in the industry, he is President of MBL, Inc., in Denver, Colorado, where he is responsible for detailed Interpretation integrating gravity and magnetics with other geological and geophysical data. Mark is a member of AAPG, SEG, EAGE, AGU, PESGB, and Fellow at the Geological Society of London.
Moderator: Benjamin Kirkland, CNOOC International Participants: William Dickson, DIGs; Andrew Pepper, This !s Petroleum Systems LLC; Luis Miguel Bernardo, Petroleum Exploration Consultants Americas; Peter Bartok, Bartok Inc.; Karilys Castillo, University of Houston; Krishna Persad, Krishna Persad and Associates Limited Convener Benjamin Kirkland moderates a discussion with presenters, who answer questions and share final thoughts to conclude Session II, Basin Analysis, at the Southeast Caribbean and Guiana Basins Virtual Research Symposium. Bios: Convener: Benjamin Kirkland Benjamin earned a BS from the University of Kentucky and a MSc from the University of New Orleans, both degrees in Geology. With 8 years of experience in the industry, Ben is Geologist-Basin Modeling at CNOOC International at Houston, where he is specialist in basin modeling and brings geochemistry support for global exploration. He has previously worked in companies as Nexen Energy and Fieldwood Energy. His professional affiliations include AAPG and HGS. William Dickson, DIGs (Dickson Int'l Geosciences) William earned a bachelor’s degree from the University of Manitoba. He has more than 40 years of experience in the industry, working at majors and independents and, since 1998, at DIGs in Houston. He has worked frontier and producing basins around the Atlantic margins, EAME region, SE Asia & Canadian arctic and coordinated projects with subject matter experts across multiple disciplines. Peer-reviewed publications are primarily on petroleum systems analysis of Atlantic margin basins. Currently, as owner and VP Technology at DIGs, he is in charge of R&D, project coordination and fulfillment. William is member AAPG, EAGE, SEG, SPE and local societies in Houston, England, SE Asia & Australia. Andrew Pepper, This is Petroleum Systems LLC This year Andy Pepper is celebrating 39 years of experience as a geologist and petroleum systems analyst: at BP as leader of the Petroleum Systems Network; at Hess as Chief Geologist and then Director of New Ventures; and at BHP as VP Geoscience and VP Unconventional Exploration. He founded This is Petroleum Systems LLC in 2015 as a vehicle to collaborate and innovate in Petroleum Systems concepts, modeling and training. Luis Miguel Bernardo, Repsol Luis earned a BS in Chemistry from the Universidad Central de Venezuela and a MSc in Geology from the University of Houston. With over 20 years of experience, he is Petroleum Geochemist Consultant at Petroleum Exploration Consultants Americas in Houston. He has previously worked at companies such as Repsol, YPF, Ecopetrol and PDVSA. Luis is a member of AAPG and Alago. Peter Bartok, Bartok Inc., Petroskills, University of Houston Peter earned a MSc from the State University of New York at Buffalo, and with 48 years of experience he has published over 25 papers. His past experience includes Texaco (5 years), PDVSA (10 years), BP (10 years) and 23 years as a consultant. Along with working as a consultant at Bartok Inc. and Petroskills, he currently is Adjunct Professor at the University of Houston, where he teaches petroleum geology/geophysics and shale resource assessment. Peter is a member of AAPG, SEG and HGS. Karilys del Carmen Castillo Flores, Occidental Petroleum, University of Houston Karilys is a Geological Engineer from the Universidad Central de Venezuela, and earned a MSc in Geology from the University of Houston. With 12 years of experience in the industry, she currently is Geophysicist at Occidental Petroleum at Houston, where she is responsible for international exploration geophysics. Her previous experience includes positions as Production Geologist and Seismic interpreter, Integrated Reservoir Studies, PDVSA (2005-2012); Geoscientist Intern ConocoPhillips (2013) and Anadarko Petroleum (2014); Research Assistant – CBTH at University of Houston (2012 – 2014); Geophysicist - International Exploration Colombia, Anadarko Petroleum (2014-2018); Geophysicist, Advanced Analytics and Emerging Technologies Team, Anadarko Petroleum (2018 – 2019); Geophysicist International Exploration Occidental Petroleum (2019 – Current). Karilys is a member of AAPG and SEG. Krishna Persad, Renaissance Energy Limited Krishna earned a BSc (Special Honours) and a PhD both in Geology from the University of the West Indies. In his 50 years of experience in the industry, he has worked in State oil companies and Private Oil Companies from 1970 to 1987. Since then have been an Independent Oil Producer. Currently, he is Technical Consultant and Co-CEO at Renaissance Energy Limited in Barrackpore Trinidad, where is responsible for providing geological and technical advice regarding new drills and production operations and advising and supporting the CEO. Krishna is Honorary Member of the Geological Society of Trinidad and Tobago. Previously active member AAPG and member SPE.
Author(s): Krishna Persad, Krishna Persad and Associates Limited Numerous studies since 1979 (by Persad, Talukdar, Dow, Gibson, Rodriguez and others), have established a wealth of knowledge about the source of virtually all of the oil, condensate and thermogenic gas found to date in Trinidad, namely: The source is the upper Cretaceous Naparima Argillites and Gautier In southern Trinidad the source, is oil prone and is in the oil window It is present throughout and thickens to the east to over 3,000 feet. Maturation occurred during the Oligo-Miocene during the oblique collision of the South-East Caribbean with Northern South America when the source was pushed sequentially in ENE trending source kitchens. Initial migration of whole oils occurred into interbedded Upper Cretaceous submarine fans and along faults into Olig0-Miocene reservoirs Nariva, Retrench and Herrera sands. As the Caribbean Plate advanced wrench faulting during the Pleistocene caused breaching to the entrapped oil into shallower mainly Pliocene reservoirs by a process called Evaporative Fractionation. This process leads to re-migration of lighter (mainly aromatic) liquids and thermogenic gas into shallower reservoirs in a progressive manner with gas migrating the furthest and intermediate reservoirs being charged with gas and condensate and deeper light oils. Residual oils which are heavy to very heavy and often waxy are left behind in the original reservoirs. Fractionation can be recognised from the character of the HRGC and from the position the liquid plots on a “Thompson Diagram”. There has been a paucity of discoveries of hydrocarbons in portions of eastern and generally in far western onshore Trinidad. Many shallow wells in both areas have found little or no hydrocarbons in both areas. At the same time there has been no indication of massive oil seeps indicating breached reservoirs with loss of much of any entrapped oil and gas. This implies that the hydrocarbons are trapped in deeper reservoirs i.e. Cretaceous and Oligo-Miocene. Exploration drilling in both portions of the basin, more recently by Touchstone in Ortoire and by Bahamas Petroleum (formerly Columbus Energy) and previously Trinidad Exploration and Development in the South West Peninsula (SWP) and by Texaco in the near-shore SWP and geochemical work on analyses of oils in both areas and ejecta from mud volcanoes in the SWP have confirmed the potential for accumulations of oil, gas condensate and as in the Ortoire area and in the SWP This presentation the geochemistry, the discoveries to date and makes some predictions about future potential for hydrocarbons in deeper reservoirs in both areas. Bio: Krishna Persad, Renaissance Energy Limited Krishna earned a BSc (Special Honours) and a PhD both in Geology from the University of the West Indies. In his 50 years of experience in the industry, he has worked in State oil companies and Private Oil Companies from 1970 to 1987. Since then have been an Independent Oil Producer. Currently, he is Technical Consultant and Co-CEO at Renaissance Energy Limited in Barrackpore Trinidad, where is responsible for providing geological and technical advice regarding new drills and production operations and advising and supporting the CEO. Krishna is Honorary Member of the Geological Society of Trinidad and Tobago. Previously active member AAPG and member SPE.
Author(s): Karilys Castillo (presenter), Paul Mann, University of Houston The Eastern Venezuelan foreland basin (EVB) has been filling from the southwest by the Orinoco River since the late Miocene–early Pliocene. The easternmost part of the Eastern Venezuelan Basin (EEVB) became overfilled by clastic sedimentation since the Pliocene. The EEVB now consists of a 10 km thick delta system formed by the Orinoco River, which has spilled over the shelf edge onto the Atlantic margin of northeastern Venezuela. The Eastern Venezuelan foreland basin is the second largest hydrocarbon-producing basin in Venezuela with proven reserves of 36 billion barrels. To improve our understanding of the paleogeography and hydrocarbon potential of the EEVB, 620 km2 of 3-D seismic, 4000 km of 2-D seismic, and six wells with well logs were interpreted from the Punta Pescador area of the EEVB. We integrate the results from this study with the results of previous workers from the adjacent Orinoco Delta. Based on the integration of these data, the following sequence of Cenozoic events affecting the study area are proposed: (1) passive margin setting since the Cretaceous to Paleogene; (2) oblique collision of the Caribbean plate causing an underfilled, foreland basin stage that initiated during the late Oligocene; (3) during the Oligocene and early Miocene, south–north-flowing fluvial systems and associated deltas prograded northward and filled the foreland-basin-related depocenter; (4) late Miocene eustatic sea level lowering produced a major erosional surface and submarine canyons that allowed sediments to suddenly prograde eastward; and (5) early Pliocene to Holocene overfilling of the EEVB with eastward progradation of the Orinoco Delta into the Atlantic Ocean. Using the new information presented in this paper, several hydrocarbon prospects were identified within the clastic Miocene–Pliocene–Pleistocene sequence. Bio: Karilys del Carmen Castillo Flores, Occidental Petroleum, University of Houston Karilys is a Geological Engineer from the Universidad Central de Venezuela, and earned a MSc in Geology from the University of Houston. With 12 years of experience in the industry, she currently is Geophysicist at Occidental Petroleum at Houston, where she is responsible for international exploration geophysics. Her previous experience includes positions as Production Geologist and Seismic interpreter, Integrated Reservoir Studies, PDVSA (2005-2012); Geoscientist Intern ConocoPhillips (2013) and Anadarko Petroleum (2014); Research Assistant – CBTH at University of Houston (2012 – 2014); Geophysicist - International Exploration Colombia, Anadarko Petroleum (2014-2018); Geophysicist, Advanced Analytics and Emerging Technologies Team, Anadarko Petroleum (2018 – 2019); Geophysicist International Exploration Occidental Petroleum (2019 - Current). Karilys is a member of AAPG and SEG.
Author(s): Peter Bartok, Bartok Inc. (presenter); Simon Oropeza, Independent Consultant; Charles Campbell, Accel Services Inc. Precambrian Greenstone belt underlies a portion of the Guyana-Suriname Offshore Basin (GSOB) followed by Lower Paleozoic sediments deposited in a back arc setting and folded during the Caledonian and the Alleghenian orogenies. Gravity/magnetics aided in delineating the major tectonic features in the region. The Early Jurassic separation of the Florida Block and South America resulted in normal to attenuated crust followed by oceanic crust. The Atlantic rifting resulted in peri-cratonic rifts extending into central GSOB. New concepts on the tectonics of the region provide the basis for structural analysis of the basin and aided by seismic sequence stratigraphy. Of particular significance is the relationship between the Guyana Shelf, associated with the Waini “Arch” and the Demerara Platform. The transition between the two is being called the “Demerara Trough”. Santonian to Campanian canyons associated with faults/fractures, and linked to major rivers acted as conduits for high quality sand-rich slope and basin floor fans described on paleogeographic maps. The Albian facies of Northern South America are deltaic systems restricted to the platform interior (Stabroek) and carbonates (Potoco) with anoxic conditions. The Cenomanian/Coniacian organic-rich Canje Formation is the main source rock. The Cenomanian/Turonian kitchen was evaluated in detail based on available information, new estimates of thermal conditions and description of overpressure in the region. The revised kitchen and geochemical parameters provide for an estimate of basin’s resource potential. Bio: Peter Bartok, Bartok Inc., Petroskills, University of Houston Peter earned a MSc from the State University of New York at Buffalo, and with 48 years of experience he has published over 25 papers. His past experience includes Texaco (5 years), PDVSA (10 years), BP (10 years) and 23 years as a consultant. Along with working as a consultant at Bartok Inc. and Petroskills, he currently is Adjunct Professor at the University of Houston, where he teaches petroleum geology/geophysics and shale resource assessment. Peter is a member of AAPG, SEG and HGS.
Author(s): Luis Miguel Bernardo, Petroleum Exploration Consultants Americas The geochemical analysis of rock and oil samples as an integrated approach for the southeastern Caribbean region and the Guiana Basin permitted the identification of five marine source rocks (SRs) in these highly complex areas. All the identified SRs are marine, but they are clearly distinctive in terms of their redox condition, depositional environment, lithology, age, and organic matter input. The five source rocks identified are: 1) Eocene sequences located in the Barbados Accretionary Prism. These immature sequences are characterized by the presence of TOC values as high as 17.20% with an average of 2.98%. Kerogen is of Type II to Type III. Barbados oils are correlated to similar SR facies. 2) Upper Cretaceous Gutier Naparima Hill Fm. is identified as the marine SR’s that generated most of Trinidad oil. TOC values averaging 2.2%, and kerogen Type II to Type II/III, and is thermally immature to mature. 3) Also, in Trinidad, some oils indicate a marine SR with important terrestrial input (Type III/II), deposited under disoxic conditions, and possible Cenozoic age, as suggested by biomarkers. 4) The Orinoco Delta oil seeps indicate that existence of a marine SR deposited under highly anoxic conditions, characterized by a biogenic-rich lithology, which was apparently deposited at the base of the Cretaceous paleo-slope, in the Guiana Basin; 5) Cenomanian - Santonian sequences of the Canje Fm. deposited along the Guiana Basin and the Demerara Plateau. Lateral and vertical facies changes are typical in this sedimentary succession. The best hydrocarbon generative facies record slope environments with black shales with TOC’s ranging from 2% to 15% of kerogen Type II. Transitional facies within this sequence have fair TOC values between 1.0 and 2.68%, and kerogen Type III/II. Bio: Luis Miguel Bernardo, Petroleum Exploration Consultants Americas Luis earned a BS in Chemistry from the Universidad Central de Venezuela and a MSc in Geology from the University of Houston. With over 20 years of experience, he is Petroleum Geochemist Consultant at Petroleum Exploration Consultants Americas in Houston. He has previously worked at companies such as Repsol, YPF, Ecopetrol and PDVSA. Luis is a member of AAPG and Alago.
Author(s): Andrew Pepper (presenter), Lara Heister, This !s Petroleum Systems LLC; Chris Yarbrough, Belmont Technology Inc. Recent deep-water exploration success by ExxonMobil and partners in Guyana, and by Apache/Total in the adjacent area in Suriname, have revealed a major new petroleum province on the South American margin. We use public data sources together with knowledge from the conjugate African margin to piece together the key elements of the petroleum system. Bio: Andrew Pepper, This !s Petroleum Systems LLC This year Andy Pepper is celebrating 39 years of experience as a geologist and petroleum systems analyst: at BP as leader of the Petroleum Systems Network; at Hess as Chief Geologist and then Director of New Ventures; and at BHP as VP Geoscience and VP Unconventional Exploration. He founded This !s Petroleum Systems LLC in 2015 as a vehicle to collaborate and innovate in Petroleum Systems concepts, modeling and training.
Author(s): William Dickson (presenter), DIGs; Mark E. Odegard, GrizGeo LLC This session's talks are concerned with multiple petroleum systems which locate in deformed and deforming containers. The COGS (Columbus-Orinoco-Guyana-Suriname region) container is roughly 1000 km long by 325 km wide. We illustrate its architecture with imagery from a 2020 compilation of potential field, depth and thickness data. Including the Demerara Plateau, COGS sub-containers are in places rather vaguely defined in the literature and their histories require further research. We offer a backdrop for this session's presentations by sketching progress in understanding basin formation and evolution; interaction with filling histories and conclude with examples of the resulting plays. Bio: William Dickson, DIGs (Dickson Int'l Geosciences) William earned a bachelor’s degree from the University of Manitoba. He has more than 40 years of experience in the industry, working at majors and independents and, since 1998, at DIGs in Houston. He has worked frontier and producing basins around the Atlantic margins, EAME region, SE Asia & Canadian arctic and coordinated projects with subject matter experts across multiple disciplines. Peer-reviewed publications are primarily on petroleum systems analysis of Atlantic margin basins. Currently, as owner and VP Technology at DIGs, he is in charge of R&D, project coordination and fulfillment. William is a member of AAPG, EAGE, SEG, SPE and local societies in Houston, England, SE Asia & Australia.
Author(s): Xavier Moonan, Senior Geoscientist, Touchstone Exploration Hear Xavier Moonan go through a virtual traverse of Onshore Southern Basin, Trinidad along SBC 2D seismic line TD91-177. The virtual field trip took place on 17 September 2020, as a part of the Southeast Caribbean and Guiana Basins Virtual Research Symposium. Bio: Xavier Moonan, Touchstone Exploration Xavier Moonan is a Senior Geoscientist at Touchstone Exploration in Trinidad & Tobago. He has an MSc. in Structural Geology with Geophysics at the University of Leeds, UK, and was awarded a ‘Top Ten Presentation’ by AAPG for his poster presentation on the Penal Barrackpore Anticline at AAPG ICE Conference in Milan, 2011. He served as the Convener for the 20th Caribbean Geological Conference Trinidad 2015, as Programme Committee Trinidad Representative for AAPG ICE Cartagena, 2013, and as General Co-Chair for AAPG GTW Trinidad 2014, GTW Guyana 2017 and GTW Suriname 2019. Xavier is Vice President of the AAPG Latin America & Caribbean Region. He is a member of the Geological Society of Trinidad & Tobago, the Houston Geological Society and the Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Moderator: Brian W. Horn, Cairn Oil and Gas Participants: James Pindell, Tectonic Analysis Ltd.; Tricia Alvarez, Heritage Petroleum Limited; Ivano Genaro, University of Toronto; Paul Mann, University of Houston; Xavier Moonan, Touchstone Exploration; Bryan Moore, University of Houston Convener Brian W. Horn moderates a discussion with presenters, who answer questions and share final thoughts to conclude Session I, Tectonic Setting, at the Southeast Caribbean & Guiana Basins Virtual Research Symposium. Bios: Convener: Brian W. Horn, Cairn Oil and Gas Brian earned his BA and MSc in Geology from the University of Colorado, and a PhD in Geology and Geological Engineering from the Colorado School of Mines. During his 27 years of experience in the industry, he has worked in companies as Amoco, BP, Maersk and ION E&P Advisors. He currently is Senior Geological Advisor at Cairn Oil and Gas in Houston, where he is responsible for technical assurance, reservoir characterization and stratigraphic analysis. Brian is a member of AAPG, Houston Geological Society, PESGB, and Geological Society London. James Pindell, Tectonic Analysis Jim earned a BSc from the Colgate University, a MSc from the State University of New York at Albany, and a PhD from the Durham University UK. With 35 years of experience, he is currently the director at Tectonic Analysis Ltd. In Duncton, West Sussex, U.K., where he is on charge of leading research programs. He previously worked for 10 years interpreting basement structure for ION Geophysical (2010-2020). Jim’s professional memberships includes AAPG, GSA, AGU, GSL, and GCASGS. Tricia Alvarez, Heritage Petroleum Company Limited Tricia earned a BSc from the University of the West Indies, and a MS and a PhD both from the University of Texas at Austin. With more than 10 years of experience in the industry, she is Geoscience Lead at Heritage Petroleum Company Limited in Santa Flora, Trinidad and Tobago, where she is responsible for providing geoscience expertise in finding exploration and development opportunities with responsibilities for framing and executing geoscience evaluations; developing exploration and development programs; and maintaining portfolio of ranked prospects and drilling opportunities. She has previously worked as Assistant Professor at The University of Trinidad and Tobago with responsibilities of developing, updating and delivering geoscience curriculum for Petroleum Engineering programs; geoscience research and collaborative studies in Trinidad area basins and petroleum systems; supervising student research and projects. Previously Geologist at BG Trinidad and Tobago Ltd with responsibilities for geologic evaluation including play and prospect analysis, and stratigraphic and depositional systems evaluation within Trinidad and Tobago’s offshore basins. Tricia is a member of AAPG, GSTT, Society for Sedimentary Geology. Ivano Gennaro, University of Toronto Ivano earned a BSc from the University of Toronto, and is currently a MSc candidate at the same university. Paul Mann, University of Houston Paul earned a BSc from the Oberlin College and a PhD from the State University of New York at Albany, both degrees in Geology. He currently is Professor of Geology at the Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Houston, where he teaches, researches and supervises grad and undergrad students, and service to the EAS Dept. and other groups. He has also operated an oil industry-funded research group since 2005. Paul is a member of AAPG, GSA, AGU, SEG and HGS. Xavier Moonan, Touchstone Exploration Xavier Moonan is a Senior Geoscientist at Touchstone Exploration in Trinidad & Tobago. He has an MSc. in Structural Geology with Geophysics at the University of Leeds, UK, and was awarded a ‘Top Ten Presentation’ by AAPG for his poster presentation on the Penal Barrackpore Anticline at AAPG ICE Conference in Milan, 2011. He served as the Convener for the 20th Caribbean Geological Conference Trinidad 2015, as Programme Committee Trinidad Representative for AAPG ICE Cartagena, 2013, and as General Co-Chair for AAPG GTW Trinidad 2014, GTW Guyana 2017 and GTW Suriname 2019. Xavier is Vice President of the AAPG Latin America & Caribbean Region. He is a member of the Geological Society of Trinidad & Tobago, the Houston Geological Society and the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Bryan Moore, University of Houston Bryan is currently is a MSc candidate at the University of Houston. He currently is graduate research assistant, and is a member of AAPG Wildcatters at the same university.
Author(s): Bryan Moore (presenter), Paul Mann, University of Houston Variation in the critical taper of an accretionary prism is a function of the wedge properties, pore fluid pressure, slab dip, strength of the fault, incoming sediment thickness, and bathymetric highs. This study focusses on changes on the critical taper of the Barbados accretionary prism, the world’s largest submarine prism, in response to the oblique subduction of three, elongate, basement highs formed along Central Atlantic, oceanic fracture zones: the Tiburon Rise, the Barracuda Ridge, and the St. Lucie Rise. We map the effects of the subducting basement highs on the critical taper as defined by the acute angle created by the bathymetric slope of the prism (measured from GEBCO 2020 data) and the dip angle of the base of the prism (measured from a grid of seismic reflection data to a depth of 20 km from the sea surface as well as Slab2 subduction zone geometry models). The resulting wedge taper measurements were taken at a spacing of 200 km over a distance of 1200 km along subduction trace to reveal the effects of bathymetric highs on wedge taper angles that include: 1) closer spaced and imbricated thrust faults and associated folds along the deformation front that internally deform the prism (critical wedge angle from 1°-1.5°); 2) damming of the sediment supply along the southward slopes of the fracture zone ridges produce abrupt increases frontal accretion that in turn increases the wedge taper over short distances (critical wedge angle from 1°-0°). The constant, sweeping migration of multiple oceanic fracture ridges along the Barbados deformation front means that the prism rarely, if ever, attains a critical state of equilibrium. Bio: Bryan Moore, University of Houston Bryan is currently is a MSc candidate at the University of Houston. He currently is graduate research assistant, and is a member of AAPG Wildcatters at the same university.
Author(s): Xavier Moonan (presenter), Connie McLaren, Lynn Anderson, Touchstone Exploration Touchstone Exploration is the operator of the 184 sq km Ortoire Block onshore south eastern Trinidad. Structurally the block covers the open east facing Ortoire Syncline which entails Late Miocene Lower Cruse to Pleistocene Mayaro Fm deltaic fill. These passive fordeep infill deposits sit conformably onto a south easterly verging Early to Middle Miocene fold belt. As such throughout the breadth of the Ortoire Block there are numerous tear fault dissected WSW to ENE trending anticlines. These anticlines were the result of the oblique collision between the northern margin of the South American plate with the leading edge of the Caribbean Plate culminating in the Middle Miocene. Historical exploration within the area by United British Oilfields of Trinidad (UBOT) and Shell, had been focussed on Middle Miocene Herrera amalgamated channelised slope to base of slope deepwater turbidites of the Cipero Formation and Late Miocene Lower Cruse base of slope sheet like turbidite fans. Considered shallow water deposits at the time, the results of many of those wells were considered disappointing or uncommercial. Mapping on various 3D seismic surveys and numerous 2D seismic lines, integrated with surface geology, regional well data and fold and thrust belt models have revealed numerous Middle Miocene Herrera plays within the block. From north to south, Touchstone Exploration has identified an eastern extension of the prolific Penal Barrackpore oilfield in the Cascadura area, a subthrust north verging anticline at Coho, a south easterly verging subthrust anticline at Royston and an eastern extension of the Carapal Ridge north verging subthrust anticline in the Chinook area. Two of these structures, Coho and Cascadura have been successfully explored todate by Touchstone Exploration. At COHO-1 and CAS-1 ST1, extended tests have been completed and commercial discovery notifications have been submitted to the Ministry of Energy and Energy Industries. Touchstone has spud its 3rd exploration well, Chinook-1 in August 2020 and will then drill CAS Deep-1 to test further thrust sheets in the Cascadura area. Bio: Xavier Moonan, Touchstone Exploration Xavier Moonan is a Senior Geoscientist at Touchstone Exploration in Trinidad & Tobago. He has an MSc. in Structural Geology with Geophysics at the University of Leeds, UK, and was awarded a ‘Top Ten Presentation’ by AAPG for his poster presentation on the Penal Barrackpore Anticline at AAPG ICE Conference in Milan, 2011. He served as the Convener for the 20th Caribbean Geological Conference Trinidad 2015, as Programme Committee Trinidad Representative for AAPG ICE Cartagena, 2013, and as General Co-Chair for AAPG GTW Trinidad 2014, GTW Guyana 2017 and GTW Suriname 2019. Xavier is Vice President of the AAPG Latin America & Caribbean Region. He is a member of the Geological Society of Trinidad & Tobago, the Houston Geological Society and the Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Author(s): Paul Mann (presenter), J.C. Hippolyte, University of Houston Kinematic analysis of faults in Trinidad reveals three main stages of the tectonic evolution of the southeastern Caribbean–South American plate boundary. During Stage 1, folding and thrusting occurred and are truncated by a Middle Miocene unconformity. This shortening event has been related by previous workers to the initial, oblique collision of the Great Arc of the Caribbean with the passive margin of South America. We propose that Stage 1 Middle Miocene east-northeast-trending compression documented in this study initially had a more northwest–southeast direction and has been rotated in a clockwise direction during this collision. This tectonic stage resulted in clockwise rotation of structures along the southeastern Caribbean plate margin within a broad, right-lateral, strike-slip zone. During Stage 2 in the late Miocene and middle Pliocene, south-southeast-trending shortening uplifted the Central Range, formed prominent north-dipping thrusts that are bounded by oblique ramps such as the LosBajos right-lateral strike-slip fault, and formed piggy-back basins. This north-northwest–south-southeast trend of compression is compatible with coeval right-lateral shear on the El Pilar fault zone in Trinidad. We interpret this pattern of coeval and strike-slip faults of Stage 2 as the result of strain partitioning. In Stage 3 during the late Pliocene–Quaternary, east-southeast-trending compression reactivated previous thrusts as right-lateral, strike-slip faults, such as the Central Range fault. East-southeast-trending compression deactivated previous, east–west-trending, strike-slip faults such as the eastward extension of the El Pilar fault zone into Trinidad. The polyphase tectonic evolution of Trinidad occurs in the regional context of the eastward motion of the Caribbean plate with propagation of the southern Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator (STEP) fault. Bio: Paul Mann, University of Houston Paul earned a BSc from the Oberlin College and a PhD from the State University of New York at Albany, both degrees in Geology. He currently is Professor of Geology at the Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Houston, where he teaches, researches and supervises grad and undergrad students, and service to the EAS Dept. and other groups. He has also operated an oil industry-funded research group since 2005. Paul is a member of AAPG, GSA, AGU, SEG and HGS.
Author(s): Ivano Gennaro (presenter), Xu Chu, University of Toronto; John Weber, Grand Valley State University; Alberto Vitale Brovarone, Università degli studi di Torino and Institut de Minéralogie, des Physique de Matériaux et de Cosmochimie; Jeannette Arkle, Augustana College Organic carbon undergoes a transformation from amorphous carbon to crystalline graphite with increasing metamorphic temperature in the irreversible process of graphitization. Raman spectroscopy on carbonaceous material (RSCM) is a geothermometric technique which utilizes the crystallinity of carbonaceous material to determination the peak metamorphic temperature of a sample. In this study, we apply RSCM to the Northern Range of Trinidad, a mountain range composed of Jurassic-Cretaceous passive margin sediments metamorphosed in the Miocene. Previous attempts at characterizing the peak metamorphic conditions of the Northern Range have resolved a presumably continuous metamorphic gradient across the range, the continuity of which has implications on the tectonic evolution of the Northern Range and the southern Caribbean Plate boundary zone. Using RSCM, we determine the gradient to be discrete between the east (~340 °C) and the west (~450 °C), with the Chupara Fault in the central Northern Range accommodating the differential exhumation. By coupling our data with previously published and unpublished thermochronology data, we propose a two-step exhumation path. First, oblique collision between the Caribbean and South American plates caused uplift across the entire Northern Range following peak metamorphism at ~25 Ma. By ~12 Ma, the plate boundary became dominated by strike-slip tectonics, with a subduction transform edge propagator (STEP) fault inducing a wave of uplift and subsidence as it propagated along the boundary. Next, STEP faulting activated the Chupara Fault, which remained active from 12–4 Ma and accounts for the differential uplift seen across the Northern Range. Continued STEP propagation allowed for western subsidence and eastern uplift in modern times. Bio: Ivano Gennaro, University of Toronto Ivano earned a BSc from the University of Toronto, and is currently a MSc candidate at the same university.
Author(s): Tricia Alvarez, Heritage Petroleum Limited (presenter); Paul Mann, University of Houston; Lesli Wood, Colorado School of Mines The Trinidad region of the southeastern Caribbean presents a unique opportunity to observe phases of deformation which are responsible for complex and superimposed deformation structures along the northern South American margin. These deformational phases have developed progressively around the arcuate, eastward-advancing front of the Caribbean plate. The along-strike, plate boundary transition from subduction to strike-slip is documented by differences in the style and deformation in basins overlying South American basement. We interpret deep-penetration 2-D seismic reflection and well data to map tectono-stratigraphic sequences and constrain timing of basin structures. At the Lesser Antilles subduction margin, the ~300 km wide Barbados Accretionary Prism (BAP) is characterized by approximately parallel, forward-breaking thrusts overlain by semi-isolated piggyback basins. The BAP formed above ~5 km thick subducting Atlantic oceanic crust of Jurassic to Early Cretaceous age. In the oblique collisional and strike-slip zone onshore Trinidad, there is a <100 km wide zone of middle Miocene folding and thrusting cut by later strike-slip deformation. This complex fold-and-thrust-belt includes elevated, anticlinal ranges with intervening synclinal basinal areas. The transition from subduction at the eastern margin of the Caribbean plate, to strike-slip displacement along the southern margin of the Caribbean plate occurs over the northwest–southeast-oriented Galera tear fault zone (GTFZ). The GTFZ is a location of incipient lithospheric tearing—with overlying Neogene transtensional basins—aligned with the boundary between South American continental crust which experienced oblique-collision and translation, and orthogonally subducting South American (Atlantic) oceanic crust. Bio: Tricia Alvarez, Heritage Petroleum Company Limited Tricia earned a BSc from the University of the West Indies, and a MS and a PhD both from the University of Texas at Austin. With more than 10 years of experience in the industry, she is Geoscience Lead at Heritage Petroleum Company Limited in Santa Flora, Trinidad and Tobago, where she is responsible for providing geoscience expertise in finding exploration and development opportunities with responsibilities for framing and executing geoscience evaluations; developing exploration and development programs; and maintaining portfolio of ranked prospects and drilling opportunities. She has previously worked as Assistant Professor at The University of Trinidad and Tobago with responsibilities of developing, updating and delivering geoscience curriculum for Petroleum Engineering programs; geoscience research and collaborative studies in Trinidad area basins and petroleum systems; supervising student research and projects. Previously Geologist at BG Trinidad and Tobago Ltd with responsibilities for geologic evaluation including play and prospect analysis, and stratigraphic and depositional systems evaluation within Trinidad and Tobago’s offshore basins. Tricia is a member of AAPG, GSTT, Society for Sedimentary Geology.
Author(s): James Pindell, Tectonic Analysis Ltd. (presenter), Kyle Reuber, ION We review all the necessary tectonic reconstructions and evolutionary stages that have gone into the development of the Trinidad-Guianas margin since the Jurassic. This includes: the Equatorial Atlantic assembly between West Africa and north-eastern South America; the reconstruction of that conjoined margin with North America (Florida–Bahamas); the Proto-Caribbean closure of the Yucatán Block against Venezuela–northern Trinidad; the progressive breakup of the Gulf of Mexico and then the Proto-Caribbean Seaway; the separation history between Florida-Bahamas and the Guianas margin assuming two types of crust (continental vs igneous) beneath Great Bank, Bahamas; the opening of the Equatorial Atlantic; the possible inversion of northern South America in the Paleogene; and, finally, the arrival of the Caribbean Plate from the west. Specific issues addressed include: the igneous character of the basement of Demerara Rise–southern Guinea Plateau and the recent dredging of 173 Ma mafic rock (Basile et al. 2020) thereof; the likelihood that the continental crust of western Florida-Bahamas was stretched enough to maintain intra-continental contact with the conjugate Guianas margin through Middle Jurassic time; evidence for Paleogene inversion along northern South America and the possibility of two accretionary prisms in the Barbados Ridge; the Paleogene opening mechanism for the Grenada and Tobago basins within the Caribbean Plate; the middle Miocene oblique collision of the south-eastern Caribbean Plate with Eastern Venezuela and Trinidad; and the transition from dextral transpression to transtension in the SE Caribbean at 10 Ma. The regional framework provided by this assessment is general but identifies the pertinent issues and therefore provides a guide for refinement and more detailed work as data sets improve. Bio James Pindell, Tectonic Analysis Jim earned a BSc from the Colgate University, a MSc from the State University of New York at Albany, and a PhD from the Durham University UK. With 35 years of experience, he is currently the director at Tectonic Analysis Ltd. In Duncton, West Sussex, U.K., where he is on charge of leading research programs. He previously worked for 10 years interpreting basement structure for ION Geophysical (2010-2020). Jim’s professional memberships includes AAPG, GSA, AGU, GSL, and GCASGS.
Andean Basins Virtual Research Symposium

Andean Basins: Advancing the Geological Understanding of Fold-and-Thrust Belts of the Andes | Virtual Research Symposium held 23–24 July 2020. Video access included with symposium registration.

Moderator: Emily Smith Llinás, AAPG Latin America and Caribbean Region. Panelists: Ariel Ernesto Montaño, YPFB National Hydrocarbon Information Center, Bolivia; Federico Seminario, Pluspetrol, Peru; Alejandra Dalenz Farjat, GEOMAP, Argentina; Elvira Pureza Gómez, AAPG Latin America and Caribbean Region, Colombia Hear Ariel Ernesto Montaño, Federico Seminario, Alejandra Dalenz Farjat and Elvira Pureza Gómez debate about new horizons and the exploration potential in Andean basins. The panel took place on 21 August 2020, as a part of the Andean Basins Virtual Research Symposium.
Moderator: Sandra Arevalo, Teec Solutions. Participants: Rob Vestrum, Thrust Belt Imaging; Tomas Labrador Olarte, Emerson; Thomas Fieseler; TEEC Solutions; Evanz Lazaro, YPFB Chacho; Silvana Hidalgo, Escuela Politécnica Nacional Convener Sandra Arevalo moderates a discussion with presenters, who answer questions and share final thoughts to conclude Session IV, Geophysical Methods and Interpretations, at the Andean Basins Virtual Research Symposium. Discussion in English and Spanish. Bios: Rob Vestrum, Thrust Belt Imaging Rob earned a BSc from the University of Alberta, a MSc from the University of Calgary, and a PhD also from the University of Calgary. His 26 years of experience in the industry include working in companies as Shell (1994-1997), Kelman Seismic (1997-2000), Veritas (2000-2004) and TBI (2004-present), where he currently is Chief Geologist at Alberta, Canada, responsible for seismic imaging in complex-structure land areas from the Andes to the Zagros. Rob is a member of Association of Professional Geoscientists and Engineers of Alberta, SEG and EAGE. Tomas Labrador Olarte, Emerson Tomas graduated as Geological Engineer from the Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela. In his 18 years of experience in the industry, he has worked as Reservoir Geologist at PDVSA for 10.5 years, Petrel Technical Support at Schlumberger for 1.5 years, and Geomodeller at Emerson for 6 years. Currently, he is Geoscientist at Emerson to South America at Santa Cruz, Bolivia, where he is responsible for geomodelling technical support. Thomas Fieseler, TEECsolutions Thomas is a Geophysicist from the University of Muenster, Germany. With 10 years of experience, he currently works at TEECsolutions GmbH, Villahermosa, Mexico, as Senior Geophysicist, where he is Seismic Processing Team Leader. Thomas is a member of SEG, EAGE and AMGE. Evanz Lázaro, YPFB Chaco Silvana is a Physicist from the Universidad Mayor de San Andres (UMSA). In his 12 years of experience in the industry, he has worked at Petroandina S.A.M. as Exploration Geophysicist, at OSC-Observatorio San Calixto as Seismological Researcher and Seismic Analyst, and at the Observatorio Geomagnetico as consultant and analyst of terrestrial’s magnetics data. Currently, he is Exploration Geophysicist at YPFB Chaco, Santa Cruz, Bolivia, where he is responsible for the evaluation and analysis of magnetotelluric and seismic data for geological interpretation. Evanz is a member of the Bolivian Physical Society (SOBOFI), and Centro Latinoamericano de Física (CLAF). Silvana Hidalgo, Instituto Geofísico, Escuela Politécnica Nacional (Ecuador) Silvana is a Doctor with 20 years of experience. She currently is Director of the Instituto Geofísico, Escuela Politécnica Nacional at Pichincha, Ecuador, where she is responsible of monitoring volcanic fluids. Silvana is a member of IAVCEI and AGU.
Authors: Silvana Hidalgo (presenter), Daniel Sierra, Benjamin Bernard, Escuela Politécnica Nacional; Jean Battaglia, Pablo Samaniego, Université Clermont Auvergne; Santiago Arellano, Chalmers University of TechnologyRené Parra, Universidad San Francisco de Quito; Peter Kelly, U.S. Geological Survey; Florian Dinger, Max-Planck Institut for Chemistry, University of Heidelberg; Charlotte Barrington, Nanyang Technological University Characterization of volcanic unrests and eruptions through continuous geophysical and geochemical monitoring is critical in order to have a better understanding of sub-volcanic systems and to allow accurate threat assessment. We analyzed the seismic signals and SO2 emissions of Cotopaxi volcano between April and November 2015 to better understand the link between seismicity and outgassing. Transient events detected include Volcano-Tectonic (VT), Long-Period (LP) events and Explosion Quakes, but also Ice Quakes (IQ) with various spectral signatures related to the glacier covering the volcano summit. To identify the different types of recorded events, we looked for families of repeating events. We found 4 characteristic types of temporal evolutions during the unrest and eruptive activity. An increase in SO2 emissions was detected by scanning DOAS few weeks after the onset of seismic unrest. SO2 emissions, up to 5000 t/d, and seismic tremor were observed until August 13 when a swarm of volcano-tectonic earthquakes preceded the first hydromagmatic explosions, on August 14. BrO was also detected in the plume during the unrest but exhibited a significant increase since the onset of ash emissions. Airborne in-situ Multi-GAS measurements of CO2, SO2, and H2S revealed that the plume had a low CO2/SO2 molar ratio around 2.5 and that SO2 was the most abundant S-containing gas. Solar-FTIR measurements of the plume detected a SO2/HCl molar ratio of 5.8 ± 4.8 and 6.6 ± 3.0, before and after the explosions, respectively. All these geochemical signals suggest a shallow magmatic source of the emitted gases. Glass chemistry of the emitted ashes indicates a homogenous juvenile magma having suffered an intense S-exsolution and degassing. Since November 2015 all monitored parameters have shown a significant decrease. During Cotopaxi’s unrest and eruption, multi-parameter monitoring has proved to nicely track the sub-surface processes and helped the choice of eruption scenario. Bio: Silvana Hidalgo, Instituto Geofísico, Escuela Politécnica Nacional (Ecuador) Silvana is a Doctor with 20 years of experience. She currently is Director of the Instituto Geofísico, Escuela Politécnica Nacional at Pichincha, Ecuador, where she is responsible of monitoring volcanic fluids. Silvana is a member of IAVCEI and AGU.
Authors: Evanz Lazaro (presenter), YPFB Chaco S.A; Kim Bejarano, Universite Toulouse III Paul Sabatier There is more information in the seismic data than just Amplitude. A technique to extract more information is multiresolution analysis. In this research, the Multiresolution Analysis (AMR) technique is applied in the domain wave number- space to 3D seismic data in the central Bolivian sub-Andean zone. Geologically the research is focused on deep studies around 4200 m (TVD), on the Robore sands (ArRob I, II and III) at levels of the Lower Devonian. The results, called k-anomalies, show an interesting relationship between long wavelengths and hydrocarbon reservoirs. Bio: Evanz Lázaro, YPFB Chaco Evanz is a Physicist from the Universidad Mayor de San Andres (UMSA). In his 12 years of experience in the industry, he has worked at Petroandina S.A.M. as Exploration Geophysicist, at OSC-Observatorio San Calixto as Seismological Researcher and Seismic Analyst, and at the Observatorio Geomagnetico as consultant and analyst of terrestrial’s magnetics data. Currently, he is Exploration Geophysicist at YPFB Chaco, Santa Cruz, Bolivia, where he is responsible for the evaluation and analysis of magnetotelluric and seismic data for geological interpretation. Evanz is a member of the Bolivian Physical Society (SOBOFI), and Centro Latinoamericano de Física (CLAF).
Authors: Jose Nicanor Mendez (presenter), Johanny Chacon, Hugo Govea, China University of Petroleum Several thrust fronts along hundreds of kms of the northwestern flank in Venezuelan Andes, still represent interesting plays for hydrocarbon exploration. These southeastward-dipping thrusts formed after the Paleocene-Eocene foreland basin subsidence following the oblique collision of Caribbean plate with the South American passive margin, contain extensive correlatives Cretaceous units essentially to the southwest, between the limits of Venezuela and Colombia. So far, only one well has drilled a thrust nappe in this area, discovering the region’s gas potential (around 8 MMcf). The main reservoir is lithologically composed of tight calcareous sandstones and shales from the Aptian Aguardiente Formation. These rock packages are stacking in progradational parasequence sets related to an extensive shoreface that cropped out along Cretaceous carbonate platform during the passive margin deposition. Despite its potential, this area has been abandoned for almost 30 years after its discovery. In order to mature this area, we have integrated around 150 km of 2D seismic data, 3 wells, and outcropping sections to provide an improved structural interpretation and stratigraphic of the flank within an assigned area. In which an updated geological model is obtained, to guide tectonic interpretations and exploration programs in the region. In addition, these hydrocarbon plays formed by compressive tectonic are similar to those visualized in the deep Pirital thrust, eastern Venezuela, which are also significant oil and gas reservoirs Bio: Jose Nicanor Mendez, China University of Petroleum Jose Nicanor is a Doctor with 13 years of experience in the industry. He recently concluded his PhD in China University of Petroleum (East China), where he characterized a fractured and karsted carbonate reservoir from the Sinopec company. He has previous work experience in South American with Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), and currently is Independent Consultant at Qingdao, Shandong Province, China. Jose is a member of SPE.
Author: Thomas Fieseler (presenter), Sandra Arevalo, TEEC Solutions Seismic exploration in South American Pre-Andean rift basins proves to be a very complex task due to rough topography, complex subsurface geology and often fast or highly variable near surface velocity. Furthermore, surface conditions often do not allow for a seismic acquisition design that fits the needs for the complex subsurface imaging challenges. As a consequence, seismic processing strategies that work in simpler settings do not lead to satisfactory results: many datasets were reprocessed several times without much improvement suggesting that there is no more information in the acquired data. This assumption is often not true. Only the processing strategy needs to be adapted to the challenges arising from topography and subsurface geology. Experience shows there are several key steps to a successful imaging in such settings: 1. Near surface velocity model and tomo statics, 2. Surface wave suppression, 3. Increase in signal-to-noise ratio, 4. Stacking/migration velocities & residual statics, 5. Data regularization, 6. Interval velocity model & Reverse Time Migration. Bio: Thomas Fieseler, TEECsolutions Thomas is a Geophysicist from the University of Muenster, Germany. With 10 years of experience, he currently works at TEECsolutions GmbH, Villahermosa, Mexico, as Senior Geophysicist, where he is Seismic Processing Team Leader. Thomas is a member of SEG, EAGE and AMGE.
Author: Tomas Labrador Olarte, Emerson In structurally complex geological zones such as the Bolivian Sub-Andean areas, the scarcity of reliable seismic data, of good quality and resolution, has enough wells to carry out calibration of data, a high uncertainty associated, and constant reprocessing of the data to improve seismic images. These difficulties, as well as the high costs to acquiring information, has permitted create of a specific workflow applied to geological interpretations from the available 2D seismic lines that are essential resource for geological interpretation in structurally complex areas. Together with these low-resolution seismic data, extrapolate the information captured and interpreted from some wells, measurements taken on outcrops and surface geology data, as well as the use of theoretical models of deposition and tectonic deformation, represent the most of the inputs data that geoscientists have to use to carry out two-dimensional geological interpretations in areas as a Bolivian sub-Andean. From there, the generation and restoration of 2D balanced cross-sections, which will become the starting point to understand and predict where it is likely that the oil system has generated commercial accumulations of hydrocarbons. As with the electrical log information from wells that is only provide us information about few centimeters around a hole, it is possible to maximize 2D geological interpretations to infer that around of these, the data could be extrapolated to obtain a greater benefit when carrying out a local analysis. The result of this two-dimensional interpretations will be curves or lines that represent the magnitude, direction and dips of the geological faults, as well as the horizons lines that represent the top of a geological formation or a member of it, a specific geological facies, an operational target, or in some cases a geo body. Whatever case (horizons and faults), the result is lines made up of X, Y and Z coordinate points, which generally must be densified in order to obtain a greater number of control nodes, to be later extrapolated to the adjacencies generating information in different directions; This means that we will have a volume of data that will facilitate the construction of a three-dimensional geological model, as well as a geological grid that represents the main tool for populating discrete and continuous data. Bio: Tomas Labrador Olarte, Emerson Tomas graduated as Geological Engineer from the Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela. In his 18 years of experience in the industry, he has worked as Reservoir Geologist at PDVSA for 10.5 years, Petrel Technical Support at Schlumberger for 1.5 years, and Geomodeller at Emerson for 6 years. Currently, he is Geoscientist at Emerson to South America at Santa Cruz, Bolivia, where he is responsible for geomodelling technical support.
Author: Rob Vestrum, Thrust Belt Imaging In the complex-structure land areas of Andean basins, low data density and high structural complexity cause traditional seismic-imaging technologies to break down. The structural complexity results in wave-propagation complexity that makes it difficult to resolve the imaging of subsurface structures. Armed with an understanding of the local geology and in collaboration diverse geoscientists, we do our best to correct for the effects of near-surface geologic complexity to reduce exploration risk of subsurface targets. Whether we wear glasses or if we use a hand lens to see details of a rock sample, we see refraction effects in our daily lives. In subsurface imaging, the near-surface geology is the lens through which we see subsurface structures on our seismic images. The bending of rays—either light rays or seismic rays—is caused by velocity variation, so understanding rock velocities is key to seismic imaging. We get velocity information from the redundancy of the seismic experiment and our understanding of the local geology. We work to enter a postive-feedback loop between geology and geophysics. We can use our geologic understanding to build a velocity model that produces a reasonable seismic image. Our first attempt at using our geologic model to optimize the seismic image usually fails—after all, if we already knew the subsurface velocity structure perfectly, we would not need seismic data. We can use the seismic diagnostics to refine the velocity model. With each iteration, as more geologic features come into focus, the structural geologists can then refine the velocity model, resulting in further imaging improvements. Collaboration between structural geologist and imaging geophysicst can significantly improve the imaging of sub-Andean structures. Bio: Rob Vestrum, Thrust Belt Imaging Rob earned a BSc from the University of Alberta, a MSc from the University of Calgary, and a PhD also from the University of Calgary. His 26 years of experience in the industry include working in companies as Shell (1994-1997), Kelman Seismic (1997-2000), Veritas (2000-2004) and TBI (2004-present), where he currently is Chief Geologist at Alberta, Canada, responsible for seismic imaging in complex-structure land areas from the Andes to the Zagros. Rob is a member of Association of Professional Geoscientists and Engineers of Alberta, SEG and EAGE.
Authors: Germán Bayona, Mauricio Baquero, ARES; Claudia Ruiz-Graham, IMAGED REALITY Ltd. A virtual field trip documenting new outcrops in the Western foothills of Colombia as key analogues to Andean stratigraphy recorded using drone technology. Bio: Germán Bayona, Corporación Geológica ARES Germán earned a BSc in Geology from the Universidad Nacional de Colombia (1992), a MSc from New Mexico State University (1999) and a PhD from the University of Kentucky (2003). With more than 25 years of experience, he has always been an independent researcher and a geologist enjoying life. He currently works as researcher at the Corporación Geológica ARES, and as a consultant at Geocuencas S.A.S. Germán is a member of AAPG, ACGGP, ACCEFyN, SCG and SEPM.
Moderator: Daniel Peña, Repsol. Participants: Antonio Martin-Monge, Repsol; Chris Cornelius, CanCambria Energy Corporation; Andrés Pastor-Chacón, Servicio Geológico Colombiano; Fernando Alegria, Shell Bolivia Corporation; Germán Bayona, Corporación Geológica ARES; Juan I. Hernández, LA.TE.ANDES; Paul Mann, University of Houston Convener Daniel Peña moderates a discussion with session presenters, who answer questions and share final thoughts to conclude Session III: Basin Analysis and Petroleum Systems, at the Andean Basins Virtual Research Symposium. Bios: Antonio Martin-Monge, Repsol Antonio earned a BSc in Geology and a MRes/DEA in Isotope Geochemistry, both from the Universidad de Salamanca, Spain. He has 15 years of professional experience, 12 of them in the petroleum industry. During his career, he has worked as laboratory technician at the Servicio General de Análisis de Isótopos Estables (SGAIE) of the Universidad de Salamanca in Salamanca (Spain) and at the Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC) in East Kilbride (UK). Currently, he is Petroleum Systems Analyst at Repsol Exploración, SA in Madrid, Spain, where he is working in the central subsurface function to provide specialized technical support in petroleum systems modelling and organic geochemistry to units across the E&P division. Antonio is a member of the AAPG, European Association of Organic Geochemists (EAOG), The Geological Society of London. Chris Cornelius Chris earned a BSc from the Manchester University and a PhD from the Aston University, both in Geology. With 30 years of experience in the industry, Chis has been Founder & CEO at Cuadrilla Resources, Technical Director Upstream at AGL Energy, Techncial Director at Evergreen Resources and Engineering Manager at NOWSCO Well Services Inc. Currently, he is CEO & President at CanCambria Energy Corp. at Vancouver, Canada, where he leads a team of industry professionals pursuing frontier unconventional resource plays in various parts of the world. Chris is a member of AAPG, SPE and Fellow Geological Society of London. Andres Pastor-Chacón, Servicio Geológico Colombiano Andres earned a MSc in Geology from the Universidad Nacional de Colombia. With 7 years of experience in the industry, he works as geologist at the Hydrocarbon Department of the Colombian Geological Survey (SGC) in Bogotá. Before SGC he worked for four years as as Junior Geologist in Interoil Colombia E&P, an E&P company with assets in the Middle Magdalena and Llanos Orientales basins. Andres is a member of AAPG and ACGGP. Fernando Alegria, Shell Bolivia Corporation Fernando earned a BSc in Geology from the Universidad Mayor de San Andres, La Paz, Bolivia. His 30 years of experience in the industry include 7 years at YPFB, 13 years at Empresa Petrolera Chaco, 6 years in BG and 4 years in Shell, where he currently is Principal Geologist at Santa Cruz, Bolivia, responsible for prospect maturation and exploration growth. He is a member of the Bolivian Geologist Association and Santa Cruz Geologist Association. Germán Bayona, Corporación Geológica ARES Germán earned a BSc in Geology from the Universidad Nacional de Colombia (1992), a MSc from New Mexico State University (1999) and a PhD from the University of Kentucky (2003). With more than 25 years of experience, he has always been an independent researcher and a geologist enjoying life. He currently works as researcher at the Corporación Geológica ARES, and as a consultant at Geocuencas S.A.S. Germán is a member of AAPG, ACGGP, ACCEFyN, SCG and SEPM. Juan Ignacio Hernández, LA.TE ANDES S.A., GEOMAP S.A. Juan earned a BSc in Geology from the Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina, and is a PhD candidate at Universidad Nacional de Buenos Aires, Argentina. He has 11 years of experience as geologist in structural and stratigraphy projects for oil and gas industry in the Central Andes (Sub-Andean System) for different companies in Bolivia and Argentina (2009-2020). Currently, he is Director and Exploration Geologist at LA.TE ANDES S.A. and GEOMAP S.A., where is responsible for structural and stratigraphic analysis, mapping, thermocrhonological analysis, numerical modeling of apatite-zircon fission-track data and (U-Th-Sm)/He data applied to Time-Temperature evolution (subsidence and structural growing time of fault-related-folds in the Sub-Andean fold-an-thrust-belt). Juan is a member of AAPG, AAGGP and AAS (Asociación Argentina de Sedimentología). Paul Mann, University of Houston Paul earned a BSc from the Oberlin College and a PhD from the State University of New York at Albany, both degrees in Geology. He currently is Professor of Geology at the Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Houston, where he teaches, researches and supervises grad and undergrad students, and service to the EAS Dept. and other groups. He has also operated an oil industry-funded research group since 2005. Paul is a member of AAPG, GSA, AGU, SEG and HGS.
Authors: Paul Mann (presenter), University of Houston; Luis Fernando Pachon-Parra, University of Houston, GEMS, Ltd. (Colombia); Nestor Cardozo, University of Stavanger The Putumayo foreland basin (PFB) is a hydrocarbon-bearing basin located in southernmost Colombia and forms a 250-km long segment of the 7000-km-long corridor of Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic foreland basins formed by the eastward thrusting of the Andean mountain chain over Precambrian rocks of the South American craton. We summarize the tectonic and hydrocarbon characteristics of the Putumayo foreland basin with its larger and deeper cousin to the north, the Llanos foreland basin. For the Putumayo, we use 4000 km of 2D seismic data tied to 28 exploratory wells to describe the basin-wide structure and stratigraphy of this promising hydrocarbon basin. Based on seismic interpretation and comparison with published works from the southward continuation of the PFB into Peru and Ecuador, three main across-strike, structural zones include: The 20-km-wide, Western structural zone closest to the thrust front of the Colombian Andes that is characterized by inversion of older, Jurassic half-grabens during the late Miocene; The 45-km-wide, Central structural zone characterized by moderately-inverted Jurassic half-grabens; The 120-km-wide, Eastern structural zone characterized by the 90-km-wide, N-S trending Caquetá arch. Structural traps for hydrocarbons are more common in the Western and Central zones while stratigraphic traps are more frequent in the Eastern structural zone. The five mainly clastic tectonosequences of the PFB include: The Lower Cretaceous pre-foreland basin deposits; The Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene foreland basin deposits; The Eocene foreland basin deposits related to the early uplift of the Eastern Cordillera; The Oligocene-Miocene underfilled, foreland basin deposits; The Plio-Pleistocene overfilled, foreland basin deposits. Bio: Paul Mann, University of Houston Paul earned a BSc from the Oberlin College and a PhD from the State University of New York at Albany, both degrees in Geology. He currently is Professor of Geology at the Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Houston, where he teaches, researches and supervises grad and undergrad students, and service to the EAS Dept. and other groups. He has also operated an oil industry-funded research group since 2005. Paul is a member of AAPG, GSA, AGU, SEG and HGS.
Authors: Juan I. Hernández (presenter), Ernesto Cristallini, Francisco Sánchez, Daniel Balciunas, Andrés Mora, Richard Ketcham, Joaquín Nigro, Roberto Hernández, LA.TE.ANDES The evolution of fold and thrust belts requires time data restrictions to determine the rates related to the interaction of surface and deformation processes and to quantify the time relationship between the components of the petroleum system: reservoir, seal, source rock and trap. The sub-Andean fold-and-thrust belt in the Bolivian territory in general, and the Borebigua structure in particular, constitutes a complex multi-variable system in which the definition of time-Temperature (t-T) trajectories has led to new suitable structural conclusions.The Time-Temperature (TiTe) tools within specific software allows performing finite element thermal modeling applied to structural analysis and kinematic modeling, giving place to the possibility of working on both the structural and the thermochronological model at the same time. The thermochronological workflow is divided into four processes: 1. Definition of the thermochronological computing grid, 2. Interpolation process, where the structural reconstruction is interpolated in any number of regular time steps, 3. Filling of thermal properties (thermal conductivity, heat capacity and density) and velocities for all grid cells, and 4. Computing of the thermal state at each time in the reconstruction. Isotherms can be plotted, and synthetic samples can be defined to check the feasibility of a structural model and to predict time-Temperature variations at particular locations. In this sense, the software code permitted the development of the thermo-kinematic modeling in the Borebigua structure in the southern sub-Andean system in Bolivia, resulting in modeled ages and time-Temperature paths successfully matching the measured thermochronological data in the study area. Bio: Juan Ignacio Hernández, LA.TE ANDES S.A., GEOMAP S.A. Juan earned a BSc in Geology from the Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina, and is a PhD candidate at Universidad Nacional de Buenos Aires, Argentina. He has 11 years of experience as geologist in structural and stratigraphy projects for oil and gas industry in the Central Andes (Sub-Andean System) for different companies in Bolivia and Argentina (2009-2020). Currently, he is Director and Exploration Geologist at LA.TE ANDES S.A. and GEOMAP S.A., where is responsible for structural and stratigraphic analysis, mapping, thermocrhonological analysis, numerical modeling of apatite-zircon fission-track data and (U-Th-Sm)/He data applied to Time-Temperature evolution (subsidence and structural growing time of fault-related-folds in the Sub-Andean fold-an-thrust-belt). Juan is a member of AAPG, AAGGP and AAS (Asociación Argentina de Sedimentología).
Authors: Germán Bayona (presenter), Corporación Geológica ARES; Camilo Montes, Universidad del Norte; Agustín Cardona, Universidad Nacional de Colombia-Medellín; Carlos Jaramillo, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute Paleocene sandstones in Colombian basins are important reservoir units but their expected lateral continuity can greatly change depending on the type of basin the sandstones accumulated on. An often-used model considers a continuous foreland basin that extends from the Central Cordillera to the Llanos basin. In this model, continental sandy reservoirs supplied from the distal foreland basin connect laterally with marginal, tidally influenced sandy units of the proximal basin, forming a continuous sandy unit from the Llanos foothills to the Magdalena basin. This basin configuration, similar to the Paleocene tectonic setting in the Central Andes, also condisers that tectonic loading erosion and basin filling caused the eastward migration of the depocenter with no deformation. A second model considers that orogenic accretion and the onset of east-dipping subduction in early Paleocene time caused (1) the clockwise tilt of an active magmatic arc (Central Cordillera- Santa marta massif), and (2) the reactivation of former Cretaceous extensional faults. Three basins, rather than a single one, formed with different tectonic subsidence mechanisms, sedimentary filling processes and provenance. Therefore, deposition of lower Paleocene sandstones occurred within closed basins bounded by faulted blocks of different composition. In late Paleocene, shallowing of the subduction slab produced the eastward migration of magmatism and deformation as far as the proximal Llanos basin. In earliest Eocene, dynamic topography (long wavelength) subsidence governed tectonic subsidence causing the regional accumulation and preservation of mud-rich deposits as paleosols, which are the stratigraphic seal of the reservoirs, and the onset of accumulation in the Llanos basin. Bio: Germán Bayona, Corporación Geológica ARES Germán earned a BSc in Geology from the Universidad Nacional de Colombia (1992), a MSc from New Mexico State University (1999) and a PhD from the University of Kentucky (2003). With more than 25 years of experience, he has always been an independent researcher and a geologist enjoying life. He currently works as researcher at the Corporación Geológica ARES, and as a consultant at Geocuencas S.A.S. Germán is a member of AAPG, ACGGP, ACCEFyN, SCG and SEPM.
Author: Fernando Alegria, Shell Bolivia Corporation By analysing the hydrocarbon column height plots of the different gas/oil fields it is possible two distinguish two cluster of fields: the first one is related to small gas/oil columns which comprises reservoirs ranging in ages from Upper Silurian to Miocene in relatively shallow depths. The second one involves reservoirs which exhibit world class hydrocarbon column heights, being the Lower Devonian Huamampampa reservoir the best example in fields such as San Alberto, Sabalo, Margarita and Incahuasi, where the Los Monos mudstones controls gas columns greater than 1000m. On the other hand, there are structures where the Huamampampa reservoir-Los Monos seal pair did not work properly. Therefore, the wells that evaluated those structures found not commercials hydrocarbon accumulations. Huayco and Iniguazu are examples of this failed traps, which are considered as blown traps. To explain these presence or absence of hydrocarbon accumulations, we have analysed the depth versus formation pressure plots with the objective of determine the role of the reservoir-seal pressure regimens in the drilled structural traps within the Tarija Basin-Bolivia. We interpret that the small gas columns are held by capillary seal, which exhibit normal pore pressure gradient, while the big gas columns are sustained by hydrodynamic seals, such as the overpressured Los Monos Formation in the multi TCF gas fields from the southern Subandean fold and thrust belt. Bio: Fernando Alegria, Shell Bolivia Corporation Fernando earned a BSc in Geology from the Universidad Mayor de San Andres, La Paz, Bolivia. His 30 years of experience in the industry include 7 years at YPFB, 13 years at Empresa Petrolera Chaco, 6 years in BG and 4 years in Shell, where he currently is Principal Geologist at Santa Cruz, Bolivia, responsible for prospect maturation and exploration growth. He is a member of the Bolivian Geologist Association and Santa Cruz Geologist Association.
Authors: Andrés Pastor-Chacón (presenter), Oscar Romero, Miled Niño, German Pardo, Alexandra Delgado, Cristian Benavides, Karen Rodriguez, John Ortiz, Fabricio Combita, Andrés Fuenzalida, Servicio Geológico Colombiano The reports of the Agencia Nacional de Hidrocarburos (ANH) on the prospective resources of gas in source rock plays (SRP) for the Tablazo Formation in the Middle Magdalena Valley (MMV) show values of at least 6.0 Tcf of gas. However, the identification of sweet spots in these plays require the integration of thermal maturity, TOC (%), clays composition, porosity, thickness, depth and free hydrocarbon saturation data. One of the aims of the Dirección de Hidrocarburos (DTH) of the Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC) is to generate public knowledge about the geological parameters for the characterization of proven Cretaceous units with source rock potential. Therefore, in this contribution, we compiled data from the Banco de Informacion Petrolera (BIP), together with new data obtained from outcrops. We present seismic interpretation, well correlations, facies analysis, fracture patterns analysis, geochemical and mineralogical crossplots and geochemical maps for the Paja-Tablazo formations. We propose three structural domains based in seismic interpretation of the northern part of the MMV basin: The Northern Domain (ND) includes SW-NE strike-slip faults related to the Central Cordillera (CC) and minor deformation of the Cretaceous units; The Central Domain (CD) includes NW-SE transpressive strike-slip faults related to tectonic inversion influenced by the Central and Eastern cordilleras uplift and the Southern Domain (SD) includes N-S thrust faults related to the Eastern Cordillera uplift, re-activation of pre-Eocene faults and fold of Cretaceous and Cenozoic units. The Cimitarra Fault System seems relevant in the history of the basin, separating blocks of Cretaceous units with different depths, thicknesses and facies. We divided the Paja-Tablazo in two intervals (six facies associations) separated by a regressive surface: The lower interval includes the Aptian maximum flooding surface (MFS), which has good to very good TOC values (2%-5% TOC), type II kerogens, and ≤0.8 % Ro values; The upper interval is described as a retrograding succession with good TOC values (2%-3% TOC), type II kerogens, and ≤0.8 % Ro values. However, these values are affected by thermal maturity, evidenced by a transformation ratio (TR) of 0.95 for the Paja-Tablazo Formations. We mathematically restored original Hydrogen Index (HI) and TOC values for the Paja-Tablazo Formations, obtaining HIo values of 220-250 mg HC/g TOC and TOCo values of 6.5-12.1 %TOC. Based on the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis we identified several strata of the Paja-Tablazo formations with brittle behavior, produced by the proportional higher concentrations of carbonates and quartz. Through the fracture patterns analysis, we established that the lower interval has a higher natural fracture density compared with the upper interval. We concluded that the Paja-Tablazo formations, particularly the lower interval, have a good to excellent generation potential, thermal maturity, facies, mechanical properties, depth and thickness. Thus, making the ND the most prospective area of the basin, followed by the CD and SD. Our results might prove useful to the identification of sweet spots and future exploration targets for the MMV source rock plays. Bio: Andres Pastor-Chacón, Servicio Geológico Colombiano Andres earned a MSc in Geology from the Universidad Nacional de Colombia. With 7 years of experience in the industry, he works as geologist at the Hydrocarbon Department of the Colombian Geological Survey (SGC) in Bogotá. Before SGC he worked for four years as Junior Geologist in Interoil Colombia E&P, an E&P company with assets in the Middle Magdalena and Llanos Orientales basins.
Authors: Chris Cornelius (presenter), Paul Clarke, Miguel Palma, Lech Powichrowski, Russell Sharp, Peter Turner, CanCambria Energy Corporation Bolivia faces an uncertain future as one of Latin America’s major natural gas producers due primarily to rapidly declining production from its large naturally fractured reservoirs in the Sub-Andean thrust belt. A position compounded by limited “conventional” exploration success over the past decade, a punitive tax regime, and precipitous drop in global energy prices. In order to help address potential reserve short-falls and support the country’s major export industry, a comprehensive study of Bolivia’s unconventional hydrocarbon potential was undertaken to help identify any unconventional resource that could be rapidly explored for, feasibly developed, and of sufficient scale to “move the needle” (multi-TCFE). Following regional screening and a comprehensive technical review of existing data sets, we identify an active tight gas/liquids rich petroleum system in thick (>2km) laterally continuous (> 100 km) over pressured (> 0.62 psi/ft) gently dipping (2°) “stacked” Siluro-Devonian siltstones and fine sandstones underlying the foreland basin of the southern Chaco plain, which we term the “ChaCo-Stack”. The scale of the play is comparable to many of the world’s largest continuous unconventional petroleum systems, and directly analogous to the super giant Montney resource play of western Canada. The presentation will highlight many aspects of the ChaCo-Stack, including structural and basinal setting, depositional models and sedimentology. The prospective in-situ resource will be discussed in the context of the region’s burial history, thermal regime, pore pressures, mud logs and direct hydrocarbon indicators, log analysis, mineralogy and XRD, poro-perm and MCIP, VR and TOC. Bio: Chris Cornelius Chris earned a BSc from the Manchester University and a PhD from the Aston University, both in Geology. With 30 years of experience in the industry, Chis has been Founder & CEO at Cuadrilla Resources, Technical Director Upstream at AGL Energy, Techncial Director at Evergreen Resources and Engineering Manager at NOWSCO Well Services Inc. Currently, he is CEO & President at CanCambria Energy Corp. at Vancouver, Canada, where he leads a team of industry professionals pursuing frontier unconventional resource plays in various parts of the world. Chris is a member of AAPG, SPE and Fellow Geological Society of London.
Authors: Antonio Martin-Monge (presenter), Daniel Peña, Rafael Tocco, Connor Moore, Andre Vayssaire, Camilo Restrepo, Victor Goitia, Judith Vila, Massimo Bonora, Jose Carballo, Repsol Petroleum asphaltenes are complex organic macromolecular aggregates which make up a significant portion of crude oils and source rock bitumens. While their detailed structure is poorly understood, there is general agreement that it closely resembles that of their precursor kerogens. In fact, asphaltenes can be regarded as intermediates between kerogens and petroleum in the natural evolution of sedimentary organic matter. These structural similarities enable using the geochemistry of asphaltenes in numerous petroleum exploration and production settings. In this presentation, we will discuss two of these applications. We will firstly focus on the application of the criteria for molecular kerogen typing to the classification of the macromolecular fractions of crude oil and source bitumen. We will then describe how pyrolysis methods can be employed to perform kinetic analysis on petroleum asphaltenes. The kinetics thus determined reflect the extent of the thermal stress which the source rock had been subjected to when the petroleum was generated. Furthermore, closed-system pyrolysis of asphaltenes can be used to derive compositional kinetic models that enable the prediction of the in situ bulk properties of the primary generated fluids. The potential of petroleum asphaltenes as a suitable substrate for kerogen typing and kinetic analysis will be illustrated with a case study from the Tarija Basin (southern sub-Andean zone, Bolivia). Asphaltenes were isolated from various crude oil samples and subjected to a series of non-isothermal open-system and closed-system pyrolysis experiments. These experiments allowed a bulk kinetic description of petroleum generation and the derivation of a multi-component kinetic model using the PhaseKinetics approach. Bio: Antonio Martin-Monge, Repsol Antonio earned a BSc in Geology and a MRes/DEA in Isotope Geochemistry, both from the Universidad de Salamanca, Spain. He has 15 years of professional experience, 12 of them in the petroleum industry. During his career, he has worked as laboratory technician at the Servicio General de Análisis de Isótopos Estables (SGAIE) of the Universidad de Salamanca in Salamanca (Spain) and at the Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC) in East Kilbride (UK). Currently, he is Petroleum Systems Analyst at Repsol Exploración, SA in Madrid, Spain, where he is working in the central subsurface function to provide specialized technical support in petroleum systems modelling and organic geochemistry to units across the E&P division. Antonio is a member of the AAPG, European Association of Organic Geochemists (EAOG), The Geological Society of London.
Moderator: Alejandra Dalenz, GEOMAP Participants: Thierry Sempere, Independent Consulting Geologist; Laura I. Net, Repsol; Ingrid Muñoz-Quijano, Universidad Surcolombiana; John Wagner, Pluspetrol; Walther Leon, Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico de Perú (INGEMMET) Convener Alejandra Dalenz moderates a discussion with session presenters, who answer questions and share final thoughts to conclude Session II: Stratigraphy, Sedimentology and Formation Evaluation, at the Andean Basins Virtual Research Symposium. Bios: Thierry P.A. Sempere, Independent Consulting Geologist Thierry is a Doctor in Geology and Engineer from the Paris School of Mines. He has 38 years of experience, and worked as researcher at ORSTOM/IRD from 1982 to 2017. He currently is independent consulting geologist at Lima, Peru. Thierry is a member of AAPG. Laura I. Net, Repsol Laura earned a BSc from the Universidad de Buenos Aires (1995), a PhD also from the Universidad de Buenos Aires (2000), and a MSc from the University of Texas at Austin (2003), all three in Geological Sciences. With 16 years of experience in the industry, Laura is Geologist Advisor, Clastic Reservoir Quality, Geosciences Specialists Team (since 2010) at Repsol in Madrid, Spain, where she is in-house consultant specialized in topics related to clastic petrology, sandstone diagenetic modeling and reservoir quality assessment of sandstone and shale reservoirs. Laura previously worked for E&P projects targeting both conventional and unconventional reservoirs with Pioneer National Resources Argentina (2004-2006), Apache Corporation Argentina (2006-2009), and YPF SA (2009-2010) in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Ingrid Muñoz-Quijano, Universidad Surcolombiana Ingrid earned a PhD from Heidelberg University, Germany. During her 15 years of experience, she has worked at Heidelberg University and Salamanca University. Currently, she is sedimentology and structural geology Professor at the Universidad Surcolombiana, Faculty of Engineering. Her professional affiliations include International Association of Sedimentologists (IAS); Asociación Colombiana de Geólogos y Geofísicos del Petróleo (ACGGP); Sociedad Colombiana de Geología (SCG). Walther León, Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico de Perú (INGEMMET) With 15 years of experience, Walther is Senior Advisor Geologist at INGEMMET at Lima, Peru, where he is team leader of the Subandean Project.
Author: John Wagner, Pluspetrol Hear John Wagner from Pluspetrol speak about Stratigraphy as it Relates to the Gentle Slope of the Andes Foreland Basin in Peru and Bolivia. Bio: John Wagner President of Pluspetrol
Authors: Walther León (presenter), Antenor Aleman, Marco Chumpitaz, Claudia Fabián, Christian Sipion, Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico de Perú (INGEMMET) Presentation is in Spanish. Since 2019 the Geological, Mining and Metallurgical Institute - INGEMMET has been developing the “Sub-Andean Project”. This project aims to integrate geological surface information acquired by hydrocarbon companies since the last decade in their exploration activities (PERUPETRO - INGEMMET Technical Information Exchange Agreement) with studies of Geological National Chart in this part of the territory to provide timely and quality information with a high geological value of the different areas of the Sub-Andean. From 2019 to 2021, “Sub-Andean Project” will update 155 quadrants at a scale of 1: 50,000 and annual reports of the geological update. In 2019, 45 quadrants located in the high jungle of Madre de Dios, Ucayali and Ene / Pachitea were update. In 2020 are being updated 104 quadrants of the Huallaga and Santiago basins and for 2021, 06 quadrants and 05 geological maps at 1: 250,000 scale will have programmed. As an important background to this project in 2015 were updated 17 sheets at scale 1: 50,000 located in Madre de Dios basin and in 2016 were updated 13 sheets belonging to Ucayali Sur basin. As part of the project carried out field campaigns to validate and improve the quality of the integrated geological information, geological maps are prepared, geological data positioned, the stratigraphy is standardized and the main geological structures exposed in the called folded belts. The processing of all information collected is through an organized and standardized database processed in a GIS project in Geodatabase format. Why Study the Geology of the Sub-Andean? The current reality oil industry in the sub-Andean zone is that majority of the remaining oil or gas fields are associated with areas of high tectonic, stratigraphic complexity and are located in remote areas with very difficult access, because it the exploration and exploitation process has become especially difficult, expensive and high risk with a low success rate. Therefore is necessary to develop and implement new methodologies or improved study processes, to interconnect surface geology (updated geological maps) and subsoil geology (seismic and data from drilled wells) more effectively to reduce geological risk and lessen economic impact, making exploration and exploitation projects more attractive to investors.An example is Madre de Dios Folded Belt, one of the least explored of the sub-Andean basins, this despite the fact that biostratigraphic studies have confirmed a tectonic / stratigraphic evolution very similar to the gas basin of southern Ucayali, with excellent mother rocks of World class of Devonian, Carboniferous and Permian. Structurally, characterized by presenting numerous duplexes in Cretaceous / Cenozoic rocks, both on the surface and underground. A renewed exploration in the 90s corroborated a small non-commercial oil field in the foreland of Bolivian sector (Pando field) and a significant accumulation along the folded belt on the Peruvian side (Candamo field). The geological maps will provide information for multidisciplinary work models applied in geosciences, for the construction of structural models, reduction of risks during the search for profitable and economic deposits, as well as the search for new exploratory opportunities in the folded belt. Bio: Walther León, Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico de Perú (INGEMMET) With 15 years of experience, Walther is Senior Advisor Geologist at INGEMMET at Lima, Peru, where he is team leader of the Subandean Project. Walther is a member of the AAPG and the Peruvian Geological Society (SGP).
Authors: Ingrid Muñoz-Quijano (presenter), Ángela Caicedo, Camila Hoyos, Universidad Surcolombiana; Diego Loaiza, Universidad de Caldas Presentation is in Spanish The production of hydrocarbons in Colombia is going through a decrease due to the depletion of reserves, which can lead to the country losing energy sufficiency in less than ten years. However, detailed studies using tools like microthermometry of fluids inclusions applied in conventional reservoirs can be a way to find new recovery processes and exploration activities with the possibility of increasing the reserves levels. Caballos Formation is conformed by siliciclastic rocks with changes between subarkoses, litharenites to quartz arenites, and is classified as a reservoir rock of the petroleum system of the Upper Magdalena Valley Basin, and these rocks have characteristics for the accumulation of hydrocarbons. Microthermometry of fluid inclusions in this formation was used to recognize formation temperatures, some basic physicochemical variables, homogenization temperature (Th), density and salinity of the fluid in the entrapment or forward process, providing evidences on the evolution inside of sedimentary basin. Values of the temperature of homogenization and salinity were estimated using histograms of salinity frequencies, histograms of Th, and graphs of salinity vs. Th , evidencing that the fluid inclusions found in the different samples analyzed have salinities that vary from 19.13% to 33.25% eq. weight NaCl; similar densities in the intervals of 1.08 to 1.15g/cc and homogenization temperatures between 99.50°C and 187.20°C were found. The homogenization temperature obtained in the fluid inclusions indicate that the rocks of Caballos formation were subjected inside in the hydrocarbons generation windows of medium-low, which with later diagenetic process reached the current characteristics as evidenced in many of the oil fields present in the Upper Magdalena Valley area. Bio: Ingrid Muñoz-Quijano, Universidad Surcolombiana Ingrid earned a PhD from Heidelberg University, Germany. During her 15 years of experience, she has worked at Heidelberg University and Salamanca University. Currently, she is sedimentology and structural geology Professor at the Universidad Surcolombiana, Faculty of Engineering. Her professional affiliations include International Association of Sedimentologists (IAS); Asociación Colombiana de Geólogos y Geofísicos del Petróleo (ACGGP); Sociedad Colombiana de Geología (SCG).
Author: Freddy Marin, Petróleos de Venezuela Well core plugs for routine and special core analysis have to be analyzed petrographically for complete integration between all results, in order to have a wide vision of rock properties. Textural and compositional knowledge of rock could clarify reservoir settings. This technical study shows the result of 23 thin sections analyzed for rocks type determination and identifications of its mineralogical composition. Although all classifications were the same in the all thin sections, was possible identify diagenesis processes relevant for define an intermediate stage based on Surdan et al., 1989. Some diagenethic processes are favorable for secondary porosity generation, such as mineralogical dissolution, but also present some unfavorable for porosity like Ilite and Kaolinite precipitations. Beside of these reservoir properties were possible make recommendations for petrophysical evaluations and productions techniques considering mineralogical content. The geologiocal section analyzed was textural and mineralogical mature, when conjugated it with neoformation mineral, opens a window for sedimentary environments deposit considerations. Bio: Freddy Marín, Petróleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) Freddy earned a MSc in Oil Geology from the Zulia University, Venezuela. With his 18 years of experience in the industry, he currently is sedimentologist/stratigrapher of PDVSA’s Exploration department, where he develops studies of sedimentary features and stratigraphic settings for defining geological models as well as reservoir sedimentary characteristics identifications. Before PDVSA, he worked as Technical Assistant Specialized in Production at GESCA.
Author(s): Andrés Alvarez (presenter), Juan I. Hernández, Roberto M. Hernández, Alejandra Dalenz Farjat, Mariano Dellmans, Marcos Costilla, Luis Alvarez, Néstor Navarrete, Ramón Torres, GEOMAP Presentation is in Spanish The analysis of the sedimentary record constitutes a key point while assessing the evolution of fold and and thrust belts requiring a multi-variable analysis whose characterization is based on the combination of subsurface data (2D-3D seismic and wells), surface data (mapping and stratigraphic survey) and analytical non-dependent-model techniques such as U-Pb, fission-track and (U-Th-Sm)/He dating.The Valle Morado structure, close to the sub-Andean-Eastern Cordillera boundary in northwestern Argentina, is part of a set of fault-related N-S to NNE-SSW trending anticlines with some plant-view inflections. Located north of the Caimancito field, the Valle Morado anticline was drilled by the Rio Colorado x-1 and Valle Morado x-1001 wells, the latter generating a cumulative production of gas and condensate of 124 Mm3 oil equivalent, in Cretaceous-Paleogene reservoirs (Yacoraite-Mealla; 6044, 5646 MD)(Disalvo, 2002).The integration of surface and subsurface data has allowed a new suitable stratigraphic interpretation in this area located between the southern plunge of the sub-Andean System and the northern edge of the extensional Lomas de Olmedo sub-basin. On the other hand, the analysis of 2D and 3D seismic data in the Miocene-Pliocene deposits allowed to identify a south-to-north thickness increase on a regional scale with its maximum value located between Colonia Santa Rosa, Pichanal and the city of Oran, a low-subsidence position for the Lower Cretaceous, generating a complex subsidence scenario through the Cenozoic. These results generate new analysis perspectives for the understanding of the processes of subsidence, generation and migration of hydrocarbons today trapped in naturally fractured reservoirs in positions such as Valle Morado or Caimancito. Bio: Andrés Alvarez, GEOMAP S.A. Andrés is a geologist from the Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina. During his 10 years of experience in the industry, he has worked as geologist in structural and stratigraphy projects for oil and gas industry in the Central Andes (Sub Andean System) for different companies in Bolivia and Argentina (2010-2020). He currently works at GEOMAP S.A. at Salta, Argentina, where he is responsible for stratigraphic analysis and mapping for the oil and gas industry.
Authors: Laura I. Net (presenter), Maria Ochoa, Daniel Peña, Alia Ponz Garcia, Massimo Bonora, Camilo Restrepo, Tomas Zapata, Repsol Drilling of well BUY-X2 in the Bolivian fold-and-thrust belt launched a petrographic study on Devonian-aged Huamampampa Fm tight sandstones using cutting samples from a thrust sheet at ~8,000 m of burial depth. Optical and scanning electron microscopy, cathodoluminiscence, microprobe elemental mapping, fluid inclusion microthermometry, and X-ray diffraction were combined with image log and petrophysical data to better understand the rock matrix and its porosity network. Sandstone matrix is made up by tightly-packed, fine to medium-sized detrital grains of dominant quartz with subordinated feldspars and rock fragments. Intense diagenesis resulted in cementation mostly by quartz overgrowths, minor authigenic and/or recrystallized clays, and traces of titanium oxide and pyrite. Matrix porosity is very scarce, and limited to: a) primary intercrystalline microporosity associated to interstitial, intergranular pore filling clays, b) slot porosity at quartz overgrowth cement-cement contacts, and c) secondary intragranular microporosity due to partial dissolution of non-quartz grains. Petrographic image analysis (PIA) on CL-BSE photographs shows matrix porosity values ~3% in agreement with avg. PHI in petrophysical interpretation and regional data. This 3% matrix porosity is proposed as the minimum threshold that Huamampampa may achieve during deep burial. A tectonically-overimposed, secondary fracture porosity network is observed from macroscale in image log down to microscale in thin sections. Presence of oversized, euhedral quartz crystals trapping fluid inclusions with Ths from ~130°C to 190°C -close to bottom hole temperature- confirms the existence of an open, natural fracture system, into which authigenic quartz may still be precipitating at present reservoir conditions. Bio: Laura I. Net, Repsol Laura earned a BSc from the Universidad de Buenos Aires (1995), a PhD also from the Universidad de Buenos Aires (2000), and a MSc from the University of Texas at Austin (2003), all three in Geological Sciences. With 16 years of experience in the industry, Laura is Geologist Advisor, Clastic Reservoir Quality, Geosciences Specialists Team (since 2010) at Repsol in Madrid, Spain, where she is in-house consultant specialized in topics related to clastic petrology, sandstone diagenetic modeling and reservoir quality assessment of sandstone and shale reservoirs. Laura previously worked for E&P projects targeting both conventional and unconventional reservoirs with Pioneer National Resources Argentina (2004-2006), Apache Corporation Argentina (2006-2009), and YPF SA (2009-2010) in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Author Thierry P.A. Sempere, Independent Consulting Geologist A giant salt basin extended over what is now western Peru and southwestern Bolivia in the Late Triassic. The basin formed from ~240 to ~210 Ma through backarc rifting along the axis of what is now the Eastern Cordillera (which results from the transpressional to compressional inversion of this rift system). Salt and other evaporites were originally deposited during the Early ‘short Norian’ as seawater entered grabens; the eastern limit of thick autochthonous evaporites ran approximately along the current Subandean-Lowlands transition; these evaporites subsequently extended westwards, in part allochthonously. Salt is however absent east of the Shira-Otishi uplift and from the Camisea area; only two salt features, including a dome, are known along the southern Subandean of Peru. In Andean central Peru, a salt dome proves however that salt was originally deposited ~100 km west of the present-day Subandean belt. Salt is notoriously prone to dissolution, especially in outcrops and shallow subsurface. The original extension of the salt basin is outlined using a number of proxies, such as the associated evaporites and the structural effects of salt tectonics; evaporites formed a weak level that was used as a tectonic detachment by later deformations, and as preferential level of emplacement of magmatic sills. In Bolivia most of these evaporites were eroded during the inversion that formed the Eastern Cordillera, but are preserved in a number of Mesozoic synclines in the east, and in large portions of the Altiplano. A significant part of the deformation currently interpreted as classical shortening originated in fact by salt tectonics. A variety of salt-tectonic structures is indeed observed, opening many new avenues for oil exploration, in particular in Peru. Bio: Thierry P.A. Sempere, Independent Consulting Geologist Thierry is a Doctor in Geology and Engineer from the Paris School of Mines. He has 38 years of experience, and worked as researcher at ORSTOM/IRD from 1982 to 2017. He currently is independent consulting geologist at Lima, Peru. Thierry is a member of AAPG.
Moderator: Freddy Corredor, GeoStrAp Participants: Victor Ramos, Universidad de Buenos Aires; Fernando Martinez, Universidad Católica del Norte (Chile); Willy Gil (Repsol); Tomas Zapata, Repsol; Guillermo Fuentes, Universidad Santo Tomás, Incaic Exploration Convener Freddy Corredor moderates a discussion with presenters, who answer questions and share final thoughts to conclude Session I, Structural Geology and Tectonics, at the Andean Basins Virtual Research Symposium. Discussion in English and Spanish. Bios: Convener: Freddy Corredor, GeoStrAp Freddy is a geologist, explorationist and entrepreneur with over 25 years of experience in the oil and gas industry. He holds a BSc in geology from the National University of Colombia, a MSc degree in geology from the University of Colorado at Boulder and a PhD candidacy in Earth and Planetary Sciences from Harvard University. He started his career with Occidental Oil and Gas in Colombia where he led the discovery of the 100 MMBOE Gibraltar Field, now operated by the NOC Ecopetrol. In 1998 he moved to the U.S. and during that time he held internship positions with Oxy, Chevron, BP and Shell. In 2004 he joined Shell E&P Company in New Orleans as senior structural geologist for the Gulf of Mexico assets. In 2006 he returned to Colombia where he has held various executive positions including Founder and Director at GeoStrAp SAS; Director of New Ventures Latin America at Casa Exploration LLC; Exploration Manager of Vetra E&P Colombia; and Executive VP Exploration at Amerisur Resources PLC. Victor Ramos, Universidad de Buenos Aires Victor is Doctor with 50 years of experience in the industry. He currently is Emeritus Professor at the Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. He is a member of AGA and AAPG. Fernando Martínez, Universidad Católica del Norte (Chile) Fernando earned a PhD from the Universidad Católica del Norte, Chile, where he currently works as associate professor and main researcher at Andean tectonics. With 22 years of experience, he has previously worked as structural and regional geologist at PDVSA, Universidad de Oriente, Venezuela and assistant professor of University of Chile. Guillermo Fuentes, Universidad Santo Tomás, Incaic Exploration Guillermo graduated on geology and got his PhD on structural geology and tectonics in the University of Chile. He has participated with the AMTC in two geology national maps for the Geological National Survey (SERNAGOMIN) and has been consultor in economic structural geology for major companies as Antofagasta Minerals, as well he has lead generative mineral exploration projects for covered zones in the north of Chile. He has been research fellow at Universidad Santo Tomás and academic in others universities in Chile. He currently is Assistant Professor at Universidad Santo Tomás, where he is responsible for field and structural geology courses, head of applied structural geology and geotectonics group at the university. He also works as Exploration Manager at Incaic Exploration SpA. Willy Gil, Repsol Willy earned a PhD from the University Paul Sabatier of Toulouse III. France. He currently is Structural Geology Advisor at Repsol E&P in Madrid, Spain. With more than 20 years of experience in the industry, he has held positions in the company in different countries such as Repsol E&P USA, Repsol E&P Peru, Repsol E&P Venezuela, Repsol E&P Ecuador. Tomas Zapata, Repsol Tomas earned a geology degree from the University of Buenos Aires; Argentina; a PhD from Cornell University, Ithaca New York; and was part of the Director Development Program (PDD) at the IAE School of Business, Universidad Austral, Argentina. With 25 years of experience in the industry, he currently is Director of Exploration Americas Assets for Repsol USA Corp. at The Woodlands, USA, where he is responsible for the whole Exploration Business Activities (Planning, access, execution, abandonment) of Repsol in the Americas Region (Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, Guyana, Brazil, Mexico, US. GOM, Alaska). He has previously held positions at YPF S.A., Argentina, and at University of Buenos Aires as Associate Professor of Petroleum Geology). German Andres Pardo Torres, Universidad Nacional de Colombia German earned a BSc in Geology from the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, and is a MSc in geology candidate from the same university. During his 9 years of experience in the industry, he has worked in consulting companies in Colombia. Currently, he is Structural Geologist at the Hydrocarbon Division of the Colombian Geological Survey in Bogotá, where he is responsible for structural analysis of fracture patterns, kinematic evidences, and deformational processes related to Unconventional Shale Reservoirs.
Author: German Andres Pardo Torres, Universidad Nacional de Colombia In the eastern flank of the Floresta Massif, the area between the Paz de Río and Corrales localities is characterized by the presence of oil seeps. These occurrences are related to the Betéitiva Syncline, an NNE trend structure that has been explained by different classic fault-related folds models. However, none of these models explain its structural position in the footwall of the deformational front, the overturned-to-upright position of the backlimb, and the thickness changes in the backlimb. Here, I used a Trishear kinematic model associated with the Soapaga Fault deformation to better explain the Betéitiva Syncline and its structural features. Restoring five structural cross-sections I found that the geometry of the Betéitiva Syncline, its structural position in the footwall, and the thickness changes in the backlimb could be better explained by a Trishear kinematic model related to the deformation of the Soapaga Fault. For the Trishear restoration process, I searched the best fit values for the p/s, slip, Trishear angle and fault angle parameters using the simulated annealing algorithm to avoid local minima. The results of the inversion show changes in the Trishear parameters for the five cross-sections, and suggest the deformation of the Soapaga Fault varies along its trace. In this works I conclude two main points; the Betéitiva Syncline is better explained by the Trishear kinematic model related to the Soapaga Fault, showing lesser shortenings than the previous structural works of this folds, and it is a best-fit model related to the geological data in the field; and the Soapaga Fault split into the Corrales Fault, a later structure that thrusted the Betéitiva Syncline backlimb and uplifted the Cretaceous units. Bio: German Andres Pardo Torres, Universidad Nacional de Colombia German earned a BSc in Geology from the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, and is a MSc in geology candidate from the same university. During his 9 years of experience in the industry, he has worked in consulting companies in Colombia. Currently, he is Structural Geologist at the Hydrocarbon Division of the Colombian Geological Survey in Bogotá, where he is responsible for structural analysis of fracture patterns, kinematic evidences, and deformational processes related to Unconventional Shale Reservoirs. German Andres is a member of AAPG.
Authors: Tomas Zapata (presenter), Sergio Sarmiento, Melanie Louterbach, Daniel Peña, Judith Vila, Massimo Bonora, Victor Hugo Goitia, Camilo Restrepo, Repsol Borehole information captured during drilling and testing operations of the Boyuy X2 well allowed building a comprehensive catalogue of geological and geomechanical conditions of this part of the SubAndean Belt. At depths of 7500 m the state of stress is strike-slip (as SHmax is horizontal), and the maximum horizontal effective stress ratio (ESR SHmax) is around 1.2. Thus, the vertical principal stress (σ2) magnitude is close to SHmax. This study proposes a classification on of the gas accumulations of the Devonian Huamampampa Fm based on the changes on regional geomechanical settings, reservoir fracture geometry and seal hydrodynamics that occur at different depths as it follows: A) Shallow Accumulations (1800 m or shallower): normal stress field, breached seal, only lithological seal capacity left, mostly liquid hydrocarbon accumulations. Normal hydrostatic regime. B) Intermediate Accumulations (2000 – 4500 m): Normal to strike-slip stress field, hydrodynamic seal, enhanced fracture connectivity, regional aquifer. C) Deep Accumulations (4000 – 6200 m): Strike-slip stress field, ESR Shmax > 1.5, fracture connectivity variable, hydrodynamic seal, fault compartment and hydraulically independent tectonic blocks.D) Ultradeep Accumulations (>6500): Strike-slip stress field, ESR Shmax <1.5, low fracture connectivity, hydrodynamic seal, fault compartment and hydraulically independent tectonic blocks. Example: Boyuy X2 discovery.Regionally, an ultra-deep commercial potential accumulation for the Huamampa Fm. reservoir is hard to visualize, since most of the current identified deep structures are deeper than 6500 m. Such potential accumulations may not be able to deliver commercial flow rates since the actual stress field would not support open fractures in any orientation. Bio: Tomas Zapata, Repsol Tomas earned a geology degree from the University of Buenos Aires; Argentina; a PhD from Cornell University, Ithaca New York; and was part of the Director Development Program (PDD) at the IAE School of Business, Universidad Austral, Argentina. With 25 years of experience in the industry, he currently is Director of Exploration Americas Assets for Repsol USA Corp. at The Woodlands, USA, where he is responsible for the whole Exploration Business Activities (Planning, access, execution, abandonment) of Repsol in the Americas Region (Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, Guyana, Brazil, Mexico, US. GOM, Alaska). He has previously held positions at YPF S.A., Argentina, and at University of Buenos Aires as Associate Professor of Petroleum Geology). Tomas is a member of AAPG and AGGEP (Spain).
Authors: Willy Gil (presenter), Gonzalo Zamora, Daniel Peña, Massimo Bonora, Oliver de Mena, Repsol Almost 8000 m of stratigraphic column and the structural data provided by the Boyuy X2 exploratory well, including the post drill reprocessed seismic data, have been integrated into a regional cross-section to have a better structural understanding of this area. RTM and KDM seismic image across of Palos Blancos syncline and San Nicolas - Suaruro dorsal limb, permit to identify the regional (~2°W) of the detachment levels: base of Kirusillas and Los Monos Fms. To the South of Margarita area Bororigua thrust system detaches at the base of Los Monos Fm and to the North at the base of Kirusillas Fm, nevertheless is not present in the Boyuy area. The Mandiyuti thrust system detaches at the base of the Kirusillas Fm, involving the Huamampampa reservoir into the Margarita duplex. However, the Boyuy X2 well did not find this reservoir within this thrust sheet. Instead, below the Mandiyuti thrust, Boyuy well found an imbricate system of Carboniferous, that has no surface expression. Underlaying this imbricate system, the Huamampampa Fm was reached at 7480 MD. To explain the absence of Huamampampa Fm in Mandiyuti thrust (Boyuy well), two interpretations are feasible: a) a transfer zone associated to a lateral ramp or b) a differential shortening. Regional Forward modeling was adjusted whit thermochronology data. Hypothetic geometry and shortening of Inter Andean zone could reach almost 100 Km beginning at 17 Ma. Total shortening of Sub Andean zone was calculated in 83 Km, and deformation timing (West to East) are: San Simon 12-11 Ma; Huayco 11-9 Ma, Boyuy Deep and Itau 9-8 Ma; Aguarague - La Vertiente first trusting 8-6 Ma; Huayco reactivation, Carboniferous imbricates (Boyuy) and Suaruro 6-4 Ma; Mandiyuti - San Nicolas 4-2 Ma; Itau, Aguarague and La Vertiente reactivation 2-0 Ma. Bios Willy Gil, Repsol Willy earned a PhD from the University Paul Sabatier of Toulouse III. France. He currently is Structural Geology Advisor at Repsol E&P in Madrid, Spain. With more than 20 years of experience in the industry, he has held positions in the company in different countries such as Repsol E&P USA, Repsol E&P Peru, Repsol E&P Venezuela, Repsol E&P Ecuador.
Authors: Guillermo Fuentes (presenter), Universidad Santo Tomás, Incaic Exploration; Rodrigo Muñoz, Taypi Geohidroconsultores Limitada; Sebastián Perroud, Incaic Exploration, Universidad de Chile; Fernando Martínez, Universidad Católica del Norte; Walter Garrido, Universidad Santo Tomás, Incaic Exploration Presentation is in Spanish. Recent advances in the knowledge of the forearc tectonic and structural evolution elucidate the strong control of the pre-orogenic structures in the accommodation of the Andean shortening. As have been shown in others orogens, the choose of the structural style can lead a difference of up to an order of magnitude in shortening estimations. Particularly in the Western Andean Mountain Front (WAMF), at 21°S, depending on the structure style selected, contrasting tectonic models have been proposed (crustal structures) to explain the Andean orogenesis. In order to assess the structural style and tectonic evolution, between 20°30’-21°15’S, we present a detailed 2D seismic interpretation calibrated by well and drill-hole data, and rock outcrops. Also, we perform isopach map and restored geological sections. The main results of this contribution reveal partially inverted graben and half-graben arrays formed by Jurassic to Early Cretaceous extension and subsequently underwent contraction which led the basin inversion at least since the Upper Cretaceous, developing hanging and footwall short-cut structures. Inverted syn-rift isopach map gives us the chance to propose lateral continuation of main structures and identify along strike variations, as tip points, polarity changes and accommodation zones, showing a pseudo-3D structural configuration for the WAMF. Most of the shortening estimations were close to 3 km, despite of along strike variations on main inverted graben and half-graben structures. Partially inverted graben and half-graben arrays, its evolution and along strike variations must be consider in future tectonic models to better understand the main Andean structures. Bio Guillermo Fuentes, Universidad Santo Tomás, Incaic Exploration Guillermo graduated on geology and got his PhD on structural geology and tectonics in the University of Chile. He has participated with the AMTC in two geology national maps for the Geological National Survey (SERNAGOMIN) and has been consultor in economic structural geology for major companies as Antofagasta Minerals, as well he has lead generative mineral exploration projects for covered zones in the north of Chile. He has been research fellow at Universidad Santo Tomás and academic in others universities in Chile. He currently is Assistant Professor at Universidad Santo Tomás, where he is responsible for field and structural geology courses, head of applied structural geology and geotectonics group at the university. He also works as Exploration Manager at Incaic Exploration SpA.
Authors: Fernando Martínez (presenter), Cristopher López, Rodrigo González, Belén Muñoz, Universidad Católica del Norte (Chile); Mauricio Parra, University of São Paulo (Brazil) Presentation is in Spanish. At 21º-23ºS the inner forearc of the Central Andes in northern Chile consist of two intermontane basins: The Salar de Atacama and Salar de Punta Negra basins. Both are bounded by the Chilean Precordillera (or Domeyko Cordillera) and the current volcanic arc and lie covered almost enterely by Pliocene salars, thus hindering a direct observation of their internal structural anatomy. For more than 20 years the structure and timig of deformation of this region have been an enigma to solve due to lack of subsurface geological information. In order to solve it, we integrated near of 38.000 km of 2D seismic data, field data, U-Pb ages of Cenozoic synorogenic deposits and apatite fission track data (AFT) from Paleozoic basement granitic rocks. The results show the existence of large doubly-verging basement-involved structures related to inverted Permian to Jurassic basement half-grabens and kilometric-scale reverse faults. The inverted structures consist of inversion anticlines linked to reactivated master normal faults, while that the reverse faults consist of moderate to high angle structures along which, basement-cored anticlines were developed. The basal synorogenic successions over the inversion anticlines report U-Pb ages ranking between 80-90 Ma, thus indicating a late Cretaceous age for the tectonic inversion. Samples from the basement-cored anticlines report Eocene to Miocene AFT ages suggesting a rapid exhumation of the basement rocks by reverse faulting. The last is superimposed to the tectonic inversion, and, is mostly controlled to changes in the tectono-thermal conditions of the upper crust from the eastward migration of the current volcanic arc. Bio: Fernando Martínez, Universidad Católica del Norte (Chile) Fernando earned a PhD from the Universidad Católica del Norte, Chile, where he currently works as associate professor and main researcher at Andean tectonics. With 22 years of experience, he has previously worked as structural and regional geologist at PDVSA, Universidad de Oriente, Venezuela and assistant professor of University of Chile. Fernando is a member of Sociedad Geológical Chilena, Asociación Geológica Argentina, Asociación Geológica Colombiana, Sociedad Venezolana de Ingenieros Geofísicos, among others.
Authors: Fabian Wagner (presenter), Universidad Mayor (Chile); Rodrigo Quiroga, Grupo Tectónica, IANIGLA, CCT Mendoza (Argentina); Matías Peña, Universidad Mayor, Universidad de Chile; Guillermo Fuentes, Universidad Santo Tomas (Chile) Presentation is in Spanish The southern area of Central Andes (27°30´S), in the southern limit of Puna, in transition to the Frontal Cordillera, exist a high structural complexity characterized by fold and thrust belt system with interaction of thick and thin skin styles of deformation, evidenced by Paleozoic basement highly exposed, and Oligocene Miocene-Pliocene continental-volcanic-and-clastic sequences, which degree of deformation and temporality of deformation is not well understood. This suggest that is necessary to analyses the history of deformation during the late Andean evolution in this area. To accomplish this goal, we perform a structural and kinematic analysis, integrated in a structural model using Leapfrog and Andino 3D. This structural study is a contribution in the knowledge in the temporal-space variation of the strain field and its relationship with main deformation events. We propose two deformational events. The first, an early contractional event whose contraction directions varies from E-W to NE-SW near to Permian basement blocks, whose structural architecture is controlling the NW-SE and E-NE strike slips faults generated on the second event and the orientation of folds and faults developed during the first one. A Strike-Slip deformation is observed by faults that cut Miocene-Pliocene volcanic units and the previous contractional system. Because the reverses faults and folds are affecting the Oligocene Miocene rocks, the early contractional event documented in our kinematic analysis was active at least until the lower to mid Miocene times. The late deformational event is represented by the strike slip deformation that was active until recent times, defining in this way the temporality of deformation in Frontal Cordillera, in the transition with the Puna Plateau. Bio Fabian Wagner (presenter), Universidad Mayor (Chile) Fabian is a last year student at the Universidad Mayor, Chile. He currently works as researcher at the same university.
In recent years, much progress has been made in understanding the interaction between the processes that occur in the mantle with their crustal response. It has been observed that an important requirement for the sub-Andean deformation in the Central Andes, which produces an accelerated inception of the deformation in the upper levels of the crust, is the removal of the mantle with its consequent crustal delamination. The early structural cross-sections of Dietrich Roederer in the 80's presented in their restoration a classic problem between shortening lengths in the upper crust of the order of 250 km, with the lengths of the lower crust, and even worse with what happened with the upper mantle and its final destination. His structural sections showed a lower crust deficit of the order of 20% and he could not explain what happened to the mantle. The tomographic studies of the lithosphere demonstrate that significant parts of the upper mantle have been removed, prior to the foreland deformation in the upper crust. This removal was steadily produced trough time, as an ablative subduction, until the eclogitic residue of the lower crust start sinking in the mantle. The loss of the eclogitic residue, increases the temperature of the crust, initiates the ductile shortening of the lower crust, its partial melt and delamination, which is followed by a rapid shortening in the foreland upper crust. This process is independent of the structural style of the foreland, whether thin or thick-skinned, because the temporal response is similar. Some examples are analyzed to confirm the timing of the processes, denoting a strong temporary migration to the south of the fold-and-thrust deformation in the Sub-Andean. Bio: Victor Ramos, Universidad de Buenos Aires Victor is a PhD with 50 years of experience in the industry. He currently is Emeritus Professor at the Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. He is a member of AGA and AAPG.
SW Caribbean Basins Virtual Research Symposium

Southwest Caribbean Basins: Recent Studies and Advances in Understanding the Geology of Colombia, Panama and Venezuela | Virtual Research Symposium held 23 –24 July 2020. Video access included with symposium registration.

Hear Andres Pardo, Antonio Velásquez, and Andrea Ortiz-Karpf debate how geophysics enhance the geological understanding of Caribbean stratigraphy configuration. The panelists talk both in English and Spanish throughout the discussion. The panel discussion took place on 23 July 2020, as a part of the Southwest Caribbean Basins Virtual Research Symposium. Bios: Andres Pardo, Universidad de Caldas Andres earned a BSc in Geology form the Universidad de Caldas, Colombia, and a MSc and PhD both in Geology from the Universite De L'Etat A Liege, Belgium. With 31 years of experience in the academy, he is currently Titular Professor and researcher at the Universidad de Caldas in Manizales, Colombia, where he also administrates the Instituto de Investigaciones en Estratigrafía-IIES (Stratigraphy Research Institute). He previously worked at the ANH and is a member of the ACGGP and Professional Council of Geology, Colombia. Antonio Velásquez, Ecopetrol S.A./p> Antonio graduated from Universidad Nacional de Colombia with a BSc degree in Geology. He also holds a MSc in Geology from the same university and a MSc in Geophysics and Seismology form the Colorado School of Mines. With 15 years of experience in the industry, he currently works at Ecopetrol Brasil as Exploration Assets Manager, where he leads the exploration team responsible for prospect generation and maturation, and is also on charge of project management, economical evaluations, TCR / Alt.TCR roles in partnerships and operations follow-up in offshore assets located in both PreSalt and Ecuatorial Magin basins. Antonio is a member of AAPG, SEG, EAGE and ACGGP. Andrea Ortiz-Karpf, Ecopetrol S.A. Andrea earned a BSc in Geology form the Universidad Nacional de Colombia and a PhD from the University of Leeds. In her 15 years of experience in the industry, Andrea has worked in companies as BP and Equion. Currently, she is Technical Advisor for the Exploration Vice-presidency at Ecopetrol in Bogota, where she supports the exploration VP by prompting technical quality and rigor, and implementing technical standards. Andrea is a member of AAPG, ACGGP and IAS. Jaime Checa, Occidental Petroleum Geophysicist with 30 years of experience in seismic acquisition and processing. Current manager of geophysical projects for OXY in Colombia.
Authors: Germán Prieto (presenter), Daniel Martinez, Universidad Nacional de Colombia; Max Bezada, University of Minnesota Hear Germán Prieto will talk about what seismology can tell us (or maybe not) about the tectonics in the Southern Caribbean. This presentation was part on the Southwest Caribbean Basins Virtual Research Symposium held on July 2020. Bio: Germán Prieto, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Germán graduated from Universidad Nacional de Colombia with a BSc degree in Geology, and holds a PhD in Geophysics and Seismology from the University of California. He currently is an associate professor and researcher at Universidad Nacional de Colombia, and with more than 15 years of experience in academia, Germán has been Faculty in various institutions, as Universidad de Los Andes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Germán is a member of American Geophysical Union, Sociedad Colombiana de Geología, Seismological Society of America and SEG.
Author: Luis Salazar, SpecTIR LLC; presented by Marco Nieto A survey of the airborne hyperspectral images was performed in the Guarumen Exploratory Area, Sub Basin of Guarico in Venezuela, over 4000 Km2. The survey specifications were 3 meters spatial resolution (GSD) with the ProSpecTIR-VS sensor (VINIR-SWIR), 356 spectral bands and a spectra resolution of 5nm. The aim of this project consisted of determining the possible ones associated with hydrocarbon emanations. The hypothesis was based on the hydrocarbon microleakage model (Dietmar Schumacher 1996). The decision by PDVSA Exploration Management to use hyperspectral images was based on the primary function to detect anomalies in minerals and vegetation that are associated with hydrocarbon migrations on the surface, seeking greater exploratory reliability and obtaining a better understanding of the oil system in the study area. Once with the laboratory results, the hydrocarbon -related hyperspectral anomaly data were integrated with surface geology, geomorphology, analysis of geochemistry, soil and vegetation laboratories to identify the areas with more significant potential for hydrocarbon exploration. This technique has an advantage in planning seismic and geochemical surveys in detail, managing to precisely direct and focus the location of oil systems at a low cost and a low probability of success. This approach helps to minimize financial risk in acquiring 2D and 3D seismic surveys. The conventional or traditional way of conducting hydrocarbon exploration through the use of 2D, 3D and Geochemical seismic survey technology is well known, however, every day the costs of these technologies increase, which is why many state and private oil companies currently resort to state-of-the-art techniques that minimize costs. That is why remote sensing technology has specialized in oil and gas exploration processes on the surface, since it allows planning and detection in these surveys, managing to precisely direct and focus the location of the oil systems. Bio: Luis David Salazar Paredes, SpecTIR LLC Luis is a Systems Engineer. In his 12 years of experience, he has worked at NatQ Consulting (Mexico), ASD Inc (Sales LATAM), and TsiC Ingenieros Consultores CA. He currently works in International Business Development Oil and Gas at SpecTIR LLC in Reno, Nevada, where he is responsible for oil and gas business in Latin America.
Authors: Benjamin Miller (presenter), Paul Mann, University of Houston The Lesser Antilles arc is a largely submarine feature covered by thick, marine sedimentary rocks and locally by 19 active, stratovolcanoes, and small, carbonate platforms formed on bathymetric highs and extinct volcanic highs. Gravity data therefore provide a useful tool for understanding the continuity and relationships of crustal provinces along the 800-km-long, north-south-trending, intra-oceanic arc of early Cretaceous to recent age. There is no question from gravity data that the remnant arc (Aves Ridge) and the active volcanic arc forms two continuous ridges along the length of the arc. Ages from the remnant arc range from 86 to 65 Ma while those from the active arc range from 38 to 0 Ma. Gravity data reveals a prominent bifurcation in the volcanic arc north of Martinique with the active arc to the west ranging in age in this area from 3.5 to 0 Ma and the inactive “Limestone Caribees” ranging in age from 38 to 25 Ma and capped by a carbonate platform of 15 Ma to recent age. Gravity data reveals that the obliquely subducting St. Lucie fracture zone marks the zone of bifurcation of the northern arc near Martinique. To the south, the Tobago-Barbados ridge extends over a distance of 300 km and is underlain at Tobago Island by arc rocks ranging in age from 160 to 140 Ma. The Limestone Caribees ridge in the north and the TBR to the south appear unrelated arc crustal provinces because: 1) the TBR is located 100 km east of the bifurcation point of the northern arc near Martinique; 2) the TBR and Limestone Caribees exhibit strongly contrasting gravity signatures; and 3) the known ages of the two ridges differ with the Limestone Caribees being much younger. Bio: Benjamin Miller, University of Houston Benjamin has double degree in Geology and Geophysics at the University of Houston. He currently is research assistant at Conjugate Basins, Tectonics, and Hydrocarbons (CBTH) Consortium working on the investigation of the structures in the Northeastern Caribbean plate on the Saba Bank by interpreting stratigraphic sequences on vintage seismic data, examining volcanic history and the impact of the regional plate tectonics, and modelling potential fields. His past experience includes the AAPG UH IBA Team, Finance Departments Payroll and Department Specialist, Landslide Research in China using GPS and LiDar, and Entech Sales and Services Intern. Benjamin is a member of SEG Wavelets, AAPG and HGS.
Authors: Antonio Velásquez (presenter), Ricardo Zavala, Enrique Casaña, Mauricio Afanador, Juan Carlos Llinás, Mauricio Pulido, Oscar Moreno, Sandra Montoya, Fabio Malagón, Helga Nino, Andrea Ortíz-Karpf, John Londoño, Pranab Sen, Ecopetrol, S.A. The AVO technology has become a key tool for the exploration efforts in the offshore Caribbean frontier. In recent years, it emerged as an interesting gas-prone basin with a multitude of reservoirs with characteristic elastic properties and seismic responses. This work reveals and describes the type of AVO reservoirs encountered in three geologic provinces of the offshore Caribbean: Guajira Offshore, Magdalena Fan and Sinú Offshore. In general, DHI analysis based on AVO has been a powerful tool to predict hydrocarbon accumulations. However, key geologic processes control the seismic response differently at each structural province. Using elastic data from recent wells, the seismic signatures were modeled, classified and analyzed, and their meaning as possible DHI’s widely discussed. The AVO response of hydrocarbon-filled sands varies in the whole spectrum of the Rutherford and Williams (1989) classification. In general, DHI analysis based on AVO has been a powerful tool to predict gas accumulations. However, the composition of the sediments (e.g., sand and shale proportions), the changes in pressure or stress regime, as well as the burial history and the sedimentation rate, strongly affect the rock properties and the seismic response, making the fluid prediction quite challenging. Furthermore, low gas-saturated reservoirs, tuned amplitudes and poor quality of pre-stack data are the most common sources for pitfalls. In the Sinú Province, Pleistocene gas-saturated turbidities exhibit class III AVO and create classical bright spots relatively easy to identify. However, thinly bedded sands are tricky to characterize if the gross thickness approaches tuning. The Magdalena Fan Province mostly has confined channel-like Pliocene reservoirs, also with class III AVO gas sands, but fizz reservoirs and tuned amplitudes commonly generate high risk of pitfalls. Finally, the Guajira Province that is geologically more diverse, exhibit high impedance reservoirs, aged Miocene and Oligocene. Typically, class I or IIp AVO signatures affected by tuning are not properly imaged and represent the most challenging reservoirs to accurately predict fluids from seismic data. Bio: Antonio Velásquez, Ecopetrol S.A. Antonio graduated from Universidad Nacional de Colombia with a BSc degree in Geology. He also holds a MSc in Geology from the same university and a MSc in Geophysics and Seismology form the Colorado School of Mines. With 15 years of experience in the industry, he currently works at Ecopetrol Brasil as Exploration Assets Manager, where he leads the exploration team responsible for prospect generation and maturation, and is also on charge of project management, economical evaluations, TCR / Alt.TCR roles in partnerships and operations follow-up in offshore assets located in both PreSalt and Ecuatorial Magin basins. Antonio is a member of AAPG, SEG, EAGE and ACGGP.
Authors: Diego León Venegas Gutiérrez (presenter), Juan Carlos Llinás, Ecopetrol S.A. The Fuerte Sur Block is located in the southern Caribbean offshore of Colombia between the Urabá and the Morrosquillo Gulfs. The area of the block has an extension of 278.000 km2, mostly on the current continental slope. A significant percentage of this block is covered by a 3D PSDM seismic cube, which is the main dataset for this project. A handful of wells have been drilled just outside of the study area, including the Uvero-1, Fuerte-1, Morrosquillo-1 and El Bobito-1 drilled on the continental platform in the late 60s and 70s and the Kronos-1, Purple Angel and Gorgon wells drilled recently at the foot of the slope, which resulted in significant gas discoveries that are being currently evaluated. The studied interval corresponds to the syn-kinematic succession accumulated on top of a distinctive angular unconformity of Pleistocene age that separates it from the pre-kinematic succession that forms the Sinú Offshore Deformed Belt. The syn-kynematic section in the Fuerte Sur area displays a series of narrow depocenters located on the back limbs of predominantly west-verging folds that were being filled by sediments as these structures grew. The objective of this study was to identify and map seismic horizons that are continuous throughout the entire area in order to generate a chronostratigraphic framework for the syn-kinematic succession, and then to define seismic facies in the interpreted sequences that would help to understand the depositional environments, and therefore, to predict the distribution of reservoir, source and seal rocks. Five Horizons were interpreted; the lowest one is the angular unconformity, and four additional horizons define the top of the four sequences (TS1 to TS4). In the syn-kinematic sequence of the Sinú Deformed Belt, seismic facies Cbh, Bh, Cbl, Bl and A were identified based on the methodology of Prather (1998), in addition to hemipelagic deposits corresponding to the slope wedge. The sequences TS1 (Lower Pleistocene) and TS2 (Middle Pleistocene) contain the main reservoir intervals (Cbh facies). In TS3 and TS4, there is a predominance of facies Bh and Bl, which are not considered good reservoirs in the area. In the northern part of the block the sequences become shallower and thinner reducing their prospectivity. The intermediate sector of the block, is the most prospective area with seven deep depocenters containing significant sandy facies. To the south, the depocenters are interpreted to be filled mostly with fine sediments. The identified play in the syn-kinematic sequence in the Fuerte Sur block is characterized by stratigraphic traps, where Cbh facies pinch out of near the edges of the “piggy-back” basins of folds developed due to active compressional tectonics at the time of deposition. Main provenance seems to come from the north, where some sequences were not deposited or eroded (TS1 and TS3), and where Cbh facies predominate and onlap in each mini basin. Bio: Diego León Venegas Gutiérrez, Ecopetrol S.A. Diego earned a BSc in Geology from the Universidad Nacional de Colombia. In his 18 years of experience in the petroleum industry, he has worked at DEMINEX Colombia for 2 years as a Geologist, and was a consultant for the Instituto Colombiano del Petróleo (ICP) for three and a half years in a project about seal rocks, working in petrography and mapping. Currently, Diego works as Geologist in Ecopetrol, providing support as interpreter for the geophysics group in acquisition, interpretation, reprocessing and data management. For the last three years he worked in the offshore group, interpreting the 3D seismic of the Sinu Belt, in orther to identify the seismic facies for the syn-kinematic sequences and prospectivity. Previously, he worked in prospetivity for the onshore group in the different basins of Colombia. He is a member of ACGGP.
Authors: Julián Naranjo-Vesga (presenter), Darwin Mateus-Tarazona, Instituto Colombiano del Petróleo, Ecopetrol S.A.; Andrea Ortiz-Karpf, Pedro Galindo, Ecopetrol S.A.; Lesli Wood, Zane Jobe, Lauren Shumaker, Colorado School of Mines; Juan Felipe Paniagua-Arroyave, Universidad EAFIT The distribution of deep-water gravity deposits in the Sinú Fold Belt, offshore Colombia, is the result of the interaction between tectonic deformation and sediment supply. In tectonically deformed areas, anticlinal structures form barriers for sediment transport from the continental shelf to the basin floor, and piggy-back sub-basins act as sediment traps. Three main river systems feed the Sinú offshore basin: The Magdalena, Atrato, and Sinú rivers. The interplay between sediment supply and along-strike variations in structural deformation, results in complicated sediment-flow pathways, determines the geometry of the continental shelf and slope, and controls the distribution and morphometry of deep-water deposits. This study used approximately 7,736 km2 of 3D seismic and 42,500 km2 of high-resolution multibeam bathymetric data, in order to characterize Pliocene-Recent deep-water gravity-driven deposits along the Sinú offshore basin, analyzing spatial variability and its relationship with shelf and slope morphology and sediment input. The study area was divided in three geomorphological zones: 1) The Northern Zone is characterized by a relatively undeformed slope and high sediment supply from the Magdalena River. In this sector large channel-levee systems that stack vertically for more than 350 m prevail. Most channels start as gullies at the transition between the continental shelf and the slope. In this zone, mass-transport complexes (MTCs) also occur; the larger ones are commonly associated with failures at the shelf edge. MTCs fill bathymetric lows and erode bathymetric highs smoothing the seafloor topography and modifying sediment pathways. 2) The Central Zone highly structurally deformed by NE-SW trending anticlines with steep flanks, separated by piggy-back sub-basins that form a rugose slope profile and act as barriers for sediment transport. This zone is mainly associated with low sediment supply from Sinú River. Submarine canyons are the main conduits for basin-ward sediment transport. They start as gullies on the upper slope and merge downslope to form canyons. Erosion along canyons can breach the anticlines, resulting in the interconnection of piggyback sub-basins and enabling sediments to reach the basin floor. Mass-failures from the steep flanks of structures generate block falls and detached MTCs which commonly run out less than 15 km. 3) The Southern Zone has a moderate sediment supply fed by the Atrato River. Mass wasting has modified sea-floor topography; anticline crests have been eroded and piggyback sub-basins filled, burying the thrust belt and smoothing sea-floor topography. Erosional scours carved by mass failures merge basinward to become submarine canyons on the slope and connecting the slope with the distal basin, where up to 80 km long, MTCs accumulate. This study documents and analyses the impact of sediment supply, structural deformation and shelf width, on the sedimentary processes and depositional architecture of deep-water deposits along the Sinú offshore basin. Bio: Julián Naranjo-Vesga, Instituto Colombiano del Petróleo (ICP) – Ecopetrol S.A Julian earned a BSc in Geology from the Universidad Industrial de Santander, Colombia. With 14 years of experience in the industry, he currently works as a Geologist in the Instituto Colombiano del Petróleo (ICP) – Ecopetrol, S.A. at Piedecuesta, Colombia, bringing support to sedimentology and stratigraphy projects.
Authors: Carlos Ortiz (presenter), Daniel Fernández, Jorge Galeano, Aldo Rincón, Camilo Montes, Felipe Lamus, Universidad del Norte Presentation in Spanish. The Magdalena River is the most important fluvial system in the northern Andes; its delta is located in the Colombian Caribbean Basin and represents one of the largest submarine fans in the world. The evolution of the Magdalena River paleo-delta is recorded in the upper Miocene-lower Pliocene units deposited near its current mouth. Previous studies have proposed a late Neogene - Pleistocene migration of multiple paleo-deltaic lobes, and more recently, the paleo-delta dynamics have been tentatively linked to regional paleoclimatic events during early Pliocene times. To identify Spatio-temporal changes in depositional environments associated with the evolution of the Magdalena river paleo-delta, we carried out detailed mapping of the late Neogene units in the area and analyzed facies associations and stacking patterns in three stratigraphic sections, providing a new interpretation of the previous stratigraphic data. We identified progradational deltaic environments interpreted during late Miocene times, with a westward progradational shift in deltaic facies in early Pliocene times. These changes in the Spatio-temporal distribution of the facies suggest a westward migration of the paleo-delta in a progradational phase during early Pliocene, leading to the deposition of calcareous foreshore deposits to the east of the mapping area, and deltaic deposits in marginal marine environments to the west. Eastward thinning and reduction of siliciclastic input previously identified in the lower Pliocene sequence reinforce this hypothesis and could explain the onset of the great influx of siliciclastic sedimentation in the western upper Magdalena submarine fan. Bio: Carlos Ortiz, Universidad del Norte Carlos is a Geologist from the Universidad del Norte, Colombia.
Authors: Damián Cárdenas (presenter), Francisca Oboh-Ikuenobe, Carlos Jaramillo; Missouri University of Science and Technology, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute Palynology has been widely used to date sedimentary sequences in Colombia over the last four decades, especially in terrestrial environments. While palynostratigraphic schemes in Colombia—which primarily rely on pollen and spores—are reliable in onshore basins, increasing offshore exploration activities in the Caribbean require detailed studies of both terrestrial and marine palynomorphs. Although dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts) and acritarchs are widely used for biostratigraphic purposes in shallow to marginal marine sequences worldwide, there are few marine palynological studies in the Caribbean. Here, we present new data on dinocysts and acritarchs from a well-calibrated, shallow-marine sequence drilled in the Cocinetas Basin, Alta Guajira. We propose a novel marine palynostratigraphic scheme that comprises a late Chattian–early Aquitanian Minisphaeridium latirictum Interval Zone (~23.9–22.0 Ma), a late Aquitanian Achomosphaera alcicornu Interval Zone (~22.0–20.3 Ma), and a Burdigalian Cribroperidinium tenuitabulatum Interval Zone (~20.3–17.5 Ma). Our results not only demonstrate the potential of marine palynology for oil and gas exploration in the Colombian Caribbean Margin, but also highlight the need to establish a palynological zonation for this region. Bio: Damián Cárdenas Loboguerrero, Missouri University of Science and Technology Damian earned a BSc in Geology from the Universidad Nacional de Colombia and is a PhD Candidate at the Missouri University of Science and Technology, where he develops analysis and interpretation of Neogene palynological data in the Tropical Americas. In his two years of experience in the industry, he previously worked as Geologist-Palynologist at both the Colombian Petroleum Institute and the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. Damian is a member of AAPG, Geological Society of America, Paleontological Society and Palynological Society
Authors: Rigo Ramírez (presenter), A. Torres, G. Jiménez, S. Carvajalino, Génesis Consultoría en Geología; G. Veloza, D. Sierra, A. Mora, HOCOL S.A Presentation in Spanish. The ANH-Conuco-1 is a stratigraphic well drilled by the ANH in 2013, in the northernmost San Jacinto fold belt. The well reached a total depth of 2475’ and cored Neogene units on its entirety. Based on our sedimentological analyses three lithostratigraphic intervals were defined, recording a shallowing-upwards succession, from shallow marine (shelf) to strand plain and estuarine deposits. From base to top, the lowermost Interval-1, (2245’-2475’, 229’ thickness) is composed of 59% claystones and 41% siltstones with abundant foraminifera. In this interval, two facies and one facies association were defined and interpreted as shelf deposits.The Interval-2 (384’-2245’, 1861’ thickness) is composed of sandstones (42%), mudstones (25%), siltstones (13%), muddy sandstones (8%) and sandy siltstones (6%). In general, the ichnological record exhibits null to moderate bioturbation, with Phycosiphon and Thalassinoides (several sand-filled and bivalves-filled) as the dominant trace fossils. The major sedimentological structures are even and wavy parallel lamination, with sporadic laminae of organic matter and siderite. It also has fossiliferous sandstones (6%) with bivalves and gastropods shells. Fifty facies and fourteen facies associations were determined, and were interpreted as shelf, delta and strand plain deposits. The contact between Intervals 2 and 1 is conformable gradational. Additionally, a fault zone was identified at depth 1884’- 1886’. The uppermost Interval-3 (10’-384’, 374’ thickness) is made up of mudstones (23%), sandstones (21%), siltstones (18%), limestones (16%) and muddy sandstones (7%). The ichnological record exhibits null to slight bioturbation, with Thalassinoides (filled by mollusk fragments) as the dominant trace fossil. It locally exhibits even and wavy parallel lamination. This interval contains 14% glauconitic limestones, 3% glauconitic sandstones and 8% fossiliferous sandstones. Limestones were classified as wackestone/packstone/grainstone composed of mollusk fragments and glauconite (up to 20%). Thirty facies and eleven facies associations were established. The depositional environment was interpreted from base to top as wave-dominated estuary, strand plain and delta deposits. The contact between Intervals 3 and 2 is identified as a disconformity. This study provides a unique view to the Late Neogene to Quaternary evolution of the Magdalena River paleodelta. Bio: Rigo Ramírez, Génesis Consultoría en Geología Rigo earned a BSc in Geology and is a MSc Candidate. With 18 years of experience I the industry, he currently is General Manager at Génesis Consultoría en Geología S.A.S., where he directs and supervises the development of the company's regular activities, and is also responsible for recruiting staff, selecting, orienting, and training employees, and carrying out administrative management tasks. He also leads, participates and supervises the development of sedimentological, petrographic, stratigraphic and structural analysis in drilling cores and geological mapping. He has previous experience at Rio Tinto Mining Exploration.
Author: Carlos Rey (presenter), ANH Colombia Presentation in Spanish. A campaign of geochemical exploration and heat flow was carried out in the Colombia basin by the DIMAR. The campaign included the interpretation of geophysical data for the identification of optimal sampling sites, followed by the acquisition of 45 samples, their processing and geochemical análisis, some on board and others of samples selected to a geochemical laboratory on the ground for the analysis of biomarkers, diamontoids and carbon isotopes. The remaining central material was labeled and delivered for DIMAR for archival purposes. In addition, a heat flow campaign was completed to better understand the geothermal regime of the region and its potential for hydrocarbon formation. The interpretation of the results of the analyses shows negligible amounts of thermogenic compounds (saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons) that increase south and southwest along the abyssal areas. Tentatively, given very low concentrations, biomarkers and diamontoids suggest that a source rock with a kerogen type II and type II/III may be the source of these hydrocarbons whose maturity stage does not exceed the peak of the oil window. Bio: Carlos Rey, ANH Colombia Carlos earned a BSc in Geology from the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, a MSc in Geology and a MSc in Energy Management. With 30 years of experience in the industry, he has worked 14 years in the ANH, where he currently is Knowledge Management Manager (Gerente de Gestión del Conocimiento) of the Technical Vice Presidency of the ANH.
Author: Andres Pardo (presenter), Universidad de Caldas Hear Andres Pardo talk about the geological history of the Caribbean as defined by its sedimentary and micropaleontologic record. This presentation was part on the Southwest Caribbean Basins Virtual Research Symposium held on July 2020. Bio: Andres Pardo, Universidad de Caldas Andres earned a BSc in Geology form the Universidad de Caldas, Colombia, and a MSc and PhD both in Geology from the Universite De L'Etat A Liege, Belgium. With 31 years of experience in the academy, he is currently Titular Professor and researcher at the Universidad de Caldas in Manizales, Colombia, where he also administrates the Instituto de Investigaciones en Estratigrafía-IIES (Stratigraphy Research Institute). He previously worked at the ANH and is a member of the ACGGP and Professional Council of Geology, Colombia.
Author: Carlos José Rodríguez Taborda (presenter), Technical Vice President, ANH Colombia One of the main objectives of the Colombian National Hydrocarbon Agency (ANH) is the acquisition of information in the Caribbean offshore basins. During the last years the ANH has performed several projects in order to improve the knowledge of the unexplored sedimentary basins and the possibility to find important commercial quantities of hydrocarbons. The Colombian Caribbean basins can be actually divided in three: the offshore Sinu (29, 471 km²), in the west part composed mainly of young Tertiary terrigenous rocks derived from the Magdalena river; the Offshore Guajira basin (56,392 km²) to the east which include older Tertiary and probably Cretaceous rocks highly affected by tectonics; the limit of the two basins is the major wrench Santa Marta-Bucaramanga faults system. The deepest part of the basin is called the Colombia Basin (130,369 km²) in deep and ultradeep waters. Multi structural and stratigraphic plays have been recognized in the three basins. No more than 66 wells have been drilled in the basins which are basically unexplored: only one commercial field, Chuchupa-Ballenas in the offshore Guajira with original reserves in the order of 7.0 TCF. The northern part of South America is now considered a new oil province, considering the major latest discoveries in Guyana and Surinam (8.0 billion BO) and the La Perla gas field (17.0 TCF) in offshore Venezuela. Other discoveries in the Colombian basins like Orca-1, Kronos-1 and Purple Angel-1 will be tested soon. The ANH is completing the acquisition of high resolution bathymetry that will cover 100% of the basins; the project will be ready by the end of the year, and the entire bathymetry will be integrated with regional gravimetry in order to recognize paleohighs with probably cretaceous rocks, which might trap thermogenic liquid hydrocarbons; campaigns of piston cores and heat flow are in process in order to help to understand the thermal maturity of the basins. A large multiclient seismic project is also in progress for reprocessing and acquisition of 2D seismic. The ANH will continue with the acquisition of information in order to have the best information to attract investment for competitive bidding processes. A recent Yet to Find study for the three basins has shown possibilities for at least 7.60 BBO and about 30.0 TCFG recoverable. Bio: Carlos José Rodríguez Taborda, Technical Vice President, ANH Colombia Carlos is a geologist from Universidad Nacional de Colombia and earned a MSc from the University of New Orleans. With 40 years of experience in the industry, he currently is Technical Vice President at the National Hydrocarbon Agency of Colombia (ANH), where he is on charge of the improvement of the knowledge and acquisition of information for mature, emergent and frontier basins; of the evaluation of areas to be promoted by the ANH for bidding process, and leads the update of the land map. He previously has held managerial positions at Interoil, Mansarovar and Mohave; business development for Ecopetrol; and senior geophysicist for Lasmo, Exxon and Texaco. Carlos is a member of AAPG and ACGGP.
Hear Jim Pindell, Paul Mann, Augustin Cardona and Camilo Montes debate the genesis and development of the Southern Caribbean Margin and its implications for the current basin configuration. The panel took place on 23 July 2020, as a part of the Southwest Caribbean Basins Virtual Research Symposium. Bios: Paul Mann, University of Houston Paul earned a BSc from the Oberlin College and a PhD from the State University of New York at Albany, both degrees in Geology. He currently is Professor of Geology at the Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Houston, where he teaches, researches and supervises grad and undergrad students, and service to the EAS Dept. and other groups. He has also operated an oil industry-funded research group since 2005. Paul is a member of AAPG, GSA, AGU, SEG and HGS. James Pindell, Tectonic Analysis Jim earned a BSc from the Colgate University, a MSc from the State University of New York at Albany, and a PhD from the Durham University UK. With 35 years of experience, he is currently the director at Tectonic Analysis Ltd. In Duncton, West Sussex, U.K., where he is on charge of leading research programs. Jim’s professional memberships includes AAPG, GSA, AGU, GSL and HGS. Victor Ramirez, Hydrocarbon and Energy Consultant Victor is a geologist from Universidad Nacional de Colombia and earned a MSc in Geology from the University of Alabama. In his more than 26 years of experience in the industry he worked at Ecopetrol S.A. for 22 years. He is currently independent Hydrocarbon and Energy Consultant. Victor has been actively involved with professional associations and leadership. He is a member of AAPG since 1993, where he was president of AAPG Latin America & Caribbean Region on 2013-2015 term. He is also past president of ACGGP. Agustín Cardona, Universidad Nacional de Colombia-Medellín Camilo Montes, Universidad del Norte
Stephen Leslie, Paul Mann (presenter), University of Houston The structure and stratigraphy of the central area of the Colombian Basin - offshore the northern Caribbean coast of Colombia - is defined using ~8400 line km of depth-converted 2D seismic data assembled from academic and industry sources. Information from offset DSDP and ODP wells integrated into the structural and stratigraphic model of the Colombian Basin to identify the key elements of a petroleum system. These elements are; 1) Upper Cretaceous marine shale source rock;2) mid-to-upper Miocene (16 to 5.3 Ma) basin floor fans associated with the Magdalena Fan turbidite system; 3) structural traps, stratigraphic traps, or subtle three-way structural closures and 4) sealing intervals formed by Miocene hemipelagic marine shale associated with sea level high-stands. An extension of a previously recognized trap-type for the Colombian Margin is identified based on our seismic observations of amplitude anomalies conformant with structures, fluid migration pathways along faults, and bright, laterally continuous, and low-impedance seismic reflectors within the distal Miocene Magdalena fan section. The primary risk for the exploration potential of the area is the presence of a laterally extensive Upper Cretaceous source rock within this depocenter. 1D burial history models and 3D basin modeling indicate that a source rock of this age and at this stratigraphic level would have expelled hydrocarbons during mid-to-late Miocene from the deepest part of the basin and may continue to expel hydrocarbons at the present-day. Paul Mann, University of Houston Paul earned a BSc from the Oberlin College and a PhD from the State University of New York at Albany, both degrees in Geology. He currently is Professor of Geology at the Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Houston, where he teaches, researches and supervises grad and undergrad students, and service to the EAS Dept. and other groups. He has also operated an oil industry-funded research group since 2005. Paul is a member of AAPG, GSA, AGU, SEG and HGS.
Ana Jazmin Rodriguez Lara (presenter), Mauricio Alberto Bermúdez, Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia (UPTC) Presentation in Spanish. In the north-central South America lies Caribbean Mountains, which runs along the central and eastern portions of Venezuela's northern coast. This chain consists of two parallel ranges: Cordillera de la Costa and the Serranía del Interior. Both orogens are the result of the collision between the Caribbean and South American plates. In this area there are few thermochronological data that allow us to reconstruct the deformation history of this chain. Our research combines 2-D Structural restoration, thermal-kinematic models, and fission-track ages, to reconstruct the deformation history of the area. Two competing models were made in the 2D MOVE® software, velocity fields were introduced in the FetKin code, to predict ages on the surface of the zone and compare them with the existing thermochronological data. The choice of the best model is made according a misfit function. Subsequently, the thermal histories of our “best” model is compared with individual t-T paths using HeFTy software. Our results are consistent with an extension and/or sedimentation. Rocks were buried until the Eocene when the Caribbean plate collide with South America. We discriminated 4 different tectonic cooling pulses: ~48 to 40 Ma, ~40 to 23 Ma and ~23 to 5 and 5 to 0 Ma. The first one is related with the convergence between the Caribbean and South American plates, causing the emplacement of the Lara Nappes (Stephan et al., 1985), the second is related to the cooling caused by the subduction of the Caribbean plate below the Caribbean deformed belt, the third phase is explained by the subduction of the Caribbean plate under the South American plate, finally the last pulse could be to related with reactivations of different faults in a transpressive context, and the Mérida Andes exhumation. Ana Jazmin Rodriguez Lara, Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia (UPTC) Ana Jazmin will be graduating with a BSc in Geological Engineering from the Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia (UPTC), and is a Laureate thesis candidate. Ana is a member of the Colombian Geothermal Association.
Author: Brian Frost, Anadarko Petroleum Corporation (Retired) The Magdalena River feeds a world class deepwater fan with Miocene to Recent clastics greater than 10 kms thick and in water depths ranging from 2500-4000m. Offshore drilling to date has resulted in a giant dry gas field in shallow water and numerous other undeveloped gas discoveries between 600-2300m wd. A definitive source rock for the discoveries has not been defined and there is unresolved speculation whether the gas is a result of the primary biodegradation of recent organic material or the secondary biodegradation and migration from liquid petroleum. Shallow penetration piston coring has recovered some evidence of a liquids based petroleum system in the ultra-deepwater fan but no live oil samples have been recovered. High quality regional 2D and mega 3D seismic surveys over the ultra-deepwater fan show extensive and stacked class 3/2p AVO anomalies throughout the area with structural/stratigraphic conformance connected by faulting to underlying pods up to 2 kms thick of class 4 AVO source rock anomalies. The potential DHI anomalies cover thousands of sq kms and stack 1000-1500m in gross thickness. Such a large accumulations of anomalies suggest a world class source rock is present similar in facies to the Cenomanian to Campanian age Lomo Chomico Fm that outcrops on the Nicoya Peninsula in Costa Rica and measured 85m of type 1/2 kerogen, 15% avg TOC, and HI 324-935. The key geologic uncertainty is whether liquids are present and what is their API. The key economic uncertainty is can industry develop oil fields in waters >3200m deep. Frontier exploration requires making forecasts with only limited data meaning most of the time we get it wrong. It’s not a good path to follow for getting into the C-Suite but it is how we can find the next super basin. Bio Brian Russel Frost, Anadarko Petroleum Corporation (Retired) Brian frost earned a BSc in Geophysical Engineering from Colorado School of Mines in 1978. With a wide experience of 40 years in the industry, he currently is Distinguished Geophysical Advisor as retired from Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, responsible for worldwide new ventures, frontier exploration and finding the next “Mozambique”. His previous experience includes Phillips Petroleum Corp: Rocky Mountains Exploration, Geophysical Processing, GOM, Indonesia, PRC, and Somalia Exploration, Latin America New Ventures. Conoco: Advance Exploration Organization, Deepwater Niger Delta and Trinidad, Texas Shelf and Atlanic Margins New Ventures. British Borneo: Deepwater GOM, Frontier Exploration, Mauritania. Anadarko: International New Ventures, Frontier Exploration, West and East Africa, Colombia, Peru. Brian is a member of HGS, AAPG, Geological Society of London and PESGB.
Chajid Kairuz (presenter), Ruben Arismendy, ANH Consultants; José Osorno, Carlos Rey, ANH Colombia Presentation in Spanish. The Colombian Caribbean offshore is a frontier area of 223,694 km2, which includes two main Colombian offshore fields: Chuchupa and Ballena (producing for over 47 years). The interest in the region has risen in recent years due to several economic and non-economic discoveries. Hence, this paper aims to discuss the Colombian offshore Caribbean's economic potential, supported by the discoveries and their characteristics. This study used more than 18,600km of 2D seismic data (20 seismic surveys) reprocessed by Colombia's National Hydrocarbon Agency (ANH) on the continental shelf of the Colombian Caribbean (offshore basins of Guajira, Sinu, Uraba and southern region of the Colombia Basin). The integration, interpretation, and correlation of these seismic data was done with over 50 wells and potential methods. Moreover, geochemical data allowed the validation of the Petroleum systems. However, the results have conceived that the Colombian Caribbean only has the potential for biogenic gas. Nevertheless, the present study is supported by data showing otherwise: Crude oil samples in the Chimare 2-1, Punta Gallinas-1 and San Bernardo-1X exploratory wells, Condensed oil in the Orca-1, La Perla-1 (Venezuelan well), and Ballena 7 and 8 wells, Evidence of thermogenic hydrocarbons in core piston samples, Analysis of Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks in several wells in the Caribbean with the potential of generating thermogenic hydrocarbons and outcrops in Sinu and La Guajira (onshore sectors). The results show a new set of opportunities due to the variety of plays identified in the Colombian Caribbean, which have the potential to accumulate thermogenic hydrocarbons. Therefore, the Caribbean offshore has the potential to accumulate thermogenic hydrocarbons, which, together with the biogenic gas already discovered (at least 35 TCF), increase the potential for further exploration. Chajid Kairuz, ANH Consultant Chajid earned a BSc in Geology from the Universidad Nacional de Colombia. With more than 30 years of experience in the industry, he currently is ANH Consultant, and Co-Founder and Manager at Neoil Exploration, responsible project development. He has previous work experience at Ecopetrol, Trayectoria Oil & Gas and as a professor. Chajid is a member if ACGGP, AAPG, EAGE and SPE.
Author: Paul Mann (presenter), Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Houston Using a mega-regional dataset that includes over 20,000 km of on- and offshore 2D seismic lines tied to wells, I illustrate three successive stages in the oblique collision of the Great Arc of the Caribbean (GAC) and the basin response along the northern, continental margin of South America. Stage One: Initial arc-continent collision is characterized by thrusting of the south- and southeastward-facing Caribbean arc and forearc terranes onto the northward-subducting Mesozoic passive margin of northern South America. Northward flexure of the South American craton produces a foreland basin between the thrust front and the downward-flexed continental crust that is initially filled by clastic sediments shed both from the colliding arc and South American craton. Stage Two: This late stage of arc-continent collision is characterized by termination of deformation in one segment of the fold-thrust belt as convergent deformation shifts eastward. Strain partitioning also begins to play an important role as oblique convergence continues, accommodating deformation by the formation of parallel, right-lateral, strike-slip fault zones and backthrusting (southward subduction of the Caribbean plate beneath the South Caribbean deformed belt). Stage Three: This final stage of arc-continent collision is characterized by east-west extension of the Caribbean arc as it elongates parallel to its strike forming oblique normal faults that produce deep rift and half-grabens. The three tectonic stages closely control the structural styles and traps, source rock distribution, and stratigraphic traps for the abundant hydrocarbon resources of the on- and offshore areas of Venezuela and Trinidad. Paul Mann, University of Houston Paul earned a BSc from the Oberlin College and a PhD from the State University of New York at Albany, both degrees in Geology. He currently is Professor of Geology at the Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Houston, where he teaches, researches and supervises grad and undergrad students, and service to the EAS Dept. and other groups. He has also operated an oil industry-funded research group since 2005. Paul is a member of AAPG, GSA, AGU, SEG and HGS.
Authors: Ruben Arismendy (presenter), Chajid Kairuz, ANH Consultants; José Osorno, Carlos Rey, ANH Colombia The convergent boundaries of the Caribbean plate with the surrounding plates are making a complex structural configuration, associated with strike-slip faulting, compressive folding, lithospheric flexure, and collision zones. Additionally, the basement in the Caribbean Offshore is defined by a paleo-topography formed by extensional structures that caused grabens, hemigrabens, and horsts associated with the rifting phase during the Early Jurassic. The reprocessed 2D seismic data in 2015 (ANH), included four offshore basins: Guajira offshore, Sinu offshore, Uraba, and the Southern area of the Colombian basin. This study used 2D seismic , 50 wells, gravimetric and magnetometric methods to identify regional structural features. These methods allow the regional interpretation of depocenters, identify structural paleo-highs in the basement, and major structural features. The primary regional structurès conditioning the structural provinces styles are Santa Marta´s Fault, Oca´s Fault, Cuisa´s Fault, the Caribbean Southern Deformed Belt, and the Hess Escarpment, the Panama Northern Deformed Belt, and Sinu´s Folded Belt. This study aims to understand the structural configuration of the Colombian Caribbean offshore basins and describe its provinces according to each structural style as a tool to evaluate the prospectivity of the area. As a result, the Colombian Caribbean is divide into six regional structural provinces, according to the predominant structural deformation: province I, Colombian Basin; province II, Guajira´s Deformed Belt; province III, Guajira offshore (transitional zone); province IV, Magdalena Delta; province V, Sinu Offshore; Province VI, Gulf of Uraba. Bio: Ruben Arismendy, ANH Consultant Ruben earned a BSc in Geological Engineering from the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, and a MSc in Basin & Petroleum Systems from the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. With 15 years of experience in the industry, he currently is ANH Consultant, and Co-Founder and Manager at Neoil Exploration, responsible for both technical and management activities. Ruben is a member of AAPG and ACGGP.
Authors: Andreas Kammer (presenter), Alejandro Piraquive Universidad Nacional de Colombia Near its juncture with the Panamanian arc the South Caribbean Deformed Belt sways from an ENE margin-parallel strike into the NNW trending Northandean structural grain, and merges with the North Panama Deformed Belt. At this southern termination highly deformed Oligocene to Neocene platform sediments constitute the Sinu belt. They display a unique fold style, which consists of annular anticlinal trains outlining relatively sharp margins of broad elliptical synclines, some tens of km long. Near the western suture of this deformed belt these annular fold complexes are elongate and narrow, but track successively more open forms toward the eastern San Jacinto Belt. Annular antiformal rings may cut each other and their interference patterns display a structural younging toward the internal boundary of the fold belt. Mud volcanoes rooted within basal Oligocene muddy successions straddle the synclinal axes of these annular structures and occupy, only occasionally, their anticlinal borders. Based on these field observations, we suggest an inversion of initially broad, dome-like diapiric antiforms (or pillows), outlining the present synformal structures. A succeeding contractional deformation phase implied both a trend-parallel and perpendicular shortening and caused faults to cut through inherited rim synclines in such a way, that the formerly thickened anticlinal pillows partially peeled off and produced the observed interference patterns. In contrast to the W-vergent fold trains of the continental slope further north, a gravitational component should be dismissed for the formation of this subaerial belt. Instead, this overall constrictional fold pattern might have been caused by a crustal flow along the strongly arched oroclinal bend of the southern Sinu belt. Bio: Andreas Kammer, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Andreas earned a BSc from the University of Bern and currently is a Professor and researcher at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Previously also worked at the Universidad Industrial de Santander. Andreas is a member of Colombian Geological Society (SCG).
Authors: Weston Charles, Paul Mann (presenter), University of Houston Previous geophysical and seismological studies have shown that oceanic and oceanic plateau crust of the Colombian and Venezuelan basins of the central Caribbean plate are shallowly subducting southeastward and southward along the South Caribbean deformed belt to a depth of 300 km beneath the northern margin of the South American plate. In addition, the oceanic and oceanic plateau crust of the Venezuelan basin is shallowly subducting northward along the Muertos trench beneath Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. Both subduction systems are amagmatic. We have constructed seven regional transects over distances of (800-1200 km) at right angles to the SCDB and Muertos trench using bathymetry, free-air gravity, depth to the top of the basement, and depth to Moho to model the observed and predicted flexural response of the subducting areas of the Colombian and Venezuelan basins. Our main results include: 1) the distance to the modeled peripheral bulge of the Colombian basin occurs ~ 230 km to the northwest of the SCDB and records the deflection of the thickened, Caribbean large igneous province (CLIP) basement; 2) Plate deflection increases eastward in the Venezuelan basin at ~ 600 m then gradually decreases towards the Aves Ridge - the eastern part of the peripheral bulge forms an arch that slopes westward and is a result of varying load magnitudes along the SCDB and Muertos Trench; and 3) elastic thickness decreases from (57-15 km) west to east which reflects thicker (20-26 km) continental-arc-oceanic plateau crust of the western Caribbean while thinner (4-9 km) normal and thinned oceanic crust of the eastern Caribbean shows greater flexural deformation. Bio: Paul Mann, University of Houston Paul earned a BSc from the Oberlin College and a PhD from the State University of New York at Albany, both degrees in Geology. He currently is Professor of Geology at the Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Houston, where he teaches, researches and supervises grad and undergrad students, and service to the EAS Dept. and other groups. He has also operated an oil industry-funded research group since 2005. Paul is a member of AAPG, GSA, AGU, SEG and HGS.
Authors: Sean Romito (presenter), Paul Mann, University of Houston Thick sedimentary cover (≤16 km), vintage seismic, and disparate crustal terranes have hindered understanding of the basement underlying the Caribbean plate. The plate formed by Early Cretaceous to Miocene amalgamation of four crustal types: The Caribbean Large Igneous Province oceanic plateau; the Chortis continental block; the related Great Arc of the Caribbean and Siuna/Mesquito Composite Oceanic Terranes island arc blocks; and the Colombian and Venezuelan basin oceanic crust. We characterize each terrane through interpretation of surface geology, 62 000-line-km of 2D seismic reflection data, 366 seismic refraction stations, 47 wells, 74 basement samples, 2D forward modelling, magnetic and gravity anomaly grids, and integration of previous studies. Basins overlying island arc crust are small, fault-bounded and deep, while on continental crust, they are broader and shallower. Strongly flexed oceanic and oceanic plateau crust along amagmatic subduction zones on the southern and northeastern edges of the Caribbean plate produce the largest and deepest sediment filled basins. Areas of proven hydrocarbon source rocks and mapped seeps are associated with continental and island arc terranes in the western Caribbean plate, while organically-rich, but immature, Late Cretaceous source rocks occur across the more elevated areas of the central and eastern Caribbean plate interior. Bio: Sean Romito, University of Houston Sean earned a BSc in Geology from the University of Texas at Dallas, and currently is a PhD candidate and research assistant at the University of Houston, where he develops large-scale tectonic research within the Caribbean plate and the Brazilian passive margin. He has experience as intern on prospect generation within onshore US basins; field work as a wellsite geologist in the Permian; and intern on geologic risk within the Texas panhandle. Sean is a member of AAPG and HGS.
Authors: Andrés Rodríguez-Corcho (presenter), Sara Morón, Romain Beucher, Rebecca Farrington, Louis Moresi, Camilo Montes, The University of Melbourne Unraveling the geodynamic mechanisms behind basin formation in the Caribbean margin of Colombia (CMC) is key for understanding the petroleum systems in the region. The genesis of these Oligocene to present basins remains controversial as none of the proposed mechanisms of fore-arc extension, back-arc extension and block-rotation can fully explain the formation of the basins in the CMC. In this project, I use numerical visco-plastic mechanical models to test the hypothesis that the transference of the intra-oceanic arc to the overriding plate causes extension in the continental margin. This modelling will provide potential mechanisms for explaining the formation of basins in Northern Colombia and the Caribbean margin, some of which are the biggest hydrocarbon-bearing basins in the world. Bio Andrés Rodríguez-Corcho, The University of Melbourne Andrés earned BSc in Geoscience from the Universidad de los Andes, Colombia, and currently is a PhD student at the University of Melbourne, Australia, where he develops original and innovative research in geodynamics. He is a member of ACGGP.
Author: Agustin Cardona (presenter), Universidad Nacional de Colombia Recent advances on the understanding of the Late Cretaceous to Eocene geological record of the Western Colombian Andes have been used to test different paleogeographic and tectonic scenarios of northwestern South America. This talk will try to present a review of this record and evaluate its continuation into the Caribbean region as a way to test the calendars and style of the Caribbean-South American plate tectonic interactions.
Tuesday Talks Visiting Geoscientist Lectures

A free webinar series provided by AAPG LACR and the AAPG Foundation Visiting Geoscientist Program.

A Bacia de Santos é um excelente exemplo de quanto petróleo é mantido em locais remotos, apenas esperando ser encontrado por exploradores ousados com a vontade e os recursos necessários para encontrá-los. Junte-se a Flávio Feijó para uma apresentação da história e do potencial para futuras descobertas na Bacia de Santos
The Santos Basin is an excellent example of how much oil is kept in remote sites, just waiting to be found by bold explorationists with the will and resources needed to find them. Join Flávio Feijó to for a presentation of the history and potential for future discoveries in the Santos Basin
Visiting Geoscientist Susan Morrice shares her personal experience and insight in this talk about opportunities for geoscientists. “Geoscientists have advantages ... They are Time Travellers and have open minds. Bringing this creativity and innovation to your company or starting your own! Challenging times bring silver linings!”
Both climate change and the most recent coronavirus pandemic have generated multiple impacts on society. Though on the surface the crises appear to be unrelated, they have more similarities than differences. The common elements shared by Covid-19 and climate change promote the development of comprehensive solutions that mitigate both crises simultaneously. This talk examines how actions and strategies developed for the energy transition can help to address the multiple challenges that the world faces today.
Sequence stratigraphy is a method for stratigraphic interpretation, pioneered by Vail and colleagues in the mid 70’s, which explains the complex geometries that sediments create as they fill accommodation in response to changes in rates of sedimentation, subsidence, uplift and eustasy. This method was developed based on observations and concepts developed as early as in the 1800’s. Based on this strong scientific foundation, pioneer work from Caster, Sloss, Wheeler, Campbell, and Asquith established the basis for the methodology. These researchers established a new way to correlate stratigraphic units, demonstrating the time-transgressive nature of lithostratigraphic formations.
La Formación Smackover del Jurásico Superior (Oxfordiano) es una de las productoras de petróleo y gas más prolíficas de la llanura costera del noreste del Golfo de México, depositada en una rampa de carbonato proximal. Este estudio es una caracterización integral del ambiente de depositación de la Formación Smackover basada en datos sísmicos 3D y de pozos en los campos Vocation y Appleton situados en las subcuencas de Conecuh y Manila, en el suroeste de Alabama.
The Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) Smackover Formation is one of the most prolific oil and gas producers in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico coastal plain, where it deposited in a proximal carbonate ramp. This study is a comprehensive characterization of the depositional environment of the Smackover based on 3D seismic and well data from wells in the Vocation and Appleton oil fields located in the Conecuh and Manila Sub-basins in southwest Alabama.

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