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70th GCAGS/GCSSEPM Convention and Exposition - Call for Papers
Expires in 46 days
2020 AAPG Southwest Section Annual Meeting - Call for Papers
Expires in 106 days
Analog outcrops are commonly used to develop predictive reservoir models and provide quantitative parameters that describe the architecture and facies distribution of sedimentary deposits at a subseismic scale, all of which aids exploration and production strategies. The focus of this study is to create a detailed geological model that contains realistic reservoir parameters and to apply nonlinear acoustic full-waveform prestack seismic inversion to this model to investigate whether this information can be recovered and to examine which geological features can be resolved by this process.
Outcrop data from the fluviodeltaic sequence of the Book Cliffs (Utah) are used for the geological and petrophysical two-dimensional model. Eight depositional environments are populated with average petrophysical reservoir properties adopted from a North Sea field. These units are termed lithotypes here. Synthetic acoustic prestack seismic data are then generated with the help of an algorithm that includes all internal multiples and transmission effects. A nonlinear acoustic full-waveform inversion is then applied to the synthetic data, and two media parameters, compressibility (inversely related to the square of the compressional wave velocity vP) and bulk density, ρ, are recovered at a resolution higher than the shortest wavelength in the data. This is possible because the inversion exploits the nonlinear nature of the relationship between the recorded data and the medium contrast properties. In conventional linear inversion, these details remain masked by the noise caused by the nonlinear effects in the data. Random noise added to the data is rejected by the nonlinear inversion, contributing to improved spatial resolution. The results show that the eight lithotypes can be successfully recovered at a subseismic scale and with a low degree of processing artifacts. This technique can provide a useful basis for more accurate reservoir modeling and field development planning, allowing targeting of smaller reservoir units such as distributary channels and lower shoreface sands.
Criteria for recognizing stratigraphic sequences are well established on continental margins but more challenging to apply in basinal settings. We report an investigation of the Upper Devonian Woodford Shale, Permian Basin, west Texas based on a set of four long cores, identifying sea level cycles and stratigraphic sequences in an organic-rich shale.
The Woodford Shale is dominated by organic-rich mudstone, sharply overlain by a bioturbated organic-poor mudstone that is consistent with a second-order eustatic sea level fall. Interbedded with the organic-rich mudstone are carbonate beds, chert beds, and radiolarian laminae, all interpreted as sediment gravity-flow deposits. Bundles of interbedded mudstone and carbonate beds alternate with intervals of organic-rich mudstone and thin radiolaria-rich laminae, defining a 5–10 m (16–33 ft)-thick third-order cyclicity. The former are interpreted to represent highstand systems tracts, whereas the latter are interpreted as representing falling stage, lowstand, and transgressive systems tracts. Carbonate beds predominate in the lower Woodford section, associated with highstand shedding at a second-order scale; chert beds predominate in the upper Woodford section, responding to the second-order lowstand.
Additional variability is introduced by geographic position. Wells nearest the western margin of the basin have the greatest concentration of carbonate beds caused by proximity to a carbonate platform. A well near the southern margin has the greatest concentration of chert beds, resulting from shedding of biogenic silica from a southern source. A well in the basin center has little chert and carbonate; here, third-order sea level cycles were primarily reflected in the stratigraphic distribution of radiolarian-rich laminae.
Data derived from core and well-logs are essentially one-dimensional and determining eolian system type and likely dimensions and orientation of architectural elements present in subsurface eolian reservoir successions is typically not possible from direct observation alone. This is problematic because accurate predictions of the three-dimensional distribution of interdune and dune-plinth elements that commonly form relatively low-permeability baffles to flow, of net:gross, and of the likely distribution of elements with common porosity-permeability properties at a variety of scales in eolian reservoirs is crucial for effective reservoir characterization.
Direct measurement of a variety of parameters relating to aspects of the architecture of eolian elements preserved as ancient outcropping successions has enabled the establishment of a series of empirical relationships with which to make first-order predictions of a range of architectural parameters from subsurface successions that are not observable directly in core. In many preserved eolian dune successions, the distribution of primary lithofacies types tends to occur in a predictable manner for different types of dune sets, whereby the pattern of distribution of grain-flow, wind-ripple, and grain-fall strata can be related to set architecture, which itself can be related back to original bedform type.
Detailed characterization of individual eolian dune sets and relationships between neighboring dune and interdune elements has been undertaken through outcrop studies of the Permian Cedar Mesa Sandstone and the Jurassic Navajo Sandstone in southern Utah. The style of transition between lithofacies types seen vertically in preserved sets, and therefore measurable in analogous core intervals, enables predictions to be made regarding the relationship between preserved set thickness, individual grain-flow thickness, original bedform dimensional properties (e.g., wavelength and height), the likely proportion of the original bedform that is preserved to form a set, the angle of climb of the system, and the likely along-crest variability of facies distributions in sets generated by the migration of sinuous-crested bedforms. A series of graphical models depict common facies arrangements in bedsets for a suite of dune types and these demonstrate inherent facies variability.
The presence of natural gas in Kansas was known in pre-territorial time, as it was escaping from “oil springs” in Miami County in the region’s northeast part – there is some evidence that it was collected and used by local American Indians before any easterners settled in what would become the Sunflower State.
It’s now been shown that the “sweet” aspect of an identified sweet spot can change – not only stratigraphically, but also laterally within the zone itself.
The ability to see ahead of the drillbit while drilling, in real time, helps the driller avoid hazards, increase drilling efficiency and improve well results. Successful SWD captures seismic data without interrupting drilling operations, saving money and reducing risk.
BP's interest in the Gulf of Mexico remains strong. An expected average of US$4 billion each year for the next 10 years is expected to be invested.
The Marcellus Shale is considered to be the largest unconventional shale-gas resource in the United States. Two critical factors for unconventional shale reservoirs are the response of a unit to hydraulic fracture stimulation and gas content. The fracture attributes reflect the geomechanical properties of the rocks, which are partly related to rock mineralogy. The natural gas content of a shale reservoir rock is strongly linked to organic matter content, measured by total organic carbon (TOC). A mudstone lithofacies is a vertically and laterally continuous zone with similar mineral composition, rock geomechanical properties, and TOC content. Core, log, and seismic data were used to build a three-dimensional (3-D) mudrock lithofacies model from core to wells and, finally, to regional scale. An artificial neural network was used for lithofacies prediction. Eight petrophysical parameters derived from conventional logs were determined as critical inputs. Advanced logs, such as pulsed neutron spectroscopy, with log-determined mineral composition and TOC data were used to improve and confirm the quantitative relationship between conventional logs and lithofacies. Sequential indicator simulation performed well for 3-D modeling of Marcellus Shale lithofacies. The interplay of dilution by terrigenous detritus, organic matter productivity, and organic matter preservation and decomposition affected the distribution of Marcellus Shale lithofacies distribution, which may be attributed to water depth and the distance to shoreline. The trend of normalized average gas production rate from horizontal wells supported our approach to modeling Marcellus Shale lithofacies. The proposed 3-D modeling approach may be helpful for optimizing the design of horizontal well trajectories and hydraulic fracture stimulation strategies.
Over the past two years large variations in the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates of the volume of methane released during natural gas production have been used by organizations arguing respectively that natural gas is cleaner than or dirtier than coal.
A recent story about Shell’s withdrawal from a long-lived project on in situ production of shale oil from oil shale was an interesting example of over-interpretation of a small dataset.
This field trip includes an overview of Enterprise Products Partners Houston Regional Operations at Mont Belvieu, Texas. Home of the world's largest salt dome.
This all-day field trip to NASA Space Center Houston is a unique opportunity to see firsthand the history of U.S. Space exploration with Apollo 17 Astronaut Harrison Schmitt and Shuttle Astronaut Jim Reilly. Be prepared for a full day of exciting and interesting space adventures, including a morning tour of a full-scale model of the Space Shuttle atop a Boeing 747.
An excursion from the U.S. Corps. of Engineers office at Barker Reservoir to visit locations where where the manifestation of surface faults demonstrates the damage they can cause.
A five day field trip held in conjunction with AAPG ACE 2020 in Houston, Texas, with visits to outcrops in Austin, Eagle Ford, Wolfcamp, and/or Bone Springs
Deltas are extremely important depositional systems and often source and contain prolific hydrocarbon accumulations. This workshop includes topical lectures, key cores, and a suite of exercises that integrate core, well logs, experimental flume data, and seismic sections to develop identification and subsurface mapping skills of hydrocarbon accumulations within deltaic settings.
This two-day workshop provides a review of the application of carbonate facies, diagenesis, and seismic sequence stratigraphy to exploration and production. The workshop combines seismic, well log and rock data, to develop interpretations that help predict carbonate hydrocarbon systems, and characterize conventional and unconventional carbonate reservoirs and seals.
This course provides an overview of different 3-D printing techniques that use both rock-like materials (e.g., sand, gypsum, clay) and polymers (e.g., plastics, resins). Participants will learn how to deploy 3-D-printed models to improve technical communication to diverse audiences (e.g., students, geoscientists, engineers, managers, community stakeholders).
The purpose of the course is to help people who are immersed in the oil and gas industry to gain a practical understanding of what unstructured data is, what value there is in it, how it can be utilized, and why this is now relevant.
A two-day course studying advanced methods in seismic stratigraphy including application of sequence stratigraphy to unconventional resources.
This course is designed to teach graduate students the principles, concepts and methods of sequence stratigraphy.
This is a one-day short course on the various applications of petroleum and inorganic geochemistry throughout the lifecycle of unconventional reservoir from exploration, appraisal, to development.
Any complete core analysis program should include companion thin sections for all core plugs on which measurements have been made. This course will describe the use of multimodal thin section imaging and image analysis to make quantitative estimates of rock properties that are important in hydrocarbon exploration and production.
Entry cost and CO2 supply have long been barriers to traditional Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) applications, but new tax regulations may break the stalemate, providing both for feasible EOR capture from a larger range of anthropogenic sources, and potential CCS options. The course will provide participants with an overview of CO2 in the framework of the energy transition. Speakers will address the regulatory and policy issues as well as societal concerns.
This course is designed for geologists who interpret fine-grained rocks, explore for or develop conventional hydrocarbons, shale gas, or oil shale. Participants will practice recognizing and correlating significant stratigraphic packages through seismic stratigraphy, stacking pattern analysis of well-log, core and outcrop data, and facies analysis.
A short course discussing the Fast Wheeler Transform (FWT) and the role that synkinematic deposition plays in the masking of onlaps, offlaps, etc., and how FWT’s solve this interpretation challenge
This course is designed for anyone who leads or coordinates field activities such as Field Trips, Field Seminars, Field Camps, or general field work, for companies or student groups. Participants will acquire and practice strategies to prepare for and conduct safe and effective field activities. (Although not required, previous participants have suggested that having NOLS - Wilderness First Aid or equivalent training will enhance the course experience.)
Ever wondered “Why didn’t I say something?” after witnessing social bias—a stereotype, a prejudice or discrimination—that happened in your everyday life? You’re not alone. Deciding whether and how to respond to bias is complicated. Understanding what motivates us to speak up, the challenges we face when doing so, and strategies for effective responding can help bystanders to bias better evaluate their options and select effective strategies. This interactive presentation will invite attendees to learn about bystander reactions to social biases and how these reactions can help or hinder decisions to speak up.
The following short course option was developed for geology and geophysics students that have not had much exposure to how geoscience is applied in industry. It can be tailored for undergraduate juniors and seniors or graduate students. The agenda can be modified to meet specific needs and time constraints. Contact the presenter to discuss options.
Request a visit from Fred Schroeder!
This lecture will discuss the differences between carbonates and siliciclastics from their chemical composition through their distributions in time and space. Building on these fundamental differences, we will explore the challenges carbonates pose to petroleum geologists in terms of seismic interpretation, reservoir quality prediction, field development, etc. Peppered with humorous personal stories, still raging academic debates, and the heartfelt frustrations of real industry professionals, the aim is to inspire students and young professionals to rise to the occasion and embrace the reservoir rocks that petroleum geologists love to hate.
Request a visit from Noelle Joy Purcell!
Analysis of microseismicity induced by hydraulic fracture stimulation in the Marcellus Shale shows changes in stress state for different zones of failure. During the treatment, shear failure occurs on both the J1 and J2 fracture orientations in response to different maximum stress orientations, indicating localized changes in the orientation during the treatment. Reactivation of a fault near the wellbore is associated with failure mechanisms with a higher volumetric component, indicating possible inflation of faults and fractures by the introduction of the slurry. Quantification of the stress conditions that are associated with inflation could potentially be used to optimize the stimulation by identifying which fractures will preferentially take on slurry volume.
Request a visit from Sherilyn Williams-Stroud!
This is a less-technical education topic. It can be condensed to an hour or given as 2 two-hour sessions. It stresses selected controversial aspects of fracking that touch some combination of environment and economics and includes a short video of how fracking is done.
Request a visit from David Weinberg!
Microseismicity induced by hydraulic fracture stimulation of a horizontal well was mapped with a near-surface buried array. Distinct linear trends of events were not parallel to the direction of fast shear wave polarization measured in the reservoir with a crossed-dipole anisotropy tool. Analysis of core from a nearby well revealed numerous calcite-filled fractures that did not induce shear wave polarization, but did significantly impact the failure behavior of the reservoir rock during the stimulation treatment. Hydraulic fracture simulation with DFN modeling and source mechanism analysis supports the interpretation of reactivated existing fractures rather than the formation of hydraulically-induced tensile fractures.
The following short course option was developed for geology and geophysics students that have not had much exposure to how geoscience is applied in industry. It can be tailored for undergraduate juniors and seniors or graduate students. The agenda can be modified to meet specific needs and time constraints.
In 1991, Gulf Indonesia and its partners discovered South Sumatra Basin’s first major gas field at Dayung in the Corridor PSC. A key feature of this field is that most of the reserves are held within fractured basement rocks of pre-Tertiary age.
Request a visit from Charles Caughey!
Hydraulic fracturing has been around for decades. This talk describes some of the first applications of the technology, how it developed over time, and our current understanding of its impacts with some discussion of both water and earthquake hazards.
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