Explorer Emphasis Article

The current, free-flowing supply of hydrocarbons has brought a sigh of relief to many who have been scrambling to find alternatives to dwindling supplies of conventional fossil fuels. But while some estimate the shale energy boom has handed the nation at least four decades of energy security, this is not a time to rest easy, said past AAPG president Scott Tinker, the director of the Bureau of Economic Geology and state geologist of Texas

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer Emphasis Article

This year, URTeC has added an enhanced preview of “Coming Attractions.” In addition to looking at established plays, URTeC will provide significant information about emerging unconventional resource possibilities in North America and around the world.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Energy Policy Blog

This is Energy Week in the House, bringing a flurry of hearings and votes. But, topics in the news may not be on the agenda; for example, induced seismicity is an area of public concern, but Congress will not be considering the topic.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer Emphasis Article

AAPG member Zell Peterman, U.S. Geological Survey scientist emeritus, is busy with colleagues examining Williston Basin Bakken formation water and the role of shale filtration.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer Emphasis Article

As Colorado goes, so goes the nation when it comes to energy and environmental policy and the court of public opinion.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer Article

Some surprising findings bubbled up in a recent study of methane geochemistry in the Appalachian Basin. The findings could complicate the jobs of investigators trying to determine how stray methane gets into water wells.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer Division Column EMD

When you need in-depth, science-based information on shale plays and issues, AAPG past president Scott Tinker has the reputation as the go-to guy.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer Emphasis Article

America’s recent ascent to the high-level status of a hydrocarbon producer worthy of a significant presence on the world stage of leading producers stems from something new and a rebirth of something old.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer Article

A crucial aspect of these fluid inclusions… is that they endure in the geologic record although the parent fluids move on. As a result, a given sample contains the fluid history of the area. In other words, despite being microscopic they’re jam-packed with information.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer Article

Microseismic is one of the tools that have grown in popularity as it has helped producers answer one of the biggest questions they face: Where to drill next?

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
VG Abstract

Production from unconventional petroleum reservoirs includes petroleum from shale, coal, tight-sand and oil-sand. These reservoirs contain enormous quantities of oil and natural gas but pose a technology challenge to both geoscientists and engineers to produce economically on a commercial scale. These reservoirs store large volumes and are widely distributed at different stratigraphic levels and basin types, offering long-term potential for energy supply. Most of these reservoirs are low permeability and porosity that need enhancement with hydraulic fracture stimulation to maximize fluid drainage. Production from these reservoirs is increasing with continued advancement in geological characterization techniques and technology for well drilling, logging, and completion with drainage enhancement. Currently, Australia, Argentina, Canada, Egypt, USA, and Venezuela are producing natural gas from low permeability reservoirs: tight-sand, shale, and coal (CBM). Canada, Russia, USA, and Venezuela are producing heavy oil from oilsand. USA is leading the development of techniques for exploring, and technology for exploiting unconventional gas resources, which can help to develop potential gas-bearing shales of Thailand. The main focus is on source-reservoir-seal shale petroleum plays. In these tight rocks petroleum resides in the micro-pores as well as adsorbed on and in the organics. Shale has very low matrix permeability (nano-darcies) and has highly layered formations with differences in vertical and horizontal properties, vertically non-homogeneous and horizontally anisotropic with complicate natural fractures. Understanding the rocks is critical in selecting fluid drainage enhancement mechanisms; rock properties such as where shale is clay or silica rich, clay types and maturation , kerogen type and maturation, permeability, porosity, and saturation. Most of these plays require horizontal development with large numbers of wells that require an understanding of formation structure, setting and reservoir character and its lateral extension. The quality of shale-gas resources depend on thickness of net pay (>100 m), adequate porosity (>2%), high reservoir pressure (ideally overpressure), high thermal maturity (>1.5% Ro), high organic richness (>2% TOC), low in clay (<50%), high in brittle minerals (quartz, carbonates, feldspars), and favourable in-situ stress. During the past decade, unconventional shale and tight-sand gas plays have become an important supply of natural gas in the US, and now in shale oil as well. As a consequence, interest to assess and explore these plays is rapidly spreading worldwide. The high production potential of shale petroleum resources has contributed to a comparably favourable outlook for increased future petroleum supplies globally. Application of 2D and 3D seismic for defining reservoirs and micro seismic for monitoring fracturing, measuring rock properties downhole (borehole imaging) and in laboratory (mineralogy, porosity, permeability), horizontal drilling (downhole GPS), and hydraulic fracture stimulation (cross-linked gel, slick-water, nitrogen or nitrogen foam) is key in improving production from these huge resources with low productivity factors.

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American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)

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