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Geomechanics and Fracture Analysis

Geomechanics and Fracture Analysis

Geomechanics and Fracture Analysis
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A team of structural geologists and seismic processing geophysicists has developed what they believe is a potentially revolutionary technology that can help predict fracture performance before a well is ever drilled.

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The AAPG-AAPG Foundation Distinguished Lecture program, the Association's flagship initiative for sharing the latest in scientific thought, concepts and advances, starts its new season in November with a lecture tour of North America.

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The key elements for shale resource evaluation are the mineral content – such as clay, quartz and calcite – the total organic carbon (TOC) content, the brittleness and some mechanical properties of the shale rocks. Geomechanical studies are necessary both for understanding wellbore environment stability and also interpreting well log data, by estimating the mechanical properties of the subsurface.
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Production from self-sourced reservoirs relies on natural and induced fracturing to enhance permeability and produce connected pathways for hydrocarbons to flow back to producing wellbores; thus, natural or induced fracturing is key to the success of unconventional reservoir plays. In addition to enhancing production, large or well-connected fractures or faults may cause undesirable complications for production. 

Natural and induced fractures are influenced by: (i) mechanical stratigraphy, (ii) preexisting natural deformation such as faults, fractures, and folds, and (iii) in situ stress conditions, which includes both natural stresses and stresses modified by stimulation and pressure depletion (Ferrill et al. 2014b). Understanding the occurrence and controls on natural and induced faulting and fracturing in self-sourced reservoirs is a key component for developing effective approaches for exploiting hydrocarbons within self-sourced reservoirs.

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Analyses of normal faults at displacements spanning 7 orders of magnitude (mm to km) in mechanically layered strata reveal that mechanical properties of rock layers strongly influence nucleation points, failure mode (shear versus hybrid), geometry (e.g., refraction through mechanical layers), rate of propagation with respect to displacement (and potential for fault tip folding), displacement partitioning (e.g., synthetic dip, synthetic faulting, fault core displacement), fault core and damage zone width, and fault zone deformation processes.
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Some of the world’s most spectacular and geologically fascinating sights will be showcased in nine field trips planned in conjunction with September’s AAPG-SEG International Conference and Exhibition (ACE) in Melbourne, Australia, Sept. 13-16.
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AAPG bestows the Robert R. Berg Award in recognition of a singular achievement in petroleum geoscience research. Mark Zoback’s research has advanced the industry’s understanding and application of geomechanics, but he’s also done important work in other areas.
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Since the introduction of Electrical Borehole Images over twenty years ago many very useful applications have been developed for this data. These include applications, which range from handpicked bed dips to fracture analysis, from thin-bedded pay determination to measuring vugular porosity, from fault geometry determination to facies analysis. These applications are made possible because of the high resolution provided by these images. The images provide the means to perform detailed high-resolution reservoir characterization at the borehole. This presentation will concentrate on structural aspects of borehole image interpretation. Fault and fold examples from different basins across the USA will be examined with examples from around different US Basins.
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In-Person Training
Muscat Oman 18 January, 2016 20 January, 2016 16517 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/gtw2016me-hydrocarbon-seals-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Subsalt Traps, Structural Traps, Stratigraphic Traps, Diagenetic Traps, Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs, Reservoir Characterization, Engineering, Seismic Attributes, Geochemical Fingerprinting, 3D Seismic, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Sequence Stratigraphy, Evaporites, Clastics, Carbonates, Structure, Fold and Thrust Belts, Compressional Systems, Geomechanics and Fracture Analysis, Production, Drive Mechanisms
Muscat, Oman
18-20 January 2016

This workshop has the primary goal to share knowledge, case studies, techniques and workflows pertaining to the understanding and prediction of hydrocarbon seals for exploration and production in the Middle East. These seals range in age from Pre-Cambrian to Tertiary.    

Online Training
30 October, 2014 30 October, 2014 11390 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/sc-kerogen-maturity-determinations.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
30 October 2014

Cross disciplinary workflows play an important part of successful characterization of shale reservoirs. This course discusses how the artificial kerogen maturity of organic-rich Green River shale affects the petrophysical, micro-structural, geochemical and elastic properties.

04 October, 2012 04 October, 2012 1491 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-microseismic-imaging-of-hydraulic-fractures.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
4 October 2012

Effective hydraulic fracture stimulation is critical for shale development, and microseismic is the only technology able to map the growth of these hydraulic fracture networks.

09 February, 2012 09 February, 2012 1477 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-seismic-reservoir-characterization-of-us-shales.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
9 February 2012

Projects in several shales will be discussed, including Marcellus, Eagle Ford, Haynesville, Fayetteville, Montney, and Barnett, as will several seismically-detectable drivers for success including lithofacies, stress, pre-existing fractures, and pore pressure.

29 September, 2011 29 September, 2011 1478 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-application-of-inversion-and-clustering-analysis.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
29 September 2011

This study will focus in the combination of λρ – μρ inversion with clustering analysis techniques in order to discriminate brittle zones in the Barnett Shale.

15 March, 2012 15 March, 2012 1484 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-exploring-the-geopressure-risk-in-deep-water-frontier-plays.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
15 March 2012

This e-symposium presents techniques for predicting pore pressure in seals by examining case studies from the Gulf of Mexico and incorporating the relationship between rocks, fluids, stress, and pressure.

07 June, 2012 07 June, 2012 1488 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-new-production-in-oil-fields.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
7 June 2012

Unger Field, discovered in1955, has produced 8.6 million barrels of oil from a thinly (several ft) bedded, locally cherty dolomite containing vuggy and intercrystalline porosity.

12 July, 2012 12 July, 2012 1490 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-shale-wells-making-the-engineering-fit-what-geology-offers.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
12 July 2012

This presentation will look at well placement vertically in the pay, well azimuth and well trajectory with explanations of how geology and post-depositional effects can make the difference between a successful well and a failure.

16 February, 2012 16 February, 2012 1483 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-seismically-driven-characterization-of-unconventional-shale-plays.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
16 February 2012

This presentation describes a proven workflow that uses a standard narrow azimuth 3D seismic, conventional logs, image logs and core data to build five key reservoir properties required for an optimal development of shale plays.

10 May, 2012 10 May, 2012 1486 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-genetic-sequences-in-eagle-ford-austin.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
10 May 2012

Recognition and Correlation of the Eagle Ford, Austin Formations in South Texas can be enhanced with High Resolution Biostratigraphy, fossil abundance peaks and Maximum Flooding Surfaces correlated to Upper Cretaceous sequence stratigraphic cycle chart after Gradstein, 2010.

20 January, 2012 20 January, 2012 1482 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-eagle-ford-shale-prospecting-with-3d-seismic-data.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
20 January 2012

The Eagle Ford Shale in South Texas is one of the more exciting shale plays in the United States at the current time.

25 August, 2011 25 August, 2011 1475 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-overview-of-hydraulic-fracturing-mechanics-analysis-and-design.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
25 August 2011

This e-symposium provides highlights of the hydraulic fracturing mechanics, analysis, and design, and is derived from a two and one-half (2-1/2) day course which is designed for drilling, completion, production engineers, engineering technicians, geologists, well-site and completion supervisors, and managers, who desire to possess a comprehensive and integral knowledge of Hydraulic Fracturing.

17 March, 2011 17 March, 2011 1470 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-basic-tools-for-shale-exploration.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
17 March 2011

This e-symposium will provide information on which tools, processes, and procedures all geoscientists, engineers, and technical professionals working in shale plays need to understand and implement.

09 December, 2010 09 December, 2010 1466 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-bakken-petroleum-system-of-the-williston-basin.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
9 December 2010

The Mississippian-Devonian Bakken Petroleum System of the Williston Basin is characterized by low-porosity and permeability reservoirs, organic-rich source rocks, and regional hydrocarbon charge.

21 October, 2010 21 October, 2010 1464 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-evaluating-mature-fields.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
21 October 2010

This e-symposium covers how to conduct an interdisciplinary evaluation of mature fields to determine the best approach to recover remaining reserves.

22 July, 2010 22 July, 2010 1461 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-all-shale-gas-reservoirs-are-not-the-same.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
22 July 2010

Upon successful completion of this course, you will be able to describe geomechanics in shale reservoirs and discuss differences between plays.

03 June, 2010 03 June, 2010 1460 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-marcellus-utica-in-the-field.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
3 June 2010

Upon successful completion of this course, you will be able to describe faults and fractures in carbonates, black shales, and coarser clastics as they occur in the northern Appalachian Basin.

25 March, 2010 25 March, 2010 1458 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-mapping-natural-fractures-using-3d-seismic-and-well-data.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
25 March 2010

The presentation describes a well established fracture modeling workflow that uses a standard 3D seismic, conventional logs, image logs and data from one core to build predictive 3D fracture models that are validated with blind wells.

25 January, 2011 25 January, 2011 1454 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-integrating-discipline-data-and-workflows-in-resource-play.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
25 January 2011

This esymposium takes a close look at workflows associated with resource plays, and analyzes where integration must occur between disciplines, data, and workflows at all phases of the process.

14 February, 3000 14 February, 3000 7817 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-generic-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
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