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Stratigraphic Traps

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China plans to significantly increase its natural gas consumption to help cut its appalling air pollution. But natural gas is still a small part of its energy mix. In addition, and to confound environmentalists, a significant part of China’s gas supply comes from Coal-to-Gas technology, which generates large volumes of greenhouse gas and other pollutants, but does allow China to deliver clean-burning gas to locations with severe air pollution.

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Preparation for the FIFA World Cup was not the only event attracting international audiences to Brazil in May. AAPG’s Geosciences Technology Workshop (GTW) Brasil, "Stratigraphic Traps and Play Concepts in Deep Water Settings," brought in 143 geoscientists representing 12 countries from the Americas, Europe and Asia.
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The Ayoluengo field, commonly cited as Spain’s only onshore oil field, was discovered in June 1964. Today, 50 years later, the field is still active, with an average production of some 100 barrels oil per day and a total cumulated oil production of nearly 17 million barrels of oil.

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The history of oil development in Alaska is often presented as a heroic tale, but long before the 1968 discovery of the Prudhoe Bay field (16 billion barrels and counting), the industry experience was marked by a great deal of frustration and failure.

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The Croatian Hydrocarbons Agency used AAPG’s Annual Convention and Exhibition (ACE) in Houston last month as an opportunity to formally announce that the country’s first offshore license round opened April 2 of this year.

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When it comes to U.S. energy policy, there arguably is no topic that creates more heated debate than that of the federal OCS (Outer Continental Shelf) leasing program.

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The petroleum trap for the Athabasca oil sands has remained elusive because it was destroyed by flexural loading of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene. The original trap extent is preserved because the oil was biodegraded to immobile bitumen as the trap was being charged during the Late Cretaceous. Using well and outcrop data, it is possible to reconstruct the Cretaceous overburden horizons beyond the limit of present-day erosion. Sequential restoration of the reconstructed horizons reveals a megatrap at the top of the Wabiskaw-McMurray reservoir in the Athabasca area at 84 Ma (late Santonian). The megatrap is a four-way anticline with dimensions 285 x 125 km (177 x 78 mi) and maximum amplitude of 60 m (197 ft). The southeastern margin of the anticline shows good conformance to the bitumen edge for 140 km (87 mi). To the northeast of the anticline, bitumen is present in a shallower trap domain in what is interpreted to be an onlap trap onto the Canadian Shield; leakage along the onlap edge is indicated by tarry bitumen outliers preserved in basement rocks farther to the northeast. Peripheral trap domains that lie below the paleospillpoint, in northern, southern, and southwestern Athabasca, and Wabasca, are interpreted to represent a late charge of oil that was trapped by bitumen already emplaced in the anticline and the northeastern onlap trap. This is consistent with kimberlite intrusions containing live bitumen, which indicate that the northern trap domain was charged not before 78 Ma. The trap restoration has been tested using bitumen-water contact well picks. The restored picks fall into groups that are consistent both with the trap domains determined from the top reservoir restoration and the conceptual charge model in which the four-way anticline was filled first, followed by the northeastern onlap trap, and then the peripheral trap domains.

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With technical advances in surface seismic and downhole electrical imaging techniques, it is now possible to not only map the distribution of reservoir sandstones in the subsurface, but to accurately define the orientation of productive fairways, or “sweet-spots”, within the sequence.

Channel sands frequently have favourable reservoir characteristics. Having often been laid down in higher energy settings, they commonly have coarser and better sorted grains, less clay and improved poroperm characteristics. However, they often have limited lateral extent and shoe-string geometries which make them more difficult to predict in the subsurface.

This paper will summarize the results of four case studies and some additional examples of how channel sands, laid down in different depositional settings, have been recognized with borehole imaging. From sedimentary features and palaeocurrent directions within the sands it has been possible to determine their orientation and evolve improved exploration and development strategies.

Further complexities in reservoir characterization, caused by thin beds or bioturbation; and how these effects can be recognized on the images, and quantified using other electric log data, will be discussed.

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Edinburgh, Scotland, has a new research center planning to open its doors in 2015. It is the Sir Charles Lyell Centre, named after Britain's 19th century geologist. The uptick of interest in emerging industries of shale oil and gas and deep sea metal mining is just one of the areas of the focus planned for the centre.

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The Heidrun field, located on the Halten Terrace of the mid-Norwegian continental shelf, was one of the first giant oil fields found in the Norwegian Sea. Traditional reservoir intervals in the Heidrun field lie within the Jurassic synrift sequence. Most Norwegian continental shelf fields have been producing from these Jurassic reservoirs for the past 30 yr. Production has since declined in these mature fields, but recently, exploration for new reservoirs has resurged in this region. The Jurassic rifted fault blocks form a narrow continental shelf in Norway, thereby greatly reducing the areal extent for exploration and development within existing fields. As the rift axis is approached farther offshore, these Jurassic reservoirs become very deep, too risky to drill, and uneconomical. This risk has prompted exploration in more recent years of the shallower Cretaceous, postrift stratigraphic succession. Cretaceous turbidites have been found in the Norwegian and North Seas, and the discovery of the Agat field in the Norwegian North Sea confirms the existence of a working petroleum system capable of charging Cretaceous reservoirs. These Cretaceous reservoirs were deposited as slope- and basin-floor fans within a series of underfilled rifted deeps along the Norwegian continental shelf and are thought to be sourced from the localized erosion of Jurassic rifted highs. We use three-dimensional seismic and well data to document the geomorphology of a deep-water, Lower Cretaceous wedge (Cromer Knoll Group) within the hanging wall of a rift-related half graben formed on the Halten Terrace offshore mid-Norway. Seismic attribute extractions taken within this Lower Cretaceous wedge reveal the presence of several lobate to elongated bodies that seem to cascade over fault-bounded terraces associated with rifted structures. These high-amplitude, elongated bodies are interpreted as deep-water sedimentary conduits that are time equivalent to the Cretaceous basin-floor fans in more distal parts of the basin to the west. These half-graben fills have the potential to contain high-quality Cretaceous sandstones that might represent a potential new reservoir interval within the Heidrun field.
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In-Person Training
Alexandria Egypt 18 March, 2016 19 March, 2016 22043 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/gtw2016-Hydrocaron-Potential-Sinai-Micro-plate-hero-08dec15.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Petroleum Systems, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Structure, Tectonics (General), Structural Traps, Stratigraphic Traps
Alexandria, Egypt
18-19 March 2016
This interdisciplinary two-day workshop will provide participants with the opportunity to describe and discuss the Sinai basins from a holistic perspective, to consider predictive exploration models for the less explored regions and perhaps gain new insights for those areas thought to be already mature. Experts on the Eastern Mediterranean-Levant, Nile Delta, Gulf of Suez, Northern Red Sea, Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea, and Sinai interior basins will lead the sessions. The workshop is organized by the AAPG Africa Region and the Egyptian Petroleum Exploration Society.
Bakersfield California United States 13 May, 2016 13 May, 2016 28238 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/forum-psaapg2016-playmaker-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Source Rock, Engineering, Development and Operations, Coring, Infill Drilling, Production, Primary Recovery, Secondary Recovery, Tertiary Recovery, Thermal Recovery Processes, Petroleum Systems, Geophysics, Seismic, Clastics, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Conventional Sandstones, Deepwater Turbidites, Marine, Structure, Compressional Systems, Fold and Thrust Belts, Tectonics (General), Stratigraphic Traps, Structural Traps
Bakersfield, California, United States
13 May 2016

The Playmaker Forum will be a great way to learn more about our fascinating Pacific Section petroleum provinces, facilitate industry networking, and visit with friends and colleagues.

Houston Texas United States 17 May, 2016 18 May, 2016 27184 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/rethinking-reservoirs-new-approaches-techniques-solutions-for-difficult-times-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Business and Economics, Engineering, Development and Operations, Production, Drive Mechanisms, Depletion Drive, Water Drive, Hydraulic Fracturing, Primary Recovery, Secondary Recovery, Tertiary Recovery, Chemical Flooding Processes, Reservoir Characterization, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Oil and Gas Analysis, Oil Seeps, Petroleum Systems, Geophysics, Seismic, Petrophysics and Well Logs, Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs, Shale Gas, Stratigraphic Traps, Structural Traps, Subsalt Traps, Tight Gas Sands
Houston, Texas, United States
17-18 May 2016

The goal of this two-day workshop is to develop strategies for success in difficult times. We will bring together engineers, geologists and geophysicists to explore new ideas, workflows, techniques, and technologies for revitalizing existing wells.

Rio de Janeiro Brazil 18 May, 2016 19 May, 2016 24695 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/exploration-production-challenges-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Business and Economics, Economics, Reserve Estimation, Resource Estimates, Risk Analysis, Development and Operations, Engineering, Conventional Drilling, Geophysics, Seismic, Carbonates, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, (Carbonate) Shelf Sand Deposits, Carbonate Platforms, Clastics, Conventional Sandstones, Deep Sea / Deepwater, Deepwater Turbidites, Marine, Reservoir Characterization, Structural Traps, Subsalt Traps, Stratigraphic Traps
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
18-19 May 2016

A Geosciences technology workshop hosted by the Associação Brasileira de Geólogos de Petróleo  (ABGP) and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)

Lagos Nigeria 11 July, 2016 13 July, 2016 21922 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/sequence-stratigraphy-concepts-principles-applications-clastic-depositional-environments-02feb-2016-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Engineering, Reservoir Characterization, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Source Rock, Petrophysics and Well Logs, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Clastics, Conventional Sandstones, Deep Sea / Deepwater, Deepwater Turbidites, Eolian Sandstones, Estuarine Deposits, Fluvial Deltaic Systems, High Stand Deposits, Incised Valley Deposits, Lacustrine Deposits, Low Stand Deposits, Marine, Regressive Deposits, Sheet Sand Deposits, Shelf Sand Deposits, Slope, Transgressive Deposits, Sequence Stratigraphy, Deep Basin Gas, Diagenetic Traps, Stratigraphic Traps, Structural Traps
Lagos, Nigeria
11-13 July 2016
Sequence stratigraphy provides a framework for the integration of geological, geophysical, biostratigraphic and engineering data, with the aim of predicting the distribution of reservoir, source rock and seal lithologies. It gives the geoscientist a powerful predictive tool for regional basin analysis, shelf-to-basin correlation, and characterization of reservoir heterogeneity. This course will examine the underlying geological principles, processes and terminology related to sequence stratigraphic interpretation. The strength of this course is the application of these basic principles to subsurface datasets in a series of well-founded exercises.
Muscat Oman 26 October, 2016 27 October, 2016 26806 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/advances-in-subsurface-imaging-herov6.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Geophysics, Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators, Gravity, Magnetic, Seismic, Engineering, Reservoir Characterization, Tight Gas Sands, Subsalt Traps, Structural Traps, Stratigraphic Traps, Shale Gas, Oil Shale, Oil Sands, Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs, Diagenetic Traps, Deep Basin Gas, Coalbed Methane
Muscat, Oman
26-27 October 2016

This two-day workshop aims at sharing knowledge and ideas on the advancements in subsurface mapping. This includes recent technologies in acquiring seismic and non seismic data, improvements in imaging the subsurface and advances in data interpretation.

Online Training
19 March, 2015 19 March, 2015 16283 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/New-Insights-into-the-Stratigraphic-Framework-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
19 March 2015

A detailed biostratigraphic analysis and stratigraphic framework of the Paleocene and Eocene Chicontepec Formation in the Tampico-Misantla basin, onshore eastern Mexico, was conducted using 33 wells.

01 January, 2013 01 January, 9999 1459 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-cc-giant-oil-and-gas-fields.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
1 January 2013 - 1 January 9999

There are more approximately 1,000 oil and gas fields in the world that have been classified as "giant," containing more than 500 million barrels of recoverable oil and /or 3 trillion cubic feet of gas.

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