The DNA of Oil Wells: U.S. Shale Enlists Genetics To Boost Output - 28 March, 2017 9:14 AM
Ukrainian Gas Producers Are Reducing The Country's Dependency On Russia - 03 March, 2017 8:46 AM
Exxon Betting Big On U.S. Shale - 03 March, 2017 8:33 AM
A Fit U.S. Shale Industry Challenges OPEC Once Again - 03 March, 2017 8:20 AM
Is anything tough enough to survive on Mars? - 03 March, 2017 7:43 AM
Optimization of E&P Projects: Integrating Geosciences and Engineering from Block Acquisition through Production Early Bird Pricing
Expires in 133 days
Optimizing Geoscience and Engineering to Explore and Produce in a Low-Price Environment Early Bird Fee
Expires in 36 days
Oil and Gas Resources of India - Abstract Submission
Expires in 33 days
Find out the secrets of the success of the Mid-Continent’s STACK and SCOOP plays. Attend the AAPG DPA MidContinent Playmaker Forum on May 11 in Oklahoma City and learn directly from the operators who have had the most success.
The “shale revolution” that occurred after the advent of universal implementation of horizontal drilling and massive, multi-stage hydraulic fracturing, was dramatically impacted by the collapse of oil and gas prices.
In 1965, G.T. Philippi, a Shell geochemist, made the novel proposal that petroleum was generated from organic matter in sediments that had been buried deeply enough to be exposed to warmer earth temperatures, converting the organic matter, with heat and time, to petroleum.
The AAPG Annual Convention and Exhibition will feature a variety of field trips that will bookend the meeting, spanning from March 26 to April 8.
AAPG’s newest Hedberg Conference, “Fundamental Controls on Shale Oil Resources and Production,” will be held April 28-30 in Beijing, China.
Among the array of not-to-be-missed technical sessions at the upcoming 2017 AAPG Annual Convention and Exhibition (ACE), “Major Deepwater Fields of the Offshore U.S. Gulf of Mexico” is grabbing its share of attention.
Sidney Powers Memorial Award: Celebrating the career of Larry Meckel.
Subsurface electromagnetic (EM) measurements, namely galvanic resistivity, EM induction, EM propagation, and dielectric
dispersion, exhibit frequency dependence due to the interfacial polarization (IP) of clay minerals, clay-sized particles, and
conductive minerals. Existing oil-in-place estimation methods based on subsurface EM measurements do not account for
dielectric permittivity, dielectric dispersion, and dielectric permittivity anisotropy arising from the IP effects. The conventional
interpretation methods generate inaccurate oil-in-place estimates in clay-
and pyrite-bearing shales because they separately
interpret the multi-frequency effective conductivity and permittivity using empirical models.
We introduce a new inversion-based method
for accurate oil-in-place estimation in clay-
and pyrite-bearing shales. The inversion
algorithm is coupled with an electrochemical model that accounts for the frequency dispersion in effective conductivity and
permittivity due to the above-mentioned IP effects. The proposed method jointly processes the multi-frequency effective
conductivity and permittivity values computed from the subsurface EM measurements. The proposed method assumes
negligible invasion, negligible borehole rugosity, and lateral and vert
ical homogeneity effects.
The successful application of the new interpretation method is documented with synthetic cases and field data. Water saturation
estimates in shale formations obtained with the new interpretation method are compared to those obtained with conventional
methods and laboratory measurements. Conventional interpretation of multi-frequency effective conductivity and permittivity
well logs in a clay-
and pyrite-rich shale formation generated water saturation estimates that varied up to 0.
5 saturation units, as
a function of the operating frequency of the EM measurement, at each depth along the formation interval. A joint interpretation
of multifrequency conductivity and permittivity is necessary to compute the oil-in-place estimates in such formations. Estimated
values of water saturation, average grain size, and surface conductance of clays in that formation are in the range of 0.4 to
meter to 5 micrometer, and 5×10
S to 9×10
S, respectively. The proposed method is a novel technique to integrate
effective conductivity and permittivity at various frequencies. In doing so, the method generates frequency-independent oil-in-place estimates, prevents under-estimation of hydrocarbon saturation, and identifies by-passed zones in
The driving forces for conventional accumulations (structural or stratigraphic traps) are Forces of Buoyancy which are due to
densities of hydrocarbons and water. In contrast, the driving forces for unconventional tight accumulations are Forces of Expulsion which are
produced by high pressures. That is an enormous difference and creates unconventional petroleum systems that are characterized by very
different and distinctive characteristics. The Force of Expulsion pressures are created by the
significant increase in volume when any of the
three main kerogen types are converted to hydrocarbons. At those conversion times in the burial history, the rocks are already sufficiently tight
so the large volumes of generated hydrocarbons cannot efficiently escape through the existing tight pore system,
thus creating a permeability
bottleneck that produces an overpressured compartment over a large area corresponding to the proper thermal oil and gas maturities for that
basin. The forces initially created
in these source rocks can only go limited distances into adjacent tight reservoirs (clastics or carbonates)
above or below the source. The exact distance will vary depending on the pressure increase, matrix permeability, and fractures of that specific
tight reservoir system. In general, the distances are small, in the orders of 10s to 100s of feet for oil and larger for more mobile gas systems.
Those exact distance numbers are subject to ongoing investigations.
A plot of the pressure data versus elevation
for a given formation is critical in determining whether an accumulation is conventional or
unconventional. Conventional accumulations will have hydrocarbon columns of 10s to 100s of feet with the pressure in the hydrocarbons and
that in the water equal at the bottom of the accumulation (at the HC-water contact). In contrast, the unconventional accumulations will show
HC column heights of 1000s of feet with the pressure in the hydrocarbon phase and the water phase being the same at the top of the
accumulation (at the updip transition zone). Those significant differences are critical for understanding and differentiating these two play types.
Because the system is a pore throat bottleneck with very little or minimum lateral migration, the type of hydrocarbon
s are closely tied to the
thermal maturity required to generate those hydrocarbons. Thus the play concept begins with two important geochemical considerations: (1)
where are the source rocks and what are the kerogen types and organic richness (TOC), and (2
) where are they mature in the basin for oil,
condensate, and gas in the basin. These parameters will very quickly define the fairway for the play. Then one has to add the
information on the reservoirs themselves: composition (brittleness), thickness, and reservoir quality (matrix porosity and permeability). In
summary, these tight unconventional petroleum systems (1) are dynamic
and (2) create a regionally inverted petroleum system with water over
oil over condensate over gas for source rocks wit
h Type I or II kerogen types.
Seven exciting GTWs in the Middle East Region in 2017!
This lecture presents the findings of recent international gas hydrate exploration efforts that are using new advanced technologies to identify and characterize the properties of gas hydrate prospects. Case studies from the Alaska North Slope, Gulf of Mexico, Japan and India demonstrate how standard oilfield technologies are helping to identify and evaluate gas hydrate accumulations.
Request a visit from Timothy S. Collett!
Check back often. "Find an Expert" feature is coming online soon!
How to Join
About AAPG Divisions
DEG: Division of Environmental Geosciences
DPA: Division of Professional Affairs
EMD: Energy Minerals Division
PSGD: Petroleum Structure and Geomechanics Division
Geosciences Technology Workshops (GTW)
In Person Training
Visiting Geoscientist Program
Asia Pacific Region
Latin America Region
Middle East Region
Imperial Barrel Award
Africa (Lagos) Office
Asia Pacific (Singapore) Office
Europe (London) Office
Latin America (Bogotá) Office
Middle East (Dubai) Office
Purpose / Mission
Constitution & Bylaws
Access Online Journals
Review Site Activity
Upgrade Member Level
Annual Convention and Exhibition
International Conference and Exhibition
Unconventional Resources Technology Conference
Arctic Technology Conference
Imperial Barrel Award
Books - Buy one
Books - Submit one
Imperial Barrel Award
Renew Sponsored Dues
Search and Discovery
Visiting Geoscientist Program
LinkedIn | Facebook | Twitter | YouTube
Email: | Other Contact Info