Explorer Article

The golden oldie: Operators’ eyes tend to light up when talking about the Permian Basin, with good reason – the venerable play is not only still going strong, it keeps providing exciting new chapters to its history.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer Article

Coexist – often easier said than done, especially when the exploration industry is attempting to work in highly populated or environmentally sensitive areas. So how does it work in California?

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer Foundation Update

If you have a passion to support future generations, add your contributions to the James E. Hartman Student Leadership Summit Fund. 

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer Article

The way we were: 2011 was a busy year for the oil and gas industry – huge economic problems, yes, but a lot of great success stories.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer Article

It's an unconventional success story of a New Yorker and a Californian 're-winning' in Wewoka. 

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer Article

Perception vs. reality: Any opinions that the energy industry is old school are definitely old hat – high-tech advances are being encouraged and embraced by 21st century geoscientists.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer Historical Highlights

Despite the fact that exploration in the Mahakam Delta started more than 40 years ago, with large discoveries made in the mid-1970s, plans are being considered to develop and redevelop several gas fields of the area.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer Article

A new hydrocarbon play in Kansas and Oklahoma is drawing interest to possibilities in several Mississippian formations.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer Geophysical Corner

A pair of scissors always sat next to the box of colored pencils on Kees Rutten’s desk, littered with seismic sections, time-to-depth curves and well logs.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer Emphasis Article

Accidental discovery? One paper in the History of Petroleum Geology forum remembers Mobile Bay sharing the combination of luck, sound decisions and overcoming obstacles that led to its development.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
VG Abstract

Production from unconventional petroleum reservoirs includes petroleum from shale, coal, tight-sand and oil-sand. These reservoirs contain enormous quantities of oil and natural gas but pose a technology challenge to both geoscientists and engineers to produce economically on a commercial scale. These reservoirs store large volumes and are widely distributed at different stratigraphic levels and basin types, offering long-term potential for energy supply. Most of these reservoirs are low permeability and porosity that need enhancement with hydraulic fracture stimulation to maximize fluid drainage. Production from these reservoirs is increasing with continued advancement in geological characterization techniques and technology for well drilling, logging, and completion with drainage enhancement. Currently, Australia, Argentina, Canada, Egypt, USA, and Venezuela are producing natural gas from low permeability reservoirs: tight-sand, shale, and coal (CBM). Canada, Russia, USA, and Venezuela are producing heavy oil from oilsand. USA is leading the development of techniques for exploring, and technology for exploiting unconventional gas resources, which can help to develop potential gas-bearing shales of Thailand. The main focus is on source-reservoir-seal shale petroleum plays. In these tight rocks petroleum resides in the micro-pores as well as adsorbed on and in the organics. Shale has very low matrix permeability (nano-darcies) and has highly layered formations with differences in vertical and horizontal properties, vertically non-homogeneous and horizontally anisotropic with complicate natural fractures. Understanding the rocks is critical in selecting fluid drainage enhancement mechanisms; rock properties such as where shale is clay or silica rich, clay types and maturation , kerogen type and maturation, permeability, porosity, and saturation. Most of these plays require horizontal development with large numbers of wells that require an understanding of formation structure, setting and reservoir character and its lateral extension. The quality of shale-gas resources depend on thickness of net pay (>100 m), adequate porosity (>2%), high reservoir pressure (ideally overpressure), high thermal maturity (>1.5% Ro), high organic richness (>2% TOC), low in clay (<50%), high in brittle minerals (quartz, carbonates, feldspars), and favourable in-situ stress. During the past decade, unconventional shale and tight-sand gas plays have become an important supply of natural gas in the US, and now in shale oil as well. As a consequence, interest to assess and explore these plays is rapidly spreading worldwide. The high production potential of shale petroleum resources has contributed to a comparably favourable outlook for increased future petroleum supplies globally. Application of 2D and 3D seismic for defining reservoirs and micro seismic for monitoring fracturing, measuring rock properties downhole (borehole imaging) and in laboratory (mineralogy, porosity, permeability), horizontal drilling (downhole GPS), and hydraulic fracture stimulation (cross-linked gel, slick-water, nitrogen or nitrogen foam) is key in improving production from these huge resources with low productivity factors.

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American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)

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