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Dolomite reservoirs: geochemical techniques for evaluating origin and distribution

Allan, J.R., and W.D. Wiggins

This AAPG Continuing Education Course is presented in two parts. Part I consists of the fundamental geochemistry of dolomite and the various processes of dolomitization. Analytical techniques are explained and illustrated that can be used to determine the origin(s) of any dolostone understudy. These techniques include analyses of formation waters using hydrogen and oxygen isotopes and solute concentrations, and analyses of dolostones using carbon, oxygen and strontium isotopes, fluid inclusions, and trace elements. Insights into the environments, pressure/temperature conditions, and fluid compositions responsible for dolomitization and development of subsurface dolostone reservoir rocks can be gained from using these techniques. Part II consists of case studies that integrate these fundamental geochemical concepts and techniques with basic reservoir geology to illustrate how to apply the techniques for subsurface interpretations of dolomite reservoirs. There are four basic dolomitizing environments/processes discussed with associated examples. The first is Subtidal/Supratidal Cycles with case studies of Cabin Creek Field (Red River Fm, Upper Ordovician, Williston Basin), and Slaughter-Levelland Field (San Andres Fm, Upper Permian, Permian Basin). The second is Reflux Dolomitization with case studies of the ooid-dominated ramp system of the Smackover, Buckner, Haynesville Formations (Upper Jurassic, Gulf of Mexico Basin), and the reef system of the Niagara Formation (Silurian, Michigan Basin). The third is the Marine and Mixing Zone with one case study from the North Bridgeport Field (Saint Genevieve Formation, Mississippian, Illinois Basin). The fourth is Burial Dolomitization and includes case studies of the Albion-Scipio Field (Trenton Formation, Ordovician, Michigan Basin), the Tuwaiq Mountain, Hanifa, Jubaila, Arab, Hith, and Sulaiy Formations (Jurassic/Cretaceous, Gotnia and Arabian Basins), and the Nisku Formation (Upper Devonian, Alberta Basin). These 8 case studies are discussed and illustrated with a variety of geologic diagrams including stratigraphic charts, maps, cross sections, block diagrams, burial history curves, isotope and trace element cross plots, well log and depth plots with geochemical data annotations, and dolomitization process models in cross sections, maps and block diagrams. For anyone working dolomite hydrocarbon reservoirs, this set of AAPG Continuing Education Course Notes provides excellent examples of how to conduct an integrated project for analyzing any dolomite reservoir. It should be in every carbonate practitioner's personal library.

Allan, J.R., and W.D. Wiggins, 1993, Dolomite reservoirs: geochemical techniques for evaluating origin and distribution: AAPG Continuing Education Course Notes No. 36, 129 p.

Jim Markello and Bill Morgan



Carbonates,Dolostones,Sedimentology and Stratigraphy

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