Explorer Emphasis Article

Mind games: Some strategies are better than others when it comes to involvement in unconventional resources. Think about that.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer Regions and Sections

This seems like the perfect time to summarize Canadian oil and gas activity in 2012. 

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer Historical Highlights

After World War II, the United States suddenly found itself with nuclear explosives, a tool for which there were few obvious uses other than spectacular and indiscriminate destruction. 

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer President’s Column

I can remember hearing, way back in 1977, the president of a major oil company that I worked for say that the United States had run out of oil and gas – there was not much left to find and develop.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer Emphasis Article

3-D seismic data are being viewed as the way to reduce drilling cost overruns and maximize ultimate recovery from a shale-producing field – and for relatively minimal additional cost.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer Emphasis Article

A regional database of more than 3,500 producing Eagle Ford wells is helping to highlight production trends and optimal engineering parameters.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer Emphasis Article

What happens in the reservoir following hydrofracturing? Microseismic monitoring is providing some important answers.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer Emphasis Article

Geophysical interpretation is playing a major role in optimizing production performance via well placement, especially in tight oil reservoirs.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer Article

Industry and academia are teaming up to pump up activity in the Mississippian of the Midcontinent United States.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
VG Abstract

Production from unconventional petroleum reservoirs includes petroleum from shale, coal, tight-sand and oil-sand. These reservoirs contain enormous quantities of oil and natural gas but pose a technology challenge to both geoscientists and engineers to produce economically on a commercial scale. These reservoirs store large volumes and are widely distributed at different stratigraphic levels and basin types, offering long-term potential for energy supply. Most of these reservoirs are low permeability and porosity that need enhancement with hydraulic fracture stimulation to maximize fluid drainage. Production from these reservoirs is increasing with continued advancement in geological characterization techniques and technology for well drilling, logging, and completion with drainage enhancement. Currently, Australia, Argentina, Canada, Egypt, USA, and Venezuela are producing natural gas from low permeability reservoirs: tight-sand, shale, and coal (CBM). Canada, Russia, USA, and Venezuela are producing heavy oil from oilsand. USA is leading the development of techniques for exploring, and technology for exploiting unconventional gas resources, which can help to develop potential gas-bearing shales of Thailand. The main focus is on source-reservoir-seal shale petroleum plays. In these tight rocks petroleum resides in the micro-pores as well as adsorbed on and in the organics. Shale has very low matrix permeability (nano-darcies) and has highly layered formations with differences in vertical and horizontal properties, vertically non-homogeneous and horizontally anisotropic with complicate natural fractures. Understanding the rocks is critical in selecting fluid drainage enhancement mechanisms; rock properties such as where shale is clay or silica rich, clay types and maturation , kerogen type and maturation, permeability, porosity, and saturation. Most of these plays require horizontal development with large numbers of wells that require an understanding of formation structure, setting and reservoir character and its lateral extension. The quality of shale-gas resources depend on thickness of net pay (>100 m), adequate porosity (>2%), high reservoir pressure (ideally overpressure), high thermal maturity (>1.5% Ro), high organic richness (>2% TOC), low in clay (<50%), high in brittle minerals (quartz, carbonates, feldspars), and favourable in-situ stress. During the past decade, unconventional shale and tight-sand gas plays have become an important supply of natural gas in the US, and now in shale oil as well. As a consequence, interest to assess and explore these plays is rapidly spreading worldwide. The high production potential of shale petroleum resources has contributed to a comparably favourable outlook for increased future petroleum supplies globally. Application of 2D and 3D seismic for defining reservoirs and micro seismic for monitoring fracturing, measuring rock properties downhole (borehole imaging) and in laboratory (mineralogy, porosity, permeability), horizontal drilling (downhole GPS), and hydraulic fracture stimulation (cross-linked gel, slick-water, nitrogen or nitrogen foam) is key in improving production from these huge resources with low productivity factors.

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American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)

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