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The Marcellus Shale is considered to be the largest unconventional shale-gas resource in the United States. Two critical factors for unconventional shale reservoirs are the response of a unit to hydraulic fracture stimulation and gas content. The fracture attributes reflect the geomechanical properties of the rocks, which are partly related to rock mineralogy. The natural gas content of a shale reservoir rock is strongly linked to organic matter content, measured by total organic carbon (TOC). A mudstone lithofacies is a vertically and laterally continuous zone with similar mineral composition, rock geomechanical properties, and TOC content. Core, log, and seismic data were used to build a three-dimensional (3-D) mudrock lithofacies model from core to wells and, finally, to regional scale. An artificial neural network was used for lithofacies prediction. Eight petrophysical parameters derived from conventional logs were determined as critical inputs. Advanced logs, such as pulsed neutron spectroscopy, with log-determined mineral composition and TOC data were used to improve and confirm the quantitative relationship between conventional logs and lithofacies. Sequential indicator simulation performed well for 3-D modeling of Marcellus Shale lithofacies. The interplay of dilution by terrigenous detritus, organic matter productivity, and organic matter preservation and decomposition affected the distribution of Marcellus Shale lithofacies distribution, which may be attributed to water depth and the distance to shoreline. The trend of normalized average gas production rate from horizontal wells supported our approach to modeling Marcellus Shale lithofacies. The proposed 3-D modeling approach may be helpful for optimizing the design of horizontal well trajectories and hydraulic fracture stimulation strategies.

Show more American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/organic-rich-marcellus-shale-lithofacies-modeling.jpg?width=100&h=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Organic-rich Marcellus Shale lithofacies modeling and distribution pattern analysis in the Appalachian Basin
 
American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Desktop /Portals/0/docs/emd/reports/mid-year/2013-11-21/2013-11-21-EMD-Mid-YearMeetingCommitteeOilShale.pdf?pdfwidth=1000&pdfheight=1000&subpixels=true&page=1&format=jpg&width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=topcenter&quality=90&encoder=freeimage&progressive=true&trim.threshold=255 Oil Shale Report - EMD Mid-Year Leadership Meeting - November 21, 2013
 
American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Desktop /Portals/0/docs/emd/reports/mid-year/2013-11-21/2013-11-21-EMD-Mid-YearMeetingCommitteeOilTarSands.pdf?pdfwidth=1000&pdfheight=1000&subpixels=true&page=1&format=jpg&width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=topcenter&quality=90&encoder=freeimage&progressive=true&trim.threshold=255 Oil (Tar) Sands Report - EMD Mid-Year Leadership Meeting - November 21, 2013
 
American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Desktop /Portals/0/docs/emd/reports/mid-year/2013-11-21/2013-11-21-EMD-Mid-YearMeetingCommitteeGasTightSands.pdf?pdfwidth=1000&pdfheight=1000&subpixels=true&page=1&format=jpg&width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=topcenter&quality=90&encoder=freeimage&progressive=true&trim.threshold=255 Gas (Tight) Sands Report - EMD Mid-Year Leadership Meeting - November 21, 2013
 

A recent story about Shell’s withdrawal from a long-lived project on in situ production of shale oil from oil shale was an interesting example of over-interpretation of a small dataset.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/emd-graph.jpg?width=100&h=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true EMD What Does It All Mean? Only Time Will Tell
 

The Distinguished Lecture program, funded in part by the AAPG Foundation, is the Association’s flagship initiative for spreading the latest in science, technology and professional information.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Desktop /Portals/0/images/_site/AAPG-newlogo-vertical-morepadding.jpg?width=100&h=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Four DLs Have Speaking Dates In November
 

Surprise! Geoscientists make an historic discovery of a huge volcano in the Pacific Ocean – in an area first studied 20 years ago.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/surprise-its-a-volcano-2013-11nov-hero.jpg?width=100&h=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Historic discovery at sea Surprise! It’s a Volcano
 

Concepts and technologies developed for liquid-rich unconventional plays in North America are on the verge of being exported worldwide.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/Explorer-Cover-2013-10oct-thumb.jpg?width=100&h=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Wanted: Posters to Add to GTW Program in Canada
 

As shale gas development has boomed over the past decade and public concern about its safety has swelled, both regulatory agencies and operating companies have accelerated their efforts to improve environmental safety.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
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A valuable study funded by the Texas Water Development Board sets aside the controversy and takes a closer look at hydraulic fracturing and water resources and consumption.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/Explorer-Cover-2013-10oct-thumb.jpg?width=100&h=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Water, Water Everywhere? More Data Needed
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In-Person Training
Austin Texas United States 23 July, 2017 23 July, 2017 39084 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/URTeC2017-hero-955x400.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Member, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Oil and Gas Analysis, Shale Gas
 
Austin, Texas, United States
23 July 2017

This class is designed to give attendees a better understanding of unconventional “shale” hydrocarbon reservoirs, based on the geology, detailed mineralogy, organic-richness, and hydrocarbon content and demonstrate (with examples) various ways for collaboration between petrophysicists and other disciplines to achieve efficient unconventional asset development through better understanding of lateral landing selection and proper completion optimization designs.

Cape Town Western Cape South Africa 20 June, 2017 23 June, 2017 38348 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/gtw-ar-exploration-and-development-of-unconventional-hydrocarbon-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Alternative Resources, Coal, Business and Economics, Economics, Resource Estimates, Risk Analysis, Engineering, Development and Operations, Conventional Drilling, Infill Drilling, Drive Mechanisms, Production, Depletion Drive, Hydraulic Fracturing, Primary Recovery, Secondary Recovery, Gas Injection, Water Flooding, Tertiary Recovery, Chemical Flooding Processes, Miscible Recovery, Thermal Recovery Processes, Reservoir Characterization, Environmental, Ground Water, Monitoring, Natural Resources, Pollution, Water Resources, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Basin Modeling, Maturation, Migration, Oil and Gas Analysis, Oil Seeps, Petroleum Systems, Source Rock, Thermal History, Oil Shale
 
Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa
20-23 June 2017

This workshop provides the opportunity to learn and discuss the latest knowledge, techniques & technologies applied to unconventional reservoirs which can be utilized to explore for and develop these reservoirs. The workshop will provide a set-up for networking, interacting & sharing expertise with fellow petroleum scientists interested in developing and producing unconventional hydrocarbon resources.

Cape Town Western Cape South Africa 22 June, 2017 23 June, 2017 38474 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/fs-the-karoo-basin-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Alternative Resources, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Business and Economics, Engineering, Environmental, Basin Modeling, Source Rock, Migration, Petroleum Systems, Thermal History, Oil Seeps, Oil and Gas Analysis, Maturation, Resource Estimates, Risk Analysis, Economics, Reservoir Characterization, Development and Operations, Production, Oil Shale, Coal, Conventional Drilling, Infill Drilling, Hydraulic Fracturing, Primary Recovery, Secondary Recovery, Water Flooding, Gas Injection, Tertiary Recovery, Chemical Flooding Processes, Thermal Recovery Processes, Miscible Recovery, Drive Mechanisms, Depletion Drive, Ground Water, Water Resources, Monitoring, Pollution, Natural Resources
 
Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa
22-23 June 2017

Led by De Ville Wickens (Geo-Routes Petroleum, Cape Town) and Doug Cole (Council for Geoscience, Bellville)

Participants of this field excursion will be introduced to the stratigraphy of the southwestern Karoo Basin by visiting the prime outcrop areas of the Dwyka and Ecca Groups in the Laingsburg and Tanqua Karoo regions. The southwestern Karoo Basin hosts a considerable amount of information on glaciogenic, deep-water and deltaic sedimentation with present day erosion allowing 3D-viewing of laterally continuous (tens of kilometres) outcrops. The Ecca Group in these areas, for example, hosts the world's best examples of deep-water basin floor to slope fan complexes, making it the most sought after “open air laboratory” for studying fine-grained deep-water sedimentation.

The objective of this field trip is to gain a better understanding of the tectono-sedimentary history and stratigraphic evolution of southwestern part of the Karoo Basin, basic depositional processes, facies development, controls on sedimentation patterns and post-depositional diagenetic and structural changes. It further aims to integrate different scales of observation and interpretation, namely the basin (exploration) and the development and production scale (facies distribution and bed-scale stratigraphy). This two-day field trip will focus on show-casing the glaciogenic Dwyka Group, and the Prince Albert and Whitehill Formations of the Ecca Group, which are main targets for shale gas development in South Africa.

Rio de Janeiro Brazil 22 August, 2017 23 August, 2017 38190 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/gtw-lacr-optimization-of-e-p-projects-integrating-geosciences-and-engineering-from-block-acquisition-through-production-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Development and Operations, Engineering, Infill Drilling, Directional Drilling, Coring, Conventional Drilling, Reservoir Characterization, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Basin Modeling, Petroleum Systems, Geophysics, Seismic, Petrophysics and Well Logs, Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs, Stratigraphic Traps, Subsalt Traps
 
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
22-23 August 2017

AAPG and ABGP invite you to participate in an interactive, multidisciplinary workshop featuring presentations and discussions exploring opportunities to improve companies’ efficiency and effectiveness throughout the E&P cycle, from block acquisition and exploration to development and production.

Georgetown Barima-Waini Guyana 09 November, 2017 10 November, 2017 38161 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/sc-lacr-reservoir-characterization-of-deep-water-systems-impact-from-exploration-to-production-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Business and Economics, Risk Analysis, Production, Engineering, Primary Recovery, Secondary Recovery, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Petroleum Systems, Petrophysics and Well Logs, Clastics, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Conventional Sandstones, Deep Sea / Deepwater, Deepwater Turbidites, Low Stand Deposits, Marine, Regressive Deposits, Slope, Structure, Tectonics (General), Deep Basin Gas, Shale Gas, Stratigraphic Traps, Tight Gas Sands
 
Georgetown, Barima-Waini, Guyana
9-10 November 2017

This course emphasizes key changes in reservoir models that have a major impact in exploration and production of these reservoirs. The course will include lectures, exercises, and observations from cores, well logs and seismic profiles. Participants will learn how to interpret and map environments of deposition (EoD’s) in deep water systems and understand how the different EoD’s and sub-EoD’s behave as reservoirs.

Marrakech Morocco 01 November, 2017 04 November, 2017 37903 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/gtw-afr-the-paleozoic-hydrocarbon-potential-of-north-africa-past-lessons-and-future-potential-2017-17apr17-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Engineering, Development and Operations, Production, Infill Drilling, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Petroleum Systems, Source Rock, Thermal History, Geophysics, Clastics, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Conventional Sandstones, Sequence Stratigraphy, Structure, Compressional Systems, Extensional Systems, Tectonics (General), Deep Basin Gas, Stratigraphic Traps, Structural Traps
 
Marrakech, Morocco
1-4 November 2017

This workshop provides the opportunity to learn and discuss the latest knowledge, techniques & technologies applied to petroleum reservoirs in the Paleozoic of North Africa which can be utilized to explore for and develop these reservoirs. The workshop will provide a set-up for networking, interacting & sharing expertise with fellow petroleum scientists interested in developing and producing hydrocarbon resources within the Paleozoic of North Africa.

Saskatoon Saskatchewan Canada 18 November, 2016 18 November, 2016 34465 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/dl-kitty-milliken-univ-saskatchewan-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Student, Engineering, Reservoir Characterization, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Source Rock, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Oil Shale, Shale Gas
 
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
18 November 2016

Short Course: “Micro to Nano-Scale Features of Mudrocks”
Lecture Title: “Mudrocks (shales, mudstones) at the Scale of Grains and Pores: Current Understanding.”
Venue: University of Saskatchewan, Department of Geological Sciences, 114 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK SK7 3H5
Time: 3:30pm

Saskatoon Saskatchewan Canada 18 November, 2016 18 November, 2016 34482 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/dl-kitty-milliken-univ-saskatchewan-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Engineering, Source Rock, Reservoir Characterization, Oil Shale, Shale Gas, Student
 
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
18 November 2016

Short Course: “Micro to Nano-Scale Features of Mudrocks”
Lecture Title: “Mudrocks (shales, mudstones) at the Scale of Grains and Pores: Current Understanding.”
Venue: University of Saskatchewan, Department of Geological Sciences, 114 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK SK7 3H5
Time: 9:00am

Online Training
23 April, 2015 23 April, 2015 16809 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/an-analytical-model-for-shale-gas-permeability-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
23 April 2015
Recent laboratory studies have revealed previously unknown behaviors in shale gas which unlock secrets of permeability and sweet spots in shale gas reservoirs. The presentation presents the findings and also goes into detail about how the new information can be applied in order to potentially improve recovery in reservoirs.
19 March, 2015 19 March, 2015 16283 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/New-Insights-into-the-Stratigraphic-Framework-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
19 March 2015

A detailed biostratigraphic analysis and stratigraphic framework of the Paleocene and Eocene Chicontepec Formation in the Tampico-Misantla basin, onshore eastern Mexico, was conducted using 33 wells.

02 December, 2014 02 December, 2014 11967 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/esymp-multiscale-modeling-of-gas-transport-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
2 December 2014

The gas transport in organic-rich shales involves different length-scales, from organic and inorganic pores to macro- and macrofractures. In order to upscale the fluid transport from nanoscale (flow through nanopores) to larger scales (to micro- and macrofractures), multicontinuum methodology is planned to be used.

30 October, 2014 30 October, 2014 11390 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/sc-kerogen-maturity-determinations.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
30 October 2014

Cross disciplinary workflows play an important part of successful characterization of shale reservoirs. This course discusses how the artificial kerogen maturity of organic-rich Green River shale affects the petrophysical, micro-structural, geochemical and elastic properties.

02 October, 2014 02 October, 2014 10593 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/esymp-concepts-of-scale-horizontal-development-of-wolfcamp-shale-oil-of-the-southern-midland-basin-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
2 October 2014
This course is ideal for individuals involved in Midland Basin exploration and development. Successful development of Wolfcamp shale oil relies on complex inter-relationships (ultimately interdependencies) within and between a wide variety of scientific disciplines, financial entities, and company partnerships. 
01 January, 2014 01 January, 9999 3160 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-toc-strategic-decision-making.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
1 January 2014 - 1 January 9999

Learn to critically evaluate current issues that can impact growth and sustainability of oil and gas ventures.

09 February, 2012 09 February, 2012 1477 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-seismic-reservoir-characterization-of-us-shales.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
9 February 2012

Projects in several shales will be discussed, including Marcellus, Eagle Ford, Haynesville, Fayetteville, Montney, and Barnett, as will several seismically-detectable drivers for success including lithofacies, stress, pre-existing fractures, and pore pressure.

29 September, 2011 29 September, 2011 1478 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-application-of-inversion-and-clustering-analysis.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
29 September 2011

This study will focus in the combination of λρ – μρ inversion with clustering analysis techniques in order to discriminate brittle zones in the Barnett Shale.

24 October, 2013 24 October, 2013 1499 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-geomechanical-data-from-petrophysical-logs.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
24 October 2013

This e-symposium will be introducing signal processing techniques as a means to maximize extracting geomechanical data from petrophysical logs.

20 January, 2012 20 January, 2012 1482 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-eagle-ford-shale-prospecting-with-3d-seismic-data.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
20 January 2012

The Eagle Ford Shale in South Texas is one of the more exciting shale plays in the United States at the current time.

Request a Visit
 

Production from unconventional petroleum reservoirs includes petroleum from shale, coal, tight-sand and oil-sand. These reservoirs contain enormous quantities of oil and natural gas but pose a technology challenge to both geoscientists and engineers to produce economically on a commercial scale. These reservoirs store large volumes and are widely distributed at different stratigraphic levels and basin types, offering long-term potential for energy supply. Most of these reservoirs are low permeability and porosity that need enhancement with hydraulic fracture stimulation to maximize fluid drainage. Production from these reservoirs is increasing with continued advancement in geological characterization techniques and technology for well drilling, logging, and completion with drainage enhancement. Currently, Australia, Argentina, Canada, Egypt, USA, and Venezuela are producing natural gas from low permeability reservoirs: tight-sand, shale, and coal (CBM). Canada, Russia, USA, and Venezuela are producing heavy oil from oilsand. USA is leading the development of techniques for exploring, and technology for exploiting unconventional gas resources, which can help to develop potential gas-bearing shales of Thailand.

The main focus is on source-reservoir-seal shale petroleum plays. In these tight rocks petroleum resides in the micro-pores as well as adsorbed on and in the organics. Shale has very low matrix permeability (nano-darcies) and has highly layered formations with differences in vertical and horizontal properties, vertically non-homogeneous and horizontally anisotropic with complicate natural fractures. Understanding the rocks is critical in selecting fluid drainage enhancement mechanisms; rock properties such as where shale is clay or silica rich, clay types and maturation , kerogen type and maturation, permeability, porosity, and saturation. Most of these plays require horizontal development with large numbers of wells that require an understanding of formation structure, setting and reservoir character and its lateral extension.

The quality of shale-gas resources depend on thickness of net pay (>100 m), adequate porosity (>2%), high reservoir pressure (ideally overpressure), high thermal maturity (>1.5% Ro), high organic richness (>2% TOC), low in clay (<50%), high in brittle minerals (quartz, carbonates, feldspars), and favourable in-situ stress.

During the past decade, unconventional shale and tight-sand gas plays have become an important supply of natural gas in the US, and now in shale oil as well. As a consequence, interest to assess and explore these plays is rapidly spreading worldwide. The high production potential of shale petroleum resources has contributed to a comparably favourable outlook for increased future petroleum supplies globally.

Application of 2D and 3D seismic for defining reservoirs and micro seismic for monitoring fracturing, measuring rock properties downhole (borehole imaging) and in laboratory (mineralogy, porosity, permeability), horizontal drilling (downhole GPS), and hydraulic fracture stimulation (cross-linked gel, slick-water, nitrogen or nitrogen foam) is key in improving production from these huge resources with low productivity factors.

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