American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
The concept of common stratigraphic framework was previously introduced to construct and cross-validate multilayer static and dynamic petrophysical models by invoking the interactive numerical simulation of well logs both before and after invasion. This article documents the successful implementation of the common stratigraphic framework concept to examine and quantify the effects of mud-filtrate invasion on apparent resistivity, nuclear, and magnetic resonance logs acquired in the San Martin, Cashiriari, and Pagoreni gas fields in Camisea, Peru. Conventional petrophysical interpretation methods yield abnormally high estimates of water saturation in some of the reservoir units that produce gas with null water influx. Such an anomalous behavior is caused by relatively low values of deep apparent electrical resistivity and has otherwise been attributed to the presence of clay-coating grains and/or electrically conductive grain minerals coupled with fresh connate water. Concomitantly, electrical resistivity logs exhibit substantial invasion effects as evidenced by the variable separation of apparent resistivity curves (both logging-while-drilling and wireline) with multiple radial lengths of investigation. In extreme cases, apparent resistivity logs stack because of very deep invasion. We diagnose and quantify invasion effects on resistivity and nuclear logs with interactive numerical modeling before and after invasion. The assimilation of such effects in the interpretation consistently decreases previous estimates of water saturation to those of irreducible water saturation inferred from core data. We show that capillary pressure effects are responsible for the difference in separation of apparent resistivity curves in some of the reservoir units. This unique field study confirms that well logs should be corrected for mud-filtrate invasion effects before implementing arbitrary shaly sand models and parameters thereof in the calculation of connate-water saturation.