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Fold and Thrust Belts

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The Arctic Ocean occupies a unique tectonic setting as a small, confined ocean between two much larger oceans - the subducting Pacific margin and the opening North Atlantic. Unlike many of the world's oceans, evidence on both timing and geometry is poor, and major elements of the plate tectonic evolution are still "up for grabs". The Arctic has experienced significant plate motion from Cretaceous to present, and because of the ambiguities in the oceanic signature, resolving the most likely kinematic history is critical in understanding paleogeography and hence reservoir and source distribution. I will show a 3-stage kinematic model which, while not a unique solution, seems to best satisfy the known constraints.

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Some of the world’s most spectacular and geologically fascinating sights will be showcased in nine field trips planned in conjunction with September’s AAPG-SEG International Conference and Exhibition (ACE) in Melbourne, Australia, Sept. 13-16.
American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
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Since the introduction of Electrical Borehole Images over twenty years ago many very useful applications have been developed for this data. These include applications, which range from handpicked bed dips to fracture analysis, from thin-bedded pay determination to measuring vugular porosity, from fault geometry determination to facies analysis. These applications are made possible because of the high resolution provided by these images. The images provide the means to perform detailed high-resolution reservoir characterization at the borehole. This presentation will concentrate on structural aspects of borehole image interpretation. Fault and fold examples from different basins across the USA will be examined with examples from around different US Basins.

Show more American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
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Take a first hand look at the basic working tools to explore and develop hydrocarbons in salt basins. This introduction to salt tectonics is intended for geoscientists, engineers, and managers who need review or update on this constantly evolving field. The course is appropriate for those working in any salt basin globally and assumes abasic familiarity with structural geology concepts and terminology

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
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Participants will examine illustrative outcrops of thrusts, fault-related folds, stratal architectures and facies of depositional systems affected by growing structures, which are good analogues for hydrocarbon reservoirs. Objectives include interpreting complex thrust structures, identifying and understanding strain and fracture systems in fold-thrust belts, and analyzing patterns of growth strata in areas with synsedimentary folding.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
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In-Person Training
Naples Italy 01 October, 2016 07 October, 2016 36 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/fs-carb-complex-carbonate-reservoirs-sedimentation.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Carbonates, Structure, Fold and Thrust Belts, Engineering, Reservoir Characterization, Carbonate Platforms
 
Naples, Italy
1-7 October 2016

The main part of the field seminar will focus on the description of the fractured carbonates and the extrapolation from the outcrop observations to the subsurface for building geologically plausible reservoir models.

Vilnius Lithuania 24 October, 2016 25 October, 2016 32641 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/er-gtw-gtw-hydrocarbon-exploration-lithuania-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Business and Economics, Economics, Reserve Estimation, Development and Operations, Engineering, Conventional Drilling, Coring, Production, Hydraulic Fracturing, Primary Recovery, Secondary Recovery, Gas Injection, Tertiary Recovery, Reservoir Characterization, Environmental, Natural Resources, Pollution, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Basin Modeling, Maturation, Migration, Oil and Gas Analysis, Oil Seeps, Petroleum Systems, Source Rock, Thermal History, Geophysics, Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators, Petrophysics and Well Logs, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Carbonates, Clastics, Conventional Sandstones, Deep Sea / Deepwater, Deepwater Turbidites, High Stand Deposits, Low Stand Deposits, Marine, Shelf Sand Deposits, Transgressive Deposits, Sequence Stratigraphy, Structure, Tectonics (General), Structural Analysis (Other), Salt Tectonics, Geomechanics and Fracture Analysis, Fold and Thrust Belts, Extensional Systems, Compressional Systems, Deep Basin Gas, Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs, Shale Gas, Stratigraphic Traps, Structural Traps, Subsalt Traps, Alternative Resources, Gas Hydrates
 
Vilnius, Lithuania
24-25 October 2016

AAPG Europe are excited to announce the first event to be held in the beautiful capital city of Vilnius, Lithuania. This Geosciences Technology Workshop will be based around the main theme "Hydrocarbon Exploration in Lithuania and the Baltic Region" and we expect interests from Latvia, Estonia, Poland and Kaliningrad.

Lithuania 26 October, 2016 26 October, 2016 33520 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/gtw-er-core-workshop-lithuanian-geological-society-2016-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Alternative Resources, Gas Hydrates, Deep Basin Gas, Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs, Shale Gas, Stratigraphic Traps, Structural Traps, Subsalt Traps, Business and Economics, Economics, Reserve Estimation, Development and Operations, Engineering, Conventional Drilling, Coring, Production, Hydraulic Fracturing, Primary Recovery, Tertiary Recovery, Secondary Recovery, Gas Injection, Water Flooding, Reservoir Characterization, Environmental, Natural Resources, Pollution, Water Resources, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Basin Modeling, Migration, Oil and Gas Analysis, Oil Seeps, Petroleum Systems, Source Rock, Thermal History, Geophysics, Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators, Petrophysics and Well Logs, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Carbonates, Clastics, Conventional Sandstones, Deep Sea / Deepwater, Deepwater Turbidites, Low Stand Deposits, Marine, Shelf Sand Deposits, Transgressive Deposits, Sequence Stratigraphy, High Stand Deposits, Structure, Fold and Thrust Belts, Extensional Systems, Salt Tectonics, Tectonics (General), Geomechanics and Fracture Analysis, Structural Analysis (Other), Compressional Systems
 
Lithuania
26 October 2016

Join AAPG Europe and the Lithuanian Geological Survey for this exciting Core Workshop. This workshop will follow on from the 'Hydrocarbon Exploration in Lithuania and the Baltic Regions' event taking place at Vilnius University on 24th – 25th October.

The Early Palaeozoic Hydrocarbon System in the Baltic Basin and adjacent territories involves Middle-Late Cambrian, the Late Ordovician (Mossen & Fjacka Formations) and the Early Silurian Graptolitic Shales source rocks and the major complexes of reservoirs, associated with Middle Cambrian sandstones, Ordovician and Silurian reefogenic and carbonate build-ups.

The major reservoirs of the Baltic Basin are:

  • The Middle Cambrian (Deimena Fm). Sandstones - Producing
  • The Early Ordovician (Tremadoc, Salantai Fm.) sandstones
  • Late Ordovician (Early Ashgill) organogenic limestones/carbonate buildups
  • Late Silurian (Late Ludlow/Pridoli) reefogenic carbonate build-ups
Core Presentation:
Cores presented from the following 3 reference wells:

1. The Middle Cambrian - the Early Ordovician quartz sandstone reservoirs

The Middle Cambrian Deimena Group sandstones comprises all the major economically important oil fields located Lithuania, Latvia, Kaliningrad district and Polish onshore and Baltic Sea offshore. The other, much less significant, potential reservoirs are the Late Ordovician carbonate build-ups of Gotland (Sweden) and Southern part of Lithuania and the Late Silurian carbonate reefogenic buildups in South Lithuania (Zdanaviciute O., Sakalauskas J. eds., 2001, Zdanaviciute, Lazauskiene 2007; Kanev et al., 1994).

The reference sections would demonstrate core from fine-grained (dominated by 0.25-0.1 mm fraction (30-75%)) quartz sandstones containing thin clay and siltstone interlayers. The sandstones are to a different degree litified by compaction and predominantly cemented by quartz and diagenetic quartz cement that has the major control on reservoir properties.

The Early Ordovician

The early Ordovician Tremadoc age (Pakerort Regional Stage, Salantai Fm.) strata distributed rather locally are a reservoir unit at the base of the Ordovician succession, comprising quartz sandstones and quartz siltstones of only 0.5 to 4 m thick. It overlays directly to the Middle Cambrian Deimena Group sandstones and together form one reservoir unit with similar reservoir properties. The formation is overlain by the Early Ordovician shales. Several small oil fields are producing from this reservoir unit in the western part of Lithuania.


2. The Late Ordovician (Early Ashgill) and Late Silurian (Late Ludlow/Pridoli) organogenic limestone and reefogenic carbonate buildups reservoirs

The Late Ordovician - The Late Silurian

The reservoir rocks within the Silurian succession are the Wenlock - Early Ludlow and Pridolian reefogenic carbonates comprising secondary dolomites and reefal limestones with thicknesses of tens of meters. Silurian sequences are locally distributed along the Eastern slope of the Baltic Basin. The Wenlockian - Early Ludlow strata are up to 28 m thick; the effective porosity ranges from 12% to 17% and average permeabilities – 12-15 mD. The most favourable conditions for the formation of non-structural traps (reef-associated, lithologic-stratigraphic and combined) are associated with the carbonates (mainly stromoporoidal and crinoidal limestones) sucession of about 90 m thick of the late Ludlow- earliest Pridoli (Minija and Ventspils Formations). The reservoir rocks has mean porosities of 6-15 % and up to 26% and permeability ~465mD, reaching up to 2400mD. The Late Silurian reservoir rocks mainly occur in central and southern Lithuania in the central part of the basin.


3. Late Ordovician (Mossen & Fjacka Formations) and the Early Silurian Llandovery Black Shales

The Late Ordovician Shales

In the central and eastern part of the Baltic Basin the potential source rocks comprises dark grey and black shales of the Late Ordovician Late Caradoc-Early Asghill Fjacka and Mossen formations. Both units are generally thin, reaching only up to 5–10 m; the thicknesses of Fjack & Mossesn Formations are 6 m and 4 m respectively. TOC content are mostly in the 0.9 to 10 % range, with occasional higher values of up to 15 %. The source rock facies are kerogen type II and II-III.

The Early Silurian Shales

Potential source rocks in the Silurian succession are found within the Llandovery, Wenlock and, presumably, Ludlow-aged strata. The Silurian source rocks are composed of dark grey and black graptolite shales and dark grey and black clayey marlstones. Within the Baltic Basin organic matter content generally ranges from 0.7 to 9–11%, but can be as high as 16.46 % (fig. 5.5.b; Zdanaviciute, Lazauskiene, 2004). In terms of petrography, the organic matter is dominated by syngenetic, sapropelic and marine material, together with vitrinite-like particles and abundant faunal remains. Detrital sapropel is scattered as very fine-grained particles and lenses. Liptinite (up to 20%) generally occurs together with dispersed liptodetrinite in sapropelic organic matter, or more rarely as scattered particles. (Zdanavičiūtė, Swadowska 2002, Zdanaviciute, Lazauskiene, 2004, 2007, 2009).

Maturities in the area of interest attain at pre-Silurian level 1.3% Ro and around 1.0% Ro at Silurian source rock level, and reach 1.9% on the prominent West-Lithuanian local temperature high Zdanaviciute, Lazauskiene, 2004, 2007, 2009)

 

Please note registration for the Core Workshop is available to attendees of the upcoming GTW "Hydrocarbon Exploration in Lithuania and the Baltic Region" on the 24th - 25th October 2016. Please click here for information about the event.

 

 

Online Training
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