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Transfer zones in rift basins are classified into convergent, divergent, and synthetic, based on the relative dip directions of adjacent faults within the transfer zone. Experimental models were constructed to determine the geometry, evolution, and fault patterns associated with each of these transfer zones. In addition, basement faults with initially approaching, laterally offset, and overlapping geometries were modeled. The models consisted of two layers, with stiff clay representing basement and soft clay representing the sedimentary cover. Laser scanning and three-dimensional surface modeling were used to determine the map geometry to compare the models with examples of natural structures. The experimental models showed many similarities with conceptual models but also showed more details and a few significant differences. Typically, divergent transfer zones are narrower than convergent transfer zones, for the same initial spacing between basement faults. The differences between the different initial fault configurations (approaching, laterally offset, or overlapping) are the degree of interaction of the secondary faults, the amount of overlap between the fault zones, and in some cases, the width of the transfer zone. The main faults propagate laterally and upward and curve in the direction of dip of the faults, so that the faults curve toward each other in convergent transfer zones, away from each other in divergent transfer zones, and in the same direction in synthetic transfer zones. A primary difference with schematic models is the significant component of extensional fault propagation folding (drape folding), accompanied by secondary faulting within the sedimentary cover, especially in the early stages of fault propagation. Therefore, all three types of transfer zones are characterized by significant folding and related variations in the shapes of structures. The transfer zones are marked by a progressive change in relief from the footwall to the hanging wall, resulting in a saddle-shaped geometry. The hanging walls of the faults are marked by a gentle flexure or rollover into the fault, with the amount of flexure increasing with fault throw away from the fault tip. The geometries and fault patterns of the experimental structures match some of the observations in natural structures and also provide predictive analogs for interpretation of surface and subsurface structures and the delineation of structural traps in rift basins.
The central Black Sea Basin of Turkey is filled by more than 9 km (6 mi) of Upper Triassic to Holocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. The basin has a complex history, having evolved from a rift basin to an arc basin and finally having become a retroarc foreland basin. The Upper Triassic–Lower Jurassic Akgol and Lower Cretaceous Cağlayan Formations have a poor to good hydrocarbon source rock potential, and the middle Eocene Kusuri Formation has a limited hydrocarbon source rock potential. The basin has oil and gas seeps. Many large structures associated with extensional and compressional tectonics, which could be traps for hydrocarbon accumulations, exist.
Fifteen onshore and three offshore exploration wells were drilled in the central Black Sea Basin, but none of them had commercial quantities of hydrocarbons. The assessment of these drilling results suggests that many wells were drilled near the Ekinveren, Erikli, and Ballıfakı thrusts, where structures are complex and oil and gas seeps are common. Many wells were not drilled deep enough to test the potential carbonate and clastic reservoirs of the İnaltı and Cağlayan Formations because these intervals are locally buried by as much as 5 km (3 mi) of sedimentary and volcanic rocks. No wells have tested prospective structures in the north and east where the prospective İnalti and Cağlayan Formations are not as deeply buried. Untested hydrocarbons may exist in this area.
Outcrops of the Cretaceous high-porosity sandstone of the Southeast Basin, France, show two main types of deformation structures: a large number of small-offset, shear-enhanced cataclastic deformation bands (DBs); and a small number of large (meters to decameters)-offset ultracataclastic fault zones. Microstructural analyses of the cataclastic DBs show that fragmentation produces strands of cataclastic fragment-supported matrix, separated by weakly fractured host rock, which cluster to form the DBs. The ultracataclastic fault zones, however, are composed of a matrix-supported ultracataclasite material. Permeability data show that the DBs reduce host-rock permeability by 0.5 to 2 orders of magnitude, whereas the ultracataclasites reduce permeability by approximately 4 orders. Simple calculations considering the structural frequency, thickness, and permeability of these faults suggest that, although the DBs may have an impact on single-phase flow, it is most likely to be less than a 50% reduction in flow rate in extensional contexts, but it may be more severe in the most extreme cases of structural density in tectonic shortening contexts. The larger ultracataclastic faults, however, despite their much lower frequency, will have a more significant reduction in flow rate, probably of approximately 90 to 95%. Hence, although they are commonly at or below the limit of seismic resolution, the detection and/or prediction of such ultracataclastic faults is likely to be more important for single-phase flow problems than DBs (although important two-phase questions remain). The study also suggests that it is inappropriate to use the petrophysical properties of core-scale DB structures as analogs to larger seismic-scale faults.
We do not dispute that the pores shown in the photomicrograph of figure 8G of Beavington-Penney et al. (2008; reproduced here as Figure 1) could have formed at least partly by poststylolite dissolution, but we do not agree that this photomicrograph constitutes evidence for porosity creation by mesogenetic dissolution in the El Garia Formation of offshore Tunisia. Our skepticism is based on two main considerations: (1) that the multiple possible origins of the pores shown in Figure 1 cannot be determined with any meaningful degree of objective certainty and (2) that Figure 1 appears to be unrepresentative of pore types in the El Garia Formation, based on comparison with numerous other published images from this unit.
Volumetric restoration can provide crucial insights into the structural evolution of three-dimensional (3-D) petroleum systems. A major limitation to its widespread application is the need to include complex architectures and realistic mechanics such as flexural slip. We apply an implicit approach that allows for, including unconformities, thin and/or pinched-out layers in the models but that cannot explicitly localize slip along horizons. To take advantage of this approach while accounting for flexural slip in 3-D restoration, we investigate new geomechanical properties. We consider flexural slip folding as a result of stacked rigid and thin weak layers, which can be modeled using transversely isotropic properties. We compare restorations of an anticline using transversely isotropic properties, isotropic properties, and a stack of rigid isotropic layers with nonfrictional slip between the layers. Our results show that transversely isotropic properties reasonably approximate flexural slip folding. We use these new tools to model the evolution of a complex system located in the Niger Delta toe. The system includes a detachment fold, a fault-bend fold, and a structural wedge formed in series. Growth stratigraphy and erosional surfaces delimit the kinematics of deformation. Regional erosive surfaces, 3-D gradients of fault slip, and vertical variations in mechanical strength motivated the use of our new restoration techniques. Restoring two growth units results not only in reinforcing the interpretation that the area is behaving as a deforming thrust sheet at critical taper, but also in highlighting coeval activity on both the hinterland structures and the toe of the thrust belt.
A new well in Oklahoma may be the most historic and geologically interesting project in the entire country – and for a bonus, it may involve a new helium province.
Spreading the word: Nine speakers have been selected for AAPG’s prestigious Distinguished Lecture program for the 2012-13 North American tours.
It was nearly midnight on a Saturday late in June 1971 when BOCAL’s new palynologist Barry Ingram telephoned chief geologist Peter Kaye to tell him the gas discovery in North Rankin-1 were in Triassic sediments.
The history of oil in the Middle East is essentially a story of giant oil fields (each containing over 500 million barrels).
The Rovuma Basin off the coast of Mozambique is not on the radar screen of a whole lot of folks.
In 2020, AAPG will launch its first GTW (Geosciences Technology Workshop) in Mozambique, partnering with ENH (Mozambique National Oil and Gas Company) with a focus on deepwater reservoirs and LNG. The goal will be to build scientific knowledge, discover innovations, and network with peers. AAPG has established the GTWs as the primary vehicle for scientific and technological knowledge exchange throughout the world.
Join us in Salzburg, the “castle of salt” and cradle of Mozart and Doppler, for a meeting aimed at bringing together different perspectives in the science of evaporite basins: from their formation to their deformation, from description and characterization to modelling. Exploratory success in evaporite-rich basins worldwide has depended on the role of evaporites as a deformable substrate, as a seal, or even as a good thermal conductor. The aim of this workshop is to improve our understanding and predictive ability by addressing evaporite systems in an integrated manner, all the way from precipitation to structuration, and exploring the multiple properties of evaporite sequences. The pre- and post-meeting field trips will also explore the salt mining heritage of the region, first exploited by the Celts 3500 years ago, and the salt-related structures of the Northern Calcareous Alps.
Date: 28 February 2020 (Half Day)
PNG LNG is an integrated development that is commercializing the gas resources of Papua New Guinea. Our operations are producing over 8 million tonnes of liquefied natural gas (LNG) each year which is exported to four major customers in the Asia region.
The site tour will offer attendees an exclusive look at world class integrated development that includes gas production and processing facilities that extend form Hela, Southern Highlands, Western and Gulf provinces to Port Moresby in Central Province.
Registration is free of charge. Limited to 50 pax on a first-come-first-served basis. Registration Information can be found at https://eage.eventsair.com/1st-aapgeage-png/registration-
The ExxonMobil LNG Plant Tour is organised by ExxonMobil; not by AAPG/EAGE. By signing up for the 'ExxonMobil LNG Plant Tour', Attendees accept and agree to indemnify and hold harmless AAPG & EAGE and its governing board, officers, employees, and representatives from any liability, including but not limited to injury or death of myself, or any person(s) and damage to property that may result from participation in the described activity.
Date: Friday 28 – Saturday 29 February 2020 (2 days)
Instructor: Ken McClay, Professor of Structural Geology
This 2 day short course will focus firstly on the development of extensional basins, rifts and passive margins followed by inversion of these systems and the formation of thick and thin-skinned thrust belts. Extensional fault geometries, segmentation and linkages will be analysed as well as the architectures of extensional basins illustrated with field examples from the Gulf of Suez and Northern Red Sea as well as seismic examples from rift basins and passive margins. Inversion systems will be discussed in the context of how basement rift fault systems influence and control inversion geometries. Thick and thin-skinned orogenic systems will be examined in the context of inverted basins and thin-skinned thrust systems using examples from PNG, the Pyrenees, the Zagros fold and thrust belt and other systems. Characteristic structural styles and hydrocarbon systems in these terranes will be will be copiously illustrated using field, seismic, physical sand box and numerical models.
Who should attend:
Final year Geoscience students; starting geoscientists in the petroleum industry as well as mid- senior level geoscientists needing modern concepts of structural geology for the petroleum industry.
Participants to bring a notebook.
Ken McClay, Professor of Structural Geology, - BSc Honours degree in Economic Geology from Adelaide University, - MSc in Structural Geology & Rock Mechanics and PhD in Structural Geology from Imperial College, University of London, and DSc from Adelaide University: Emeritus Professor in the Department of Earth Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London and an Adjunct Professor in the Australian School of Petroleum at Adelaide University.
From 1991 until December 2018 he was Professor of Structural Geology and Director of the Fault Dynamics Research Group at Royal Holloway University of London. He carried out wide-ranging research on all aspects of applied structural geology. This has involved field research in NW Scotland, the Spanish Pyrenees, Indonesia, Yemen, Iran, Australia, Canada, USA, Chile, Argentina, Greenland, Norway, Turkey, Ethiopia and Gulf of Suez and Red Sea Egypt. His research interests include extensional, strike-slip, thrust and inversion terranes. He ran a large experimental analogue modelling laboratory for the simulation of fault structures and sedimentary architectures at Royal Holloway. He has written a book for mapping structures in the field, edited five major volumes on thrust tectonics, and has published widely on structural geology and tectonics and he is a consultant for the international petroleum industry and has given many short courses for the industry.
Ken focuses on field analogues for geological structures to illustrate structural styles and mechanical stratigraphy, on analogue modelling of faults and fold systems and on seismic interpretation of sub-surface structures. Current major research projects include tectonic evolution of the Northern Chilean Andes, fold and thrust belts in accretionary terranes, tectonic evolution of deep-water fold belts as well as extensional tectonics and structural evolution of the NW Shelf of Australia.
The AAPG Latin America & Caribbean Region and the Colombian Association of Petroleum Geologists and Geophysicists (ACGGP) invite you join us for GTW Colombia 2020, a specialized workshop bringing leading scientists and industry practitioners to share best practices, exchange ideas and explore opportunities for future collaboration.
The 2-day workshop brings together technical experts and industry leaders from Colombia and throughout the Americas to take a multidisciplinary look at future opportunities for exploration and development of Southern Caribbean Frontier Basins.
This e-symposium will provide information on which tools, processes, and procedures all geoscientists, engineers, and technical professionals working in shale plays need to understand and implement.
There are more approximately 1,000 oil and gas fields in the world that have been classified as 'giant,' containing more than 500 million barrels of recoverable oil and /or 3 trillion cubic feet of gas.
This e-symposium covers how to conduct an interdisciplinary evaluation of mature fields to determine the best approach to recover remaining reserves.
Recognition and Correlation of the Eagle Ford, Austin Formations in South Texas can be enhanced with High Resolution Biostratigraphy, fossil abundance peaks and Maximum Flooding Surfaces correlated to Upper Cretaceous sequence stratigraphic cycle chart after Gradstein, 2010.
Unger Field, discovered in1955, has produced 8.6 million barrels of oil from a thinly (several ft) bedded, locally cherty dolomite containing vuggy and intercrystalline porosity.
This esymposium takes a close look at workflows associated with resource plays, and analyzes where integration must occur between disciplines, data, and workflows at all phases of the process.
The Betic hinterland, in the westernmost Mediterranean, constitutes a unique example of a stack of metamorphic units. Using a three-dimensional model for the crustal structure of the Betics-Rif area this talk will address the role of crustal flow simultaneously to upper-crustal low-angle faulting in the origin and evolution of the topography.
Request a visit from Juan I. Soto!
In comparison with the known boundary conditions that promote salt deformation and flow in sedimentary basins, the processes involved with the mobilization of clay-rich detrital sediments are far less well established. This talk will use seismic examples in different tectonic settings to document the variety of shale geometries that can be formed under brittle and ductile deformations.
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