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Extensional Systems

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Analyses of normal faults at displacements spanning 7 orders of magnitude (mm to km) in mechanically layered strata reveal that mechanical properties of rock layers strongly influence nucleation points, failure mode (shear versus hybrid), geometry (e.g., refraction through mechanical layers), rate of propagation with respect to displacement (and potential for fault tip folding), displacement partitioning (e.g., synthetic dip, synthetic faulting, fault core displacement), fault core and damage zone width, and fault zone deformation processes.
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It has a new name, a new energy and a new lineup of experts, all primed to spread geoscience knowledge around the world. “It” is AAPG’s newly named Global Distinguished Lecture Program – emphasis on the “global” – which dates back to 1941 but continues to be the Association’s flagship initiative for offering the latest in geologic science to AAPG affiliated geological societies and universities.

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This talk will focus on distinguishing sedimentary, volcanic and structural features of basins formed under the tectonic regimes in western U.S. and Mexico. Take closer look at the Cenozoic volcanism and sedimentation occuring under extensional to transtensional strain regimes and resulting in excellent preservation of stratigraphy in deep, fault-controlled basins.

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Hydrothermal alteration occurs when relatively high-pressure, high-temperature fluids flow up active faults and into permeable formations that underlie sealing shales, or other low permeability strata. This process can and commonly does occur at relatively shallow burial depths of less than a kilometer and in many cases less than 500 meters.

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Participants will examine illustrative outcrops of thrusts, fault-related folds, stratal architectures and facies of depositional systems affected by growing structures, which are good analogues for hydrocarbon reservoirs. Objectives include interpreting complex thrust structures, identifying and understanding strain and fracture systems in fold-thrust belts, and analyzing patterns of growth strata in areas with synsedimentary folding.

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The style of faulting in offshore Louisiana, Gulf of Mexico, is characterized by short, arcuate regional and counterregional growth faults, which commonly form complex transfer zones above shallow, Miocene level salt bodies. South Timbalier Block 54 (ST54) constitutes one such area where a basinward-dipping regional and a landward-dipping counterregional growth fault form a convergent transfer zone.

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Current AAPG Distinguished Lecturer Webster Mohriak is one of the confirmed keynote speakers for the upcoming Atlantic Realm Conjugate Margins Conference, set this August in St. John’s, Newfoundland. Retiring in 2011 after

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The results of regional deep seismic acquisition in the South Atlantic continental margins have shed new lights on the birth and development of sedimentary basins formed during the Gondwana breakup. Recent models of mantle exhumation as observed in the deep water Iberian margin have been applied extensively to the interpretation of several basins in the Eastern Brazilian and West African conjugate margins. However, the tectonic development of these basins is markedly different from the magma-poor margins, and in this lecture we emphasize the contrasts from the tectono-sedimentary features imaged in deep-penetrating seismic profiles that extend from the platform towards the oceanic crust, which indicate that the Red Sea constitutes a better analogue for the birth of divergent continental margins.

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Hydrocarbon exploration beneath the shallow allochthonous salt canopy of the ultra-deepwater central Gulf of Mexico has encountered three thick, sand-rich, submarine fan successions that punctuate an otherwise relatively condensed and fine-grained basin center stratigraphy. These sand-rich fans are Late Paleocene, Early Miocene, and Middle Miocene in age and each coincide with periods of very high sediment flux and basin margin instability. They are the primary exploration targets in most ultra-deepwater fields, recent discoveries, and failed exploration tests.

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The Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is the 9th largest body of water on earth, covering an area of approximately 1.6 million km2 with water depths reaching 4,400 m (14,300’). The basin formed as a result of crustal extension during the early Mesozoic breakup of Pangaea. Rifting occurred from the Late Triassic to early Middle Jurassic. Continued extension through the Middle Jurassic combined with counter-clockwise rotation of crustal blocks away from North America produced highly extended continental crust in the subsiding basin center. Subsidence eventually allowed oceanic water to enter from the west leading to thick, widespread, evaporite deposition. Seafloor spreading initiated in the Late Jurassic eventually splitting the evaporite deposits into northern (USA) and southern (Mexican) basins. Recent work suggests that this may have been accomplished by asymmetric extension, crustal delamination, and exposure of the lower crust or upper mantle rather than true sea floor spreading (or it could be some combination of the two). By 135 Ma almost all extension had ceased and the basic configuration of the GOM basin seen today was established. The Laramide Orogeny was the last major tectonic event impacting the GOM. It caused uplift and erosion for the NW margin from the Late Cretaceous to early Eocene.

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Online Training
28 April, 2011 28 April, 2011 1471 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-niobrara-petroleum-system-a-major-tight-resource-play.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
28 April 2011

The Niobrara Petroleum System of the U.S. Rocky Mountain Region is a major tight petroleum resource play.

19 August, 2010 19 August, 2010 1462 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-challenging-the-paradigm-missing-section-normal-fault.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
19 August 2010

This presentation will show where there are cases of missing sections, but none of them can be attributed to normal faulting.

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