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Compressional Systems

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Fracture zones can be critical to improving or creating sufficient porosity and permeability in hydrocarbon reservoirs – with strain, along with lithology and thickness being the major controls.

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The central Black Sea Basin of Turkey is filled by more than 9 km (6 mi) of Upper Triassic to Holocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. The basin has a complex history, having evolved from a rift basin to an arc basin and finally having become a retroarc foreland basin. The Upper Triassic–Lower Jurassic Akgol and Lower Cretaceous Cağlayan Formations have a poor to good hydrocarbon source rock potential, and the middle Eocene Kusuri Formation has a limited hydrocarbon source rock potential. The basin has oil and gas seeps. Many large structures associated with extensional and compressional tectonics, which could be traps for hydrocarbon accumulations, exist.

Fifteen onshore and three offshore exploration wells were drilled in the central Black Sea Basin, but none of them had commercial quantities of hydrocarbons. The assessment of these drilling results suggests that many wells were drilled near the Ekinveren, Erikli, and Ballıfakı thrusts, where structures are complex and oil and gas seeps are common. Many wells were not drilled deep enough to test the potential carbonate and clastic reservoirs of the İnaltı and Cağlayan Formations because these intervals are locally buried by as much as 5 km (3 mi) of sedimentary and volcanic rocks. No wells have tested prospective structures in the north and east where the prospective İnalti and Cağlayan Formations are not as deeply buried. Untested hydrocarbons may exist in this area.

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Outcrops of the Cretaceous high-porosity sandstone of the Southeast Basin, France, show two main types of deformation structures: a large number of small-offset, shear-enhanced cataclastic deformation bands (DBs); and a small number of large (meters to decameters)-offset ultracataclastic fault zones. Microstructural analyses of the cataclastic DBs show that fragmentation produces strands of cataclastic fragment-supported matrix, separated by weakly fractured host rock, which cluster to form the DBs. The ultracataclastic fault zones, however, are composed of a matrix-supported ultracataclasite material. Permeability data show that the DBs reduce host-rock permeability by 0.5 to 2 orders of magnitude, whereas the ultracataclasites reduce permeability by approximately 4 orders. Simple calculations considering the structural frequency, thickness, and permeability of these faults suggest that, although the DBs may have an impact on single-phase flow, it is most likely to be less than a 50% reduction in flow rate in extensional contexts, but it may be more severe in the most extreme cases of structural density in tectonic shortening contexts. The larger ultracataclastic faults, however, despite their much lower frequency, will have a more significant reduction in flow rate, probably of approximately 90 to 95%. Hence, although they are commonly at or below the limit of seismic resolution, the detection and/or prediction of such ultracataclastic faults is likely to be more important for single-phase flow problems than DBs (although important two-phase questions remain). The study also suggests that it is inappropriate to use the petrophysical properties of core-scale DB structures as analogs to larger seismic-scale faults.
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We do not dispute that the pores shown in the photomicrograph of figure 8G of Beavington-Penney et al. (2008; reproduced here as Figure 1) could have formed at least partly by poststylolite dissolution, but we do not agree that this photomicrograph constitutes evidence for porosity creation by mesogenetic dissolution in the El Garia Formation of offshore Tunisia. Our skepticism is based on two main considerations: (1) that the multiple possible origins of the pores shown in Figure 1 cannot be determined with any meaningful degree of objective certainty and (2) that Figure 1 appears to be unrepresentative of pore types in the El Garia Formation, based on comparison with numerous other published images from this unit.
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In the rough terrain of overthrust settings, 2-D seismic data continues to be a standard tool for subsurface mapping – and not only because of economic reasons. Two-D and 3-D seismic surveys are complementary in land environments, because each data type has its own strength and weakness.

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Coexist – often easier said than done, especially when the exploration industry is attempting to work in highly populated or environmentally sensitive areas. So how does it work in California?
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Italy will be in the AAPG spotlight in October as it becomes, for the first time ever, the host country for the AAPG International Conference and Exhibition.

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AAPG’s prestigious Distinguished Lecturer program, which offers audiences a chance to hear the latest in geoscience research, understanding and practical applications, kicks-off its new season with three speaking tours planned for September.

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A $3.5 million proprietary 3-D seismic survey was recorded in central Pennsylvania region to determine the effectiveness of modern 3-D/3C seismic data in extracting certain rock properties of the Marcellus Shale.

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In-Person Training
Buenos Aires Argentina 11 May, 2015 12 May, 2015 14137 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/extending-mature-fields-life-cycles-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Structure, Structural Analysis (Other), Geomechanics and Fracture Analysis, Compressional Systems, Fold and Thrust Belts, Extensional Systems, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Sequence Stratigraphy, Clastics, Conventional Sandstones, Eolian Sandstones, Lacustrine Deposits, Carbonates, (Carbonate) Shelf Sand Deposits, Petrophysics and Well Logs, Geophysics, Seismic, Magnetic, Gravity, Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Basin Modeling, Maturation, Oil and Gas Analysis, Source Rock, Petroleum Systems, Environmental, Ground Water, Remote Sensing, Reservoir Characterization, Engineering, Seismic Attributes, Geochemical Fingerprinting, 3D Seismic, Production, Tertiary Recovery, Secondary Recovery, Primary Recovery, Drive Mechanisms, Development and Operations, Conventional Drilling, Coring, Business and Economics, Risk Analysis, Reserve Estimation, Resource Estimates, Economics, Deep Sea / Deepwater, Deepwater Turbidites, Marine, Shelf Sand Deposits, Slope, Carbonate Reefs, Carbonate Platforms, Hydraulic Fracturing
Buenos Aires, Argentina
11-12 May 2015

Join leading scientists and industry practitioners at Extending Mature Fields’ Life Cycles: the Role of New Technologies & Integrated Strategies, a Geoscience Technology Workshop (GTW) organized by the AAPG Latin America Region and the Asociación Argentina de Geólogos y Geofísicos Petroleros (AAGGP).

Bakersfield California United States 13 May, 2016 13 May, 2016 28238 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/forum-psaapg2016-playmaker-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Source Rock, Engineering, Development and Operations, Coring, Infill Drilling, Production, Primary Recovery, Secondary Recovery, Tertiary Recovery, Thermal Recovery Processes, Petroleum Systems, Geophysics, Seismic, Clastics, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Conventional Sandstones, Deepwater Turbidites, Marine, Structure, Compressional Systems, Fold and Thrust Belts, Tectonics (General), Stratigraphic Traps, Structural Traps
Bakersfield, California, United States
13 May 2016

The Playmaker Forum will be a great way to learn more about our fascinating Pacific Section petroleum provinces, facilitate industry networking, and visit with friends and colleagues.

Online Training
19 August, 2010 19 August, 2010 1462 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-challenging-the-paradigm-missing-section-normal-fault.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
19 August 2010

This presentation will show where there are cases of missing sections, but none of them can be attributed to normal faulting.

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