Exploration & Development in Southern Caribbean Frontier Basins - Presentation Proposal Form
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In comparison with the known boundary conditions that promote salt deformation and flow in sedimentary basins, the processes involved with the mobilization of clay-rich detrital sediments are far less well established. This talk will use seismic examples in different tectonic settings to document the variety of shale geometries that can be formed under brittle and ductile deformations.
Mark G. Rowan, one of two recipients of this year’s Robert R. Berg Outstanding Research Award, was more than just a little bit surprised about his selection – as much for being considered as for winning. Rowan received the honor for “his outstanding contributions to research on salt tectonics, fold-thrust belts, passive margins, diapirs and salt sheets, salt-sediment interaction and cross-section restoration.”
Bolivia’s role as a South American gas market supplier was a key theme at the Geosciences Technology Workshop Bolivia 2018, AAPG’s first technical workshop in the country. High-profile guests drew national attention, and local media outlets covering the GTW described Bolivia as “playing in the big leagues.”
On Feb. 26, 2018, Papua New Guinea experienced a 7.5 magnitude earthquake that killed 140 people and produced 200 aftershocks over two months. Earthquakes are nothing new for the nation located northeast of Australia and east of Malaysia. Papua New Guinea, called PNG by locals and neighbors, is highly complex, in terms of society and geology.
The West Texas (Permian) Basin is a complexly structured intracratonic (IC) basin with prolific oil and natural gas production. It began as a subsidence basin ('Tobosa Basin') from Middle Ordovician to Devonian time, a response to the Cambrian rifting that separated Gondwana and Laurentia. In the Pennsylvanian to early Permian, it formed part of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains (ARM) orogen. The Texas-New Mexico segment of the ARM contains small to medium basement-cored uplifts, folds, thrust faults and two trends of strike-slip faults, with a pattern that is consistent with SW-NE compression. The largest thrust fault known in the basin is SW-vergent, and faces the deepest part of the Delaware Basin. This direction of compression is similar to that observed in the southern Oklahoma part of the ARM, which shows NE-vergent thrusting and left-lateral faulting.
This SW-NE compressive stress is grossly inconsistent with the northwestward convergence of the Ouachita-Marathon thrust belt southeast of the ARM. The ARM-generating stress may have originated either from the Pacific side (by flat subduction) or from strong continental collision in the Appalachian Orogen. Lines of weakness generated during the Proterozoic and/or Cambrian concentrated stress and created the complex structures.
The West Texas branch of the ARM is buried by over 2.5 km of post-deformational Permian strata -- the Permian Basin. Subsidence began during ARM deformation, then increased in rate and continued to the end of the Permian. Permian subsidence resulted in the maintenance of isolated deep-water marine basins until Late Permian time. The Marathon orogen also subsided, and shed little clastic material into the basin. Despite Mesozoic basin-margin modifications, the Permian isopach pattern suggests a bowl-shaped subsidence centered on the Central Basin axis of uplift. The size and shape of the Permian Basin are similar to other IC basins (Illinois, Michigan, Williston). Similar to some IC basins, the central basin area hosts a 1100-Ma mafic complex, which was subjected to compression in Pennsylvanian time. Sinking of a mafic crust or its subjacent lithosphere, begun during compression, may have been a driving force for Permian subsidence.
Over most of the basin, later Permian subsidence was responsible for putting source rocks into the oil window. Further maturation to gas occurred within the deep basins generated by ARM deformation and Marathon thrust loading.
Comparison of the hydrocarbon systems and geometries of the complex intracratonic West Texas (Permian) Basin and the complex postrift subsidence basins of the Gulf Coast / Gulf of Mexico yield useful insights for basin evolution and play development. The West Texas basin contains source rocks in the Ordovician and Devonian, but much generation comes from the Late Mississippian, Pennsylvanian and Permian basinal sediments. These were deposited in a poorly ventilated remnant basin during compression and strike-slip of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains orogeny, and subsidence of the intracratonic Permian Basin. Maturation resulted from Permian intracratonic subsidence, with hydrocarbons sealed from later leakage by late Permian salt and a fortunate tectonic setting. By contrast, the major Jurassic source rocks of the Gulf basins are at the base of the postrift subsidence, and are matured by further subsidence. Later Cretaceous source rocks (Eagle Ford) are mature in the main Gulf basin, but again lie near the bottom of the thick sedimentary package in the area. The younger part of the succession yields mostly gas formed during outbuilding of the shelf margin by Cenozoic deltaic progradation. No cap is present on the basin (except for subsalt plays), and seepage is widespread.
The Yegua Formation (Late Middle Eocene) is a minor siliciclastic progradation of the Gulf of Mexico shelf margin between the larger Early Eocene and Oligocene shelf-margin progradations. During Yegua time (and unlike the other units of the Middle and Late Eocene), four to eight sea-level fluctuations with a 100-300 ka period alternately pushed marine rocks toward the basin margins and pushed deltaic sedimentation to and past the shelf edge. Because of limited to moderate sand supply and the flat coastal plains, the updip (highstand) depositional complexes are nearly entirely separated from the downdip (lowstand) shelf-edge deltas and slope fans. Maximum flooding surfaces can be mapped over much of the area and correlated along and across the basin. The Yegua is truly a laboratory for sequence stratigraphy. A number of plays in the downdip and 'mid-dip' (incised valley complexes) trends have produced over 4 TCF of gas and condensate, and new discoveries await the return of exploration capital. The Yegua story is significant to all those interested in siliciclastic stratigraphy in passive-margin settings.
It has been suggested that gas hydrates may represent an important future source of energy; however, much remains to be learned about their characteristics and occurrence in nature. This lecture reviews recent successes in exploration and production of natural gas from gas hydrate accumulations.
The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 02 (NGHP-02) was conducted from 3-March-2015 to 28-July-2015 off the eastern coast of India. The primary goal of this expedition was the exploration and discovery of highly saturated gas hydrate occurrences in sand reservoirs that would be targets of future production testing.
This lecture presents the findings of recent international gas hydrate exploration efforts that are using new advanced technologies to identify and characterize the properties of gas hydrate prospects. Case studies from the Alaska North Slope, Gulf of Mexico, Japan and India demonstrate how standard oilfield technologies are helping to identify and evaluate gas hydrate accumulations.
The AAPG Latin America & Caribbean Region and the Colombian Association of Petroleum Geologists and Geophysicists (ACGGP) invite you join us for GTW Colombia 2020, a specialized workshop bringing leading scientists and industry practitioners to share best practices, exchange ideas and explore opportunities for future collaboration.
The 2-day workshop brings together technical experts and industry leaders from Colombia and throughout the Americas to take a multidisciplinary look at future opportunities for exploration and development of Southern Caribbean Frontier Basins.
This presentation will show where there are cases of missing sections, but none of them can be attributed to normal faulting.
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