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It is gratifying to receive a prompt discussion from Dunham and Saller (2014) on my article (Shanmugam, 2013a). Although the focus of my article was on internal waves and internal tides, the primary purpose of their discussion is to defend and reiterate their original interpretation of Miocene deep-water sands as turbidites in the Kutei Basin, Indonesia (Saller et al., 2006). Even if some of these issues were debated earlier (Saller et al., 2008a; Shanmugam, 2008a), I welcome this timely opportunity to address the lingering problems associated with deep-water processes and related facies models.
Show more American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Desktop /Portals/0/images/_site/AAPG-newlogo-vertical-morepadding.jpg?width=100&h=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Modern internal waves and internal tides along oceanic pycnoclines: Challenges and implications for ancient deep-marine baroclinic sands: Reply
 

Multiple techniques are available to construct three-dimensional reservoir models. This study uses comparative analysis to test the impact of applying four commonly used stochastic modeling techniques to capture geologic heterogeneity and fluid-flow behavior in fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs of complex facies architecture: (1) sequential indicator simulation; (2) object-based modeling; (3) multiple-point statistics (MPS); and (4) spectral component geologic modeling.

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Desktop /Portals/0/images/_site/AAPG-newlogo-vertical-morepadding.jpg?width=100&h=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true 10.1306/08281313035 A comparative study of reservoir modeling techniques and their impact on predicted performance of fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs
 

During the recent AAPG Congressional Visits Day, staff for the House Natural Resources Committee expressed interest in receiving input on issues and potential legislation from knowledgeable stakeholders. Here is an easy way to get involved in the process of informing Washington, D.C., decision makers: send a quick comment to the committee members in response to a particular hearing.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/two-house-hearings-on-oil-and-gas-issues-2014-03mar-26.jpg?width=100&h=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Two House Hearings on Oil and Gas Issues: A Chance to Listen and Comment
 

BOEM has just issued its programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) for comment--through April 7. In announcing the decision, BOEM stated, that its review of geological and geophysical surveys in the Mid- and South-Atlantic planning areas "...establishes multiple mitigation measures designed to minimize the impacts to marine life while setting a path forward for survey activities that will update nearly four-decade-old data on offshore energy resources in the region."

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Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/atlantic-seismic-survey-2014-03mar-03.jpg?width=100&h=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Atlantic Seismic Surveys
 

Energized by the recent Statoil ASA-operated Bay du Nord light oil discovery in Newfoundland’s offshore Flemish Pass Basin, earth scientists are gearing up to host the fourth Atlantic Realm Conjugate Margins Conference in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Aug. 20-22.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/conference-conjugates-researchers,-explorers-hero.jpg?width=100&h=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Conference Conjugates Researchers, Explorers
 

Oklahoma! As-yet unlocked SCOOP and STACK plays have plen’y of room for maturation and development.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oklahoma-plays-offer-untapped-potential-hero.jpg?width=100&h=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Here’s the SCOOP: Oklahoma Plays Offer Untapped Potential
 
We use sediment ages and mercury (Hg) concentrations to estimate past and future concentrations in the South River, Virginia, where Hg was released between 1930 and 1950 from a manufacturing process related to nylon production. In a previous study, along a 40 km (25 mi) reach, samples were collected from 26 of 54 fine-grained deposits that formed in the lee of large wood obstructions in the channel and analyzed for grain size, Hg concentration, and organic content. We also obtained radiometric dates from six deposits. To create a history that reflects the full concentration distribution (which contains concentrations as high as 900 mg/kg [900 ppm]), here, we treat the deposits as a single reservoir exchanging contaminated sediments with the overlying water column, and assume that the total sediment mass in storage and the distribution of sediment ages are time invariant. We use reservoir theory to reconstruct the annual history of Hg concentration on suspended sediment using data from our previous study and new results presented here. Many different reconstructed histories fit our data. To constrain results, we use information from a well-preserved core (and our estimate of the total mass of Hg stored in 2007) to specify the years associated with the peak concentration of 900 mg/kg. Our results indicate that around 850 kg (1874 lb) of Hg was stored in the deposits between 1955 and 1961, compared to only 80 kg (176 lb) today. Simulations of future Hg remediation suggest that 100-yr timescales will be needed for the South River to remove Hg-contaminated sediments from the channel perimeter through natural processes.
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Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/hero-EG-Journal-21-1-2014.jpg?width=100&h=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Reconstructing suspended sediment mercury contamination of a steep, gravel-bed river using reservoir theory
 

 SONAR, historical and aerial photographs, and vibracoring were used to assess the type and thickness distribution of sediments impounded by Gold Ray Dam on the Rogue River in southern Oregon. From these data, a volume of about 400,000 cubic yards (

Equation EG13006eq1

) of sediment was determined for the inundated area of the reservoir.

Overall, sediment volumes in the impounded part of the reservoir were less than expected. There are three possibilities that may explain the perceived absence of sediment: (1) the gradient of the Rogue River in this stretch is less, and therefore sediment yields are less; (2) the extraction of gravels and/or other impediments upstream decreased the availability of sediments delivered into the reservoir; and/or (3) sediment was deposited by a prograding delta that filled in the inundated area of the floodplain upstream from Gold Ray Dam. The amount of sediment deposited on this inundated floodplain may have been as much as 1,800,000 cubic yards (Equation EG13006eq2), bringing the total amount of sediment impounded by Gold Ray Dam to Equation EG13006eq3 yards (Equation EG13006eq4).

Applied sedimentology is not only vital to developing a depositional model for the filling of a reservoir, but also providing insights into depositional and erosional changes that will occur upon the removal of a dam. In particular, the processes of delta formation, reoccupation of abandoned channels, and avulsion are paramount in determining sediment accumulation and distribution in reservoirs.

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Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/hero-EG-Journal-21-1-2014.jpg?width=100&h=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Sediment study and removal of Gold Ray Dam on the Rogue River, Jackson County, Oregon
 

Diagenesis significantly impacts mudstone lithofacies. Processes operating to control diagenetic pathways in mudstones are poorly known compared to analogous processes occurring in other sedimentary rocks. Selected organic-carbon-rich mudstones, from the Kimmeridge Clay and Monterey Formations, have been investigated to determine how varying starting compositions influence diagenesis.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/compositional-controls-on-early-diagenetic-pathways.jpg?width=100&h=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Compositional controls on early diagenetic pathways in fine-grained sedimentary rocks: Implications for predicting unconventional reservoir attributes of mudstones
 

Umiat field in northern Alaska is a shallow, light-oil accumulation with an estimated original oil in place of more than 1.5 billion bbl and 99 bcf associated gas. The field, discovered in 1946, was never considered viable because it is shallow, in permafrost, and far from any infrastructure. Modern drilling and production techniques now make Umiat a more attractive target if the behavior of a rock, ice, and light oil system at low pressure can be understood and simulated.

The Umiat reservoir consists of shoreface and deltaic sandstones of the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation deformed by a thrust-related anticline. Depositional environment imparts a strong vertical and horizontal permeability anisotropy to the reservoir that may be further complicated by diagenesis and open natural fractures.

Experimental and theoretical studies indicate that there is a significant reduction in the relative permeability of oil in the presence of ice, with a maximum reduction when connate water is fresh and less reduction when water is saline. A representative Umiat oil sample was reconstituted by comparing the composition of a severely weathered Umiat fluid to a theoretical Umiat fluid composition derived using the Pedersen method. This sample was then used to determine fluid properties at reservoir conditions such as bubble point pressure, viscosity, and density.

These geologic and engineering data were integrated into a simulation model that indicate recoveries of 12%–15% can be achieved over a 50-yr production period using cold gas injection from five well pads with a wagon-wheel configuration of multilateral wells.

Show more American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
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In-Person Training
Jakarta Jakarta Indonesia 04 September, 2017 07 September, 2017 38896 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/hidden-potential-in-mature-basins-play-analogs-and-best-practices-hero-v2.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Member, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Clastics
 
Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia
4-7 September 2017

Our ability to predict reservoir presence or map net reservoir in clastic depositional systems is dependent on our understanding of the depositional geometries of the various depositional systems and the variation of patterns within those systems. The processes associated with sediment delivery and sediment dispersal is the fundamental control on the architectural geometry of a depositional system. The processes associated with the interplay between sediment input and accommodation space are the fundamental controls on the lateral and vertical stacking patterns within that geometry.

The geometry of the depositional system is similar regardless of the depositional location or scale. As such, the patterns within the geometries are also similar, and, therefore, predictable. This is a powerful concept that the interpreter can use in predicting depositional geometries and patterns. Whether the reservoir being studied was deposited on land or on a submarine fan, or whether it is 100’s of kilometers in scale or a kilometer, the geometry of the deposit is similar. Therefore, interpreters need only become familiar with the basic geometries of clastic depositional systems and the patterns that occur within those geometries.

Modern and outcrop analogs will be used, along with subsurface examples to provide the interpreter with a sound understanding of the reservoir distribution and quality, both laterally and vertically of the clastic depositional systems most commonly encountered as oil and gas reservoirs. The course is exercise-oriented and taught in PowerPoint format. A course manual is provided. The exercises in this course are designed to give you a strong working knowledge of the many depositional settings you are likely to encounter in your career. They are aimed at helping you to learn how to recognize them from well logs, and how to map them.

Schedule
Day 1: Interpreting Clastic Reservoir Systems
  • 10 Habits of Highly Successful Oil Finders
  • Well Log Correlation
  • Integrating Paleo, core and cuttings
  • Cross Sections
  • Sand Percent, Isopach, and Isochore Maps
  • Stratigraphic Principles, stacking patterns, and Walther’s Law
  • Sequence Stratigraphy
Day 2: Architectural Geometries of Clastic Reservoir Systems
  • Depositional Geometries; delivery versus dispersal systems
  • Sediment Input vs. Accommodation Space
  • Alluvial Fans
  • Braided Rivers
  • Meandering Rivers
  • Anastomosing Rivers
Day 3: Architectural Geometries of Clastic Reservoir Systems
  • Entrenched Rivers
  • Sabkha and Aeolian Deposits
  • Alluvial Fans
  • Deltas
  • Submarine Canyons and Fans
Day 4: Core Workshop
  • Core Workshop (using actual-size core posters)
  • Braided River
  • Meandering River
  • Anastomosing River
  • Tidal Delta
  • Lacustrine Delta
Jakarta Jakarta Indonesia 18 September, 2017 20 September, 2017 41523 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/hidden-potential-in-mature-basins-play-analogs-and-best-practices-hero-v2.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Clastics, Member
 
Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia
18-20 September 2017

Supporting organisation IAGI will be conducting a Workshop and Field Trip on “Modern and Ancient, Integration of Outcros, Modern Depositional Processes and Subsurface Data”. This will be led by Erlangga Septama, PhD, and Ir Herman Darman, M.Sc. More information including the program, investment fees and contact details can be found here.

Marrakech Morocco 01 November, 2017 04 November, 2017 37903 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/gtw-afr-the-paleozoic-hydrocarbon-potential-of-north-africa-past-lessons-and-future-potential-2017-17apr17-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Engineering, Development and Operations, Production, Infill Drilling, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Petroleum Systems, Source Rock, Thermal History, Geophysics, Clastics, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Conventional Sandstones, Sequence Stratigraphy, Structure, Compressional Systems, Extensional Systems, Tectonics (General), Deep Basin Gas, Stratigraphic Traps, Structural Traps
 
Marrakech, Morocco
1-4 November 2017

This workshop provides the opportunity to learn and discuss the latest knowledge, techniques & technologies applied to petroleum reservoirs in the Paleozoic of North Africa which can be utilized to explore for and develop these reservoirs. The workshop will provide a set-up for networking, interacting & sharing expertise with fellow petroleum scientists interested in developing and producing hydrocarbon resources within the Paleozoic of North Africa.

Marrakech Morocco 03 November, 2017 04 November, 2017 41272 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/gtw-afr-the-paleozoic-hydrocarbon-potential-of-north-africa-past-lessons-and-future-potential-2017-17apr17-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Structure, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Geophysics, Engineering, Compressional Systems, Tectonics (General), Extensional Systems, Source Rock, Petroleum Systems, Thermal History, Sequence Stratigraphy, Clastics, Development and Operations, Production, Structural Traps, Deep Basin Gas, Stratigraphic Traps, Conventional Sandstones, Infill Drilling
 
Marrakech, Morocco
3-4 November 2017

Location: Atlas; Anti-Atlas of Marrakech and Ouarzazate areas of Morocco**
Field Trip Leader: Abdallah Aitsalem (ONHYM) & Lahcen Boutib (ONHYM)
Field Trip Fee: USD575 *

* Field trip pricing covers accommodation, feeding and transportation for the duration of the Trip. Seats are limited and will be confirmed on a first come first served basis.

Day 1 Departure from Marrakech to Ouarzazate

The Atlas Mountains of Marrakech extend more than 250 km East-West and 50 km North-South. They record the highest mountainous peaks in North Africa with altitudes exceeding 4,000 meters (Toubkal 4,165m and Ouenkrim 4,089m). Northward and southward, they rise hundreds of meters above the Marrakech plain (Haouz plain) and Imini syncline, respectively. The recently incised mountain valleys, created during the last inversion of the Atlas, form the crossing ways of the massif, as is the case of the main road that connects Marrakech to Ouarzazate passing via the Tizi n'Tichka Pass. They also provide the opportunity to view multiple breathtaking landscapes and contain outcrops that shed light on the geological evolution of the mountain from the Precambrian to the present. Day 1 of the field trip will allow participants to view Paleozoic outcrops through the Tizi n'Tichka Pass, which displays a complete Cambrian to Devonian succession and contains several organic-rich intervals. Mesozoic and Cenozoic deposits, which are exposed on the borders of the massif, will also be viewed briefly.

Day 2: Departure from Ouarzazate to Tazzarine and back to Ouarzazate **

Day 2 of the field trip crosses the central Anti-Atlas Paleozoic basin and offers spectacular views of the largest oasis in North Africa, along the Draa River, and its majestic ancient Kasbahs. Participants will examine formations ranging in age from Upper Precambrian to Silurian. Discussions will focus on the evolution of their various depositional environments in relation to sea level changes. The well exposed sandstone formations provide the opportunity to view major Paleozoic reservoirsintervals, as well as the organic-rich "hot shales" that source these reservoirs. Rubble from recent water wells and ingenious sub-cropping irrigation systems (Khattara) provide the chance to sample fresh Ordovician and Silurian organic-rich and fossiliferous black shales. In addition, the participants will have perspective views of gentle folding generated during the Hercynian compression and related regional fractures.

Field trip route map
Field trip route map

**Field trip will end in Ouarzazate. All participants to arrange their own transport from Ouarzazate following the conclusion of the field trip.

To register for the field trip please click here.

Georgetown Barima-Waini Guyana 09 November, 2017 10 November, 2017 38161 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/sc-lacr-reservoir-characterization-of-deep-water-systems-impact-from-exploration-to-production-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Business and Economics, Risk Analysis, Production, Engineering, Primary Recovery, Secondary Recovery, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Petroleum Systems, Petrophysics and Well Logs, Clastics, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Conventional Sandstones, Deep Sea / Deepwater, Deepwater Turbidites, Low Stand Deposits, Marine, Regressive Deposits, Slope, Structure, Tectonics (General), Deep Basin Gas, Shale Gas, Stratigraphic Traps, Tight Gas Sands
 
Georgetown, Barima-Waini, Guyana
9-10 November 2017

This course emphasizes key changes in reservoir models that have a major impact in exploration and production of these reservoirs. The course will include lectures, exercises, and observations from cores, well logs and seismic profiles. Participants will learn how to interpret and map environments of deposition (EoD’s) in deep water systems and understand how the different EoD’s and sub-EoD’s behave as reservoirs.

Victoria Island Lagos Nigeria 08 February, 2018 09 February, 2018 38212 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/gtw-ar-enhancing-mature-fields-life-cycles-hero-v2.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Business and Economics, Economics, Reserve Estimation, Risk Analysis, Development and Operations, Engineering, Infill Drilling, Production, Drive Mechanisms, Water Drive, Hydraulic Fracturing, Primary Recovery, Secondary Recovery, Gas Injection, Water Flooding, Tertiary Recovery, Chemical Flooding Processes, Thermal Recovery Processes, Reservoir Characterization, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Basin Modeling, Petroleum Systems, Petrophysics and Well Logs, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Clastics, Structure, Extensional Systems, Diagenetic Traps, Stratigraphic Traps, Bitumen/Heavy Oil
 
Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria
8-9 February 2018

This workshop provides the opportunity to learn and discuss the latest knowledge, techniques & technologies applied to mature fields. The workshop will provide a set-up for networking, interacting & sharing expertise with fellow petroleum scientists interested in enhancing production from maturing fields in the Niger Delta and similar deltaic settings.

Online Training
24 October, 2013 24 October, 2013 1499 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-geomechanical-data-from-petrophysical-logs.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
24 October 2013

This e-symposium will be introducing signal processing techniques as a means to maximize extracting geomechanical data from petrophysical logs.

07 November, 2013 07 November, 2013 1500 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-from-qualitative-to-quantitative-interpretations.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
7 November 2013

This e-symposium presentation places the interpretation of deep-water turbidites discernible in 3-D seismic inversion data within a geological context.

08 December, 2011 08 December, 2011 1480 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-connectivity-in-fluvial-systems.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
8 December 2011

This e-symposium focuses on methods for predicting connectivity within clastic fluvial systems.

01 January, 2013 01 January, 9999 1459 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-cc-giant-oil-and-gas-fields.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
1 January 2013 - 1 January 9999

There are more approximately 1,000 oil and gas fields in the world that have been classified as "giant," containing more than 500 million barrels of recoverable oil and /or 3 trillion cubic feet of gas.

13 December, 2012 13 December, 2012 1494 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-petrophysics-of-shales.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
13 December 2012

The course will review core data, petrophysical comparisons, rock physics modeling (including pseudo logs and mechanical properties).

28 April, 2011 28 April, 2011 1471 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-niobrara-petroleum-system-a-major-tight-resource-play.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
28 April 2011

The Niobrara Petroleum System of the U.S. Rocky Mountain Region is a major tight petroleum resource play.

17 February, 2011 17 February, 2011 1469 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-siliclastic-sequence-stratigraphy.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
17 February 2011

This presentation is designed for exploration/production geologists and geological managers or reservoir engineers.

11 November, 2010 11 November, 2010 1465 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-geochemical-evaluation-of-eagle-ford-group-source.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
11 November 2010

This e-symposium is ideal for geologists, geophysicists, engineers and other geoscientists who are involved in gas shale exploration and production.

29 April, 2010 29 April, 2010 1457 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-seismic-stratigraphy-seismic-geomorphology-of-deep-water.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
29 April 2010

This presentation will focus on the seismic stratigraphic and seismic geomorphologic expression of deep-water deposits, including both reservoir and non-reservoir facies.

22 October, 2009 22 October, 2009 1452 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-fluvial-stratigraphy.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
22 October 2009

This course can help you gain the ability to describe the complex and highly variable reservoirs, which are typified by complex internal heterogeneity.

14 February, 3000 14 February, 3000 7817 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-generic-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
Request a Visit
 

Exploration activity in lacustrine basins in extensional settings has accelerated in recent years with important discoveries in the South Atlantic Ocean and in East Africa. This presentation reviews reservoir facies in lacustrine-rifts including siliciclastic deposits, mixed siliciclastic-carbonate systems, as well as lacustrine carbonates, as observed in different systems in East Africa. Lacustrine extensional basins are characteristically dominated by siliciclastic deposits, on account of the high-relief on faulted rift margins, and associated deep-basin subsidence. Source rock facies in lake systems are shown to vary dramatically in space and time, based on studies of modern lake basins as well as ancient high-resolution records revealed through scientific drilling. This presentation offers data-intensive perspectives of extant lake basins in both the western and eastern branches of Africa's Great Rift Valley.

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Request a visit from Christopher Scholz!

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