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Low Resistivity Reservoirs: Path to Explore, Discover and Develop Call for Abstracts
Expires in 60 days
This workshop will bring the attendees up to date with the latest academic and case-studies from the field of advanced surface logging technologies.
Over the last decade or so, marine controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) technology has proven to be an effective tool to de-risk deepwater, really high cost drilling decisions. Yet it, along with magnetotellurics technology (MT), has both good days and bad days in the continuing uncertain financial environment.
It’s widely known that refracturing a horizontal well can help to reduce the interaction between so-called parent and child wells by causing a high stress area around the refractured wells and diverting child well fractures away from the parent well.
The present day Cretaceous Codell oil and gas development in the central portion of the Denver Basin of Colorado can be attributed to an earlier effort in bringing the Codell to the attention of the industry.
For anyone interested in the methods of observing and quantifying the pore systems that control hydrocarbon and flow in unconventional reservoirs, AAPG’s new volume is what you’ve been waiting for. AAPG recently released Memoir 112: “Imaging Unconventional Reservoir Pore Systems.”
The Next 100 Years: Data management is a crucial component of oil exploration. What does the century ahead look like for Big Data in the oil field?
The GEO 2018 committee welcomes your abstracts for oral and poster presentations at the 13th Middle Geosciences Conference and Exhibition (GEO 2018) which will take place from 5 — 8 March in Bahrain. Submit today and join the largest gathering of geoscience professionals in the Middle East.
TIGs and SIGs are designed to encourage greater Member participation in specific topics or interests – and to enhance Member engagement with other Members, and with AAPG. But what is the current roster of TIGs and SIGs – and who do you contact to join their fun?
Relative permeability in shales is an important petrophysical parameter for purposes of accurate estimation of production rate
and recovery factor, efficient secondary recovery, and effective water management. We present a method to estimate saturation-dependent relative permeability in shales based on the interpretation of the low-pressure nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm
measurements. Relative permeability were determined for 30 samples from the
window of Eagle
Wolfcamp shale formations. These sample have low-pressure helium porosity (LPHP) in the range of 0.04 to 0.09 and total
organic content (TOC) in the range of 0.02 to 0.06. The samples were ashed to study the effects of
removal of organic matter on
the pore size distribution, pore connectivity, and relative permeability. The estimated irreducible water saturation and residual
hydrocarbon saturation are directly proportional to the TOC and LPHP, and exhibit 15% variation
over the entire range. Pore
connectivity, in terms of average coordination number, decreases by 33% with the increase in TOC from 0.02 to 0.06. The
estimated fractal dimension is close to 2.7 for all the samples. The estimated relative permeability of aqueous phase and that of
hydrocarbon phase at a given saturation is inversely proportional to the TOC. Relative permeability curves of the hydrocarbon
phase for geological samples from various depths in a 100-feet interval indicate that the hydrocarbon production rate will vary
drastically over the entire interval and these variations will increase as the hydrocarbon saturations reduce in the formation. In
contrast, relative permeability curves of the aqueous phase suggest limited variation in water production
rate over the entire
interval. Further, based on the relative permeability curves, the hydrocarbon production is predicted to be negligible for
hydrocarbon saturations below 50% and the water production is expected to be negligible for water saturations below than 80%.
Efforts are ongoing to use the laboratory-based estimates to predict field-scale production and recovery rates.
Measurements of fluid wetting
characteristic are made routinely on rock samples. However, there are no published petrophysical models to
differentiate between oil-wet and water-wet fractions of a reservoir sequence using commonly available log suites. This presentation builds on
our previous publication that describes the unconventional reservoir petrophysical model we have developed (Holmes,
2014). Essentially, we
define four porosity components, namely total organic carbon, clay porosity, effective porosity, and “free shale porosity.”
This last component
is an indirect calculation if the first three components do not sum to total porosity.
Porosity/resistivity plots can be constructed for the total porosity and interpreted in a standard fashion. These will mostly
indicate a water-wet
system where the effective porosity fraction is examined. A second porosity/resistivity plot compares resistivity with “free
shale porosity,” and
is clearly interpreted to indicate Archie saturation exponents of much larger than 2
frequently in excess of 3
indicating the oil-wet fraction of
the reservoir system. Additionally, the plots suggest low to very low values of cementation exponent, ranging from 1.0 to 1.5.
Examples from the Bakken of Montana and North Dakota, the Niobrara of Colorado, and the Wolfcamp and Spraberry of Texas are presented
showing quantitative distinction of water-wet vs. oil-wet reservoir components.
“Wait! There is a short cut. Turn right from here”. That’s probably the sound of an electric current bypassing the resistive hydrocarbons, in a maze or network of porous media, when traveling from transmitter to receiver. This workshop will serve the participants need with the up to date advancements in describing and characterizing low resistivity and low contrast pay, and eventually, maximize resources.
This seminar focuses on the role geoscience leaders and mentors play in retaining top talent.
El geocientífico visitante Juan Pablo Lovecchio revisa aspectos generales de la ruptura, grietas y formación pasiva de márgenes y evolución a través del tiempo, así como elementos del desarrollo del sistema petrolero.
This e-symposium provides highlights of the hydraulic fracturing mechanics, analysis, and design, and is derived from a two and one-half (2-1/2) day course which is designed for drilling, completion, production engineers, engineering technicians, geologists, well-site and completion supervisors, and managers, who desire to possess a comprehensive and integral knowledge of Hydraulic Fracturing.
Fossil fuels have led to a profound increase in world living standards but resulting emissions of CO2 and methane into the atmosphere are a primary factor in climate change. Atmospheric content of CO2 and methane have risen 146% and 257% respectively since pre-industrial time and the rate of increase through 2019 has accelerated. If significant steps are not taken in the coming decade to halt the increase in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), a phase may be reached in the 2030-2050-time frame described as a “tipping point”, in which steady changes may be replaced by a large-scale change in the climate system. The Middle East is an area of high climate change vulnerability in the coming decades due to extreme temperatures, sea level rise and changing weather patterns.
This e-symposium introduces you to the practical benefits of thermal profiling for a variety of unconventional oil and gas projects, including tight gas sands, oil shale, low-gravity oil.
Join us for 'Pivoting 2021: Imaging Technologies'. Panelists will discuss new ways to acquire data that is then processed into interpretable images, and they will discuss the technologies as well as the techniques.
Webinar will be presented via Zoom 7pm - 8:30pm CDT, 26 May 2021.
Visiting Geoscientist Xavier Moonan provides an overview of the destruction in the Los Iros area following the 6.9 magnitude earthquake that hit Trinidad and Tobago in 2018.
His talk focuses on understanding the results from various post-earthquake studies conducted on the Los Iros, reviewing the theories developed to explain the origin and integrating datasets to provide an understanding of what transpired.
Join us for 'Pivoting 2021: Opportunities with Earth Imaging Technologies'. Panelists discuss the newest developments and directions in drones, satellite imagery, and other ways to acquire and process images of the Earth's surface.
Webinar will be presented via Zoom 7pm - 8:30pm CDT, 12 May 2021.
In the past 3 decades the sequence stratigraphy jargon has proliferated, resulting in multiple definitions of the same surface or new surfaces and units based on drawings of deposition in response to relative changes in sea level. The close association between base-level changes, the formation of surfaces, and specific stratal stacking that define systems tracts are at the heart of the confusion. This webinar is proposed a back-to-basics approach, emphasizing key observations that can be made from any geologic data: lithofacies, lithofacies association, vertical stacking, stratal geometries, and stratal terminations.
The goal of this e-symposium is to review an important dimension in the ways geologist can build and update geological models using information from performance data.
Local sea-level changes are not simply a function of global ocean volumes but also the interactions between the solid Earth, the Earth’s gravitational field and the loading and unloading of ice sheets. Contrasting behaviors between Antarctica and Scotland highlight how important the geologic structure beneath the former ice sheets is in determining the interactions between ice sheets and relative sea levels.
Request a visit from Alex Simms!
The Betic hinterland, in the westernmost Mediterranean, constitutes a unique example of a stack of metamorphic units. Using a three-dimensional model for the crustal structure of the Betics-Rif area this talk will address the role of crustal flow simultaneously to upper-crustal low-angle faulting in the origin and evolution of the topography.
Request a visit from Juan I. Soto!
Three-dimensional (3D) seismic-reflection surveys provide one of the most important data types for understanding subsurface depositional systems. Quantitative analysis is commonly restricted to geophysical interpretation of elastic properties of rocks in the subsurface.
Wide availability of 3D seismic-reflection data and integration provide opportunities for quantitative analysis of subsurface stratigraphic sequences. Here, we integrate traditional seismic-stratigraphic interpretation with quantitative geomorphologic analysis and numerical modeling to explore new insights into submarine-channel evolution.
Request a visit from Jacob Covault!
Around 170 million years ago, the Gulf of Mexico basin flooded catastrophically, and the pre-existing landscape, which had been a very rugged, arid, semi-desert world, was drowned beneath an inland sea of salt water. The drowned landscape was then buried under kilometers of salt, perfectly preserving the older topography. Now, with high-quality 3D seismic data, the salt appears as a transparent layer, and the details of the drowned world can be seen in exquisite detail, providing a unique snapshot of the world on the eve of the flooding event. We can map out hills and valleys, and a system of river gullies and a large, meandering river system. These rivers in turn fed into a deep central lake, whose surface was about 750m below global sea level. This new knowledge also reveals how the Louann Salt was deposited. In contrast to published models, the salt was deposited in a deep water, hypersaline sea. We can estimate the rate of deposition, and it was very fast; we believe that the entire thickness of several kilometers of salt was laid down in a few tens of thousands of years, making it possibly the fastest sustained deposition seen so far in the geological record.
Request a visit from Frank Peel!
In comparison with the known boundary conditions that promote salt deformation and flow in sedimentary basins, the processes involved with the mobilization of clay-rich detrital sediments are far less well established. This talk will use seismic examples in different tectonic settings to document the variety of shale geometries that can be formed under brittle and ductile deformations.
President Biden has laid out a bold and ambitious goal of achieving net-zero carbon emissions in the United States by 2050. The pathway to that target includes cutting total greenhouse gas emissions in half by 2030 and eliminating them entirely from the nation’s electricity sector by 2035.
The Office of Fossil Energy and Carbon Management will play an important role in the transition to net-zero carbon emissions by reducing the environmental impacts of fossil energy production and use – and helping decarbonize other hard-to abate sectors.
Request a visit from Jennifer Wilcox!
As oil and gas exploration and production occur in deeper basins and more complex geologic settings, accurate characterization and modeling of reservoirs to improve estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) prediction, optimize well placement and maximize recovery become paramount. Existing technologies for reservoir characterization and modeling have proven inadequate for delivering detailed 3D predictions of reservoir architecture, connectivity and rock quality at scales that impact subsurface flow patterns and reservoir performance. Because of the gap between the geophysical and geologic data available (seismic, well logs, cores) and the data needed to model rock heterogeneities at the reservoir scale, constraints from external analog systems are needed. Existing stratigraphic concepts and deposition models are mostly empirical and seldom provide quantitative constraints on fine-scale reservoir heterogeneity. Current reservoir modeling tools are challenged to accurately replicate complex, nonstationary, rock heterogeneity patterns that control connectivity, such as shale layers that serve as flow baffles and barriers.
Request a visit from Tao Sun!
The carbonate sequences that were deposited in the now exhumed Tethyan Ocean influence many aspects of our lives today, either by supplying the energy that warms our homes and the fuel that powers our cars or providing the stunning landscapes for both winter and summer vacations. They also represent some of the most intensely studied rock formations in the world and have provided geoscientists with a fascinating insight into the turbulent nature of 250 Million years of Earth’s history.
By combining studies from the full range of geoscience disciplines this presentation will trace the development of these carbonate sequences from their initial formation on the margins of large ancient continental masses to their present day locations in and around the Greater Mediterranean and Near East region.
The first order control on growth patterns and carbonate platform development by the regional plate-tectonic setting, underlying basin architecture and fluctuations in sea level will be illustrated. The organisms that contribute to sequence development will be revealed to be treasure troves of forensic information. Finally, these rock sequences will be shown to contain all the ingredients necessary to form and retain hydrocarbons and the manner in which major post-depositional tectonic events led to the formation of some of the largest hydrocarbon accumulations in the world will be demonstrated.
Request a visit from Keith Gerdes!
Production from unconventional petroleum reservoirs includes petroleum from shale, coal, tight-sand and oil-sand. These reservoirs contain enormous quantities of oil and natural gas but pose a technology challenge to both geoscientists and engineers to produce economically on a commercial scale. These reservoirs store large volumes and are widely distributed at different stratigraphic levels and basin types, offering long-term potential for energy supply. Most of these reservoirs are low permeability and porosity that need enhancement with hydraulic fracture stimulation to maximize fluid drainage. Production from these reservoirs is increasing with continued advancement in geological characterization techniques and technology for well drilling, logging, and completion with drainage enhancement. Currently, Australia, Argentina, Canada, Egypt, USA, and Venezuela are producing natural gas from low permeability reservoirs: tight-sand, shale, and coal (CBM). Canada, Russia, USA, and Venezuela are producing heavy oil from oilsand. USA is leading the development of techniques for exploring, and technology for exploiting unconventional gas resources, which can help to develop potential gas-bearing shales of Thailand.
The main focus is on source-reservoir-seal shale petroleum plays. In these tight rocks petroleum resides in the micro-pores as well as adsorbed on and in the organics. Shale has very low matrix permeability (nano-darcies) and has highly layered formations with differences in vertical and horizontal properties, vertically non-homogeneous and horizontally anisotropic with complicate natural fractures. Understanding the rocks is critical in selecting fluid drainage enhancement mechanisms; rock properties such as where shale is clay or silica rich, clay types and maturation , kerogen type and maturation, permeability, porosity, and saturation. Most of these plays require horizontal development with large numbers of wells that require an understanding of formation structure, setting and reservoir character and its lateral extension.
The quality of shale-gas resources depend on thickness of net pay (>100 m), adequate porosity (>2%), high reservoir pressure (ideally overpressure), high thermal maturity (>1.5% Ro), high organic richness (>2% TOC), low in clay (<50%), high in brittle minerals (quartz, carbonates, feldspars), and favourable in-situ stress.
During the past decade, unconventional shale and tight-sand gas plays have become an important supply of natural gas in the US, and now in shale oil as well. As a consequence, interest to assess and explore these plays is rapidly spreading worldwide. The high production potential of shale petroleum resources has contributed to a comparably favourable outlook for increased future petroleum supplies globally.
Application of 2D and 3D seismic for defining reservoirs and micro seismic for monitoring fracturing, measuring rock properties downhole (borehole imaging) and in laboratory (mineralogy, porosity, permeability), horizontal drilling (downhole GPS), and hydraulic fracture stimulation (cross-linked gel, slick-water, nitrogen or nitrogen foam) is key in improving production from these huge resources with low productivity factors.
Request a visit from Ameed Ghori!
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