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Geochemistry and Basin Modeling

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In 1965, G.T. Philippi, a Shell geochemist, made the novel proposal that petroleum was generated from organic matter in sediments that had been buried deeply enough to be exposed to warmer earth temperatures, converting the organic matter, with heat and time, to petroleum.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
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TIGs and SIGs are designed to encourage greater Member participation in specific topics or interests – and to enhance Member engagement with other Members, and with AAPG. But what is the current roster of TIGs and SIGs – and who do you contact to join their fun?

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
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Interpretations of thermal maturation provide critical data needed for both conventional and unconventional resource assessments. The absence of true vitrinite in pre-Devonian sediments eliminates one of the most commonly measured geothermometers used for thermal maturity determination. Programmed pyrolysis parameters like Tmax can be of limited utility given the maturity regime. However, other organic macerals are potentially available to constrain thermal maturity. The current organic petrology study has been undertaken to provide a very detailed comparison of reflectance measurements on pyrobitumens, “vitrinite-like” material and graptolites. 

In the Appalachian Basin of North America, Cambrian-aged source rocks were deposited in shallow water mixed carbonate-siliciclastic depositional environments. Solid pyrobitumen material is found to occur in both lenticular lens/layer morphology as well as distinct pore-filling angular varieties. Published formulas to calculate Equivalent Reflectance (Eq. Ro) from solid bitumens have been applied to these discrete morphological populations. In addition, a newly developed formula to calculate Eq. Ro from angular pyrobitumen (VRc=0.866*BRo ang + 0.0274) is introduced based upon statistical evaluation of reflectance readings from a global dataset. “Vitrinite-like” organic macerals were found in rare abundance within these potential source rocks, but their occurrence enables an independent comparison to pyrobitumen Eq. Ro values. Graptolites are another organic maceral that can be evaluated via organic petrology, but caution should be utilized since these tend to show a high degree of anisotropy. The results of this investigation provide additional geochemical guidance to assist geologists in more accurately interpreting thermal maturity in the Rome Trough region of the Appalachian Basin.

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Rock-Eval hydrogen index (HI) is often used to compare relative maturities of a source horizon across a basin. Usually, there are several measurements from the source horizon at a single well, and the mean hydrogen index is calculated, or the S2 is plotted against TOC. The slope of the best fit line through that data is used as the representative HI for that well (sometimes referred to as the ‘slope HI ’ methodology). There is a potential flaw in both these methodologies; however, that renders the calculated HI as misleading if the source horizon being examined is not relatively uniform in source quality, vertically in the stratigraphic column. From a geologic perspective, it would be unusual for the source rock quality not to vary vertically in the stratigraphic column. Organic matter input, preservation, dilution, and sediment accumulation rate typically vary in many depositional environments over the millions of years required to create a thick source rock package. Nevertheless, there are source rocks which do display remarkable source-quality uniformity from top to bottom of the stratigraphic package. We have examined source rocks from several basins where the source quality is relatively uniform over the stratigraphic column, and source rocks where the source quality varies greatly over the stratigraphic column. Methodologies to assess hydrogen index at specific wells for the se two scenarios differ. Most geoscientists may not be familiar with why a single technique is not suitable for both these scenarios, or how to correctly use hydrogen index as a relative maturation proxy in the case where source rock quality is not uniform. We will demonstrate how to determine if your source rock quality is uniform or varied relative to HI over the stratigraphic column, and how to assign a hydrogen index to the different source facies when that source rock quality is not uniform. Further we will illustrate how to estimate the original hydrogen index of the different source facies and assign each a transformation ratio. The transformation ratio is a better proxy for relative maturity, since different source facies may have different present-day hydrogen indices, but their present-day transformation ratio should be quite similar.

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The assessment of the natural temporal variability of source rock units is critical for the understanding of petroleum systems as changes in mineral matrix, organic matter (OM) concentration, and composition can significantly affect expulsion efficiency, primary and secondary migration processes, hydrocarbon quality as well as oil source rock correlation. Already small-scaled fluctuations within sediment successions can critically influence migration efficiency. High-resolution investigation of a well-preserved Lower Jurassic drill core (Toarcian Posidonia Shale) revealed seven discrete and systematic intervals of deviating source rock quality. These were composed of homogenized, non-laminated marls of light grey color, opposed to laminated dark grey background sedimentation. Both lithotypes differentiate not only in mineral composition, but particularly in OM content and quality. An average TOC content of app. 3.9 wt.% reached by the grey marl, is faced by an average TOC content of app. 7.8 wt.% measured for the laminated dark grey marls. Average hydrogen index for grey non-laminated marls was app. 550 mg HC/g TOC, whereas much higher source rock quality with 780 mg HC/g TOC was attained in the dark laminated marls. The marls lower OM concentration and inferior OM quality generates important domains for preferential migration of products, originated from the dark grey layers, or hydrocarbon cluster in case of limited migration into adjacent reservoirs. To assess the potential for preferential intake of hydrocarbons by the coarser-grained light marls and their qualification as migration avenues, artificial maturation experiments were performed with both lithotypes. Hydrocarbon generation was simulated by hydrous pyrolysis in two successive temperature steps 330 °C and 360 °C, covering an early maturity stage, as well as the end of the oil window. Both lithologies show striking differences, not only for the extract yield, but also for the timing of generation. OM quality differences were reflected by variable n-alkane distributions and molecular maturity parameters. High-resolution continuous data produced by non-destructive techniques allows to draw conclusions on i) source rock potential, ii) expulsion and migration processes , and iii) on prediction of petroleum accumulation within the sediment succession. High-resolution investigation in combination with artificial maturation experiments represent an easy-to-use tool in petroleum system analysis.

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The San Joaquin Basin lies west of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and east of the San Andre as Fault. Tens of kilometers of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments, including deep-water organic-rich source rocks, deposited in a forearc setting, comprise the basin and have contributed to a petroleum system that generates more than 70 percent of California 's daily oil production and includes three of the 10 largest oilfields in the United States. Based on a comprehensive 3D petroleum systems model of the San Joaquin basin, published by the USGS in 2008, we further refine the modeling to account for the unique depositional and tectonic history of the basin. Here, we compare various basal heat flow scenarios to model hydrocarbon generation and calibrate the results to available temperature and vitrinite reflectance (Vr) data. We investigate two types of crustal models: a McKenzie-type rift model, and a no-rift static crustal thickness model. Crustal stretching models calculate basal heat flow resulting from stretching/thinning of mantle and crust during initial (syn-rift) and thermal (post-rift) subsidence. This method uses rock matrix radiogenic heat production values. It does not account for transient effects resulting from burial and uplift of the basin fill. The static no-rift model, alternatively, calculates the basal heat flow based on a stable or non-thinning crust and mantle over time. This method uses estimated Uranium (U), Thorium (Th), and Potassium (K) concentrations within the rock material to then calculate the rock matrix heat production. Unlike the rift model, it accounts for the transient effects resulting from burial and uplift of the basin fill, which can have a considerable additional effect on the basal heat flow. Given the low probability of crustal stretching as the starting point for basal heat flow in the San Joaquin Basin and considering the forearc nature of the basin as well as the strong concentration of U, K, and Th in the Sierran granites, we focused on and refined the no-rift models. We manually account for the transitional nature of the San Joaquin basement from hot Sierran granite on the east to cool Franciscan oceanic rocks on the west. Radiogenic heat production from solely continental crust results in models that are too warm and cannot be calibrated to well temperature and Vr data. Solely oceanic models are too cool to match well data. ‘Combined crust’ incorporates a seismically derived suture zone that allows for a transition from oceanic to granitic basement, while the ‘intermediate crust’ mixes oceanic and continental radiogenic heat production. These models generate a good match to well data to the east and westward through the transition zone. Additionally, we are able to calibrate to wells off of the Belridge and Lost Hills structures. On structure wells, however, cannot be calibrated with a crustal conductive heat flow scenario and would require (local) elevated heat flows on the order of 20 mW/m 2. This is not in agreement with the generally cooler underlying oceanic crust and suggests that there might be a different and/or additional source of heat flow. Most likely, basin-scale hydrothermal groundwater flow, both along faults and up-structure, could account for elevated Vr and temperature. Convective heat flow would be an additional overprint or enhancement to conductive basal heat flow.

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The driving forces for conventional accumulations (structural or stratigraphic traps) are Forces of Buoyancy which are due to differences in densities of hydrocarbons and water. In contrast, the driving forces for unconventional tight accumulations are Forces of Expulsion which are produced by high pressures. That is an enormous difference and creates unconventional petroleum systems that are characterized by very different and distinctive characteristics. The Force of Expulsion pressures are created by the significant increase in volume when any of the three main kerogen types are converted to hydrocarbons. At those conversion times in the burial history, the rocks are already sufficiently tight so the large volumes of generated hydrocarbons cannot efficiently escape through the existing tight pore system, thus creating a permeability bottleneck that produces an overpressured compartment over a large area corresponding to the proper thermal oil and gas maturities for that basin. The forces initially created in these source rocks can only go limited distances into adjacent tight reservoirs (clastics or carbonates) above or below the source. The exact distance will vary depending on the pressure increase, matrix permeability, and fractures of that specific tight reservoir system. In general, the distances are small, in the orders of 10s to 100s of feet for oil and larger for more mobile gas systems. Those exact distance numbers are subject to ongoing investigations.  

A plot of the pressure data versus elevation for a given formation is critical in determining whether an accumulation is conventional or unconventional. Conventional accumulations will have hydrocarbon columns of 10s to 100s of feet with the pressure in the hydrocarbons and that in the water equal at the bottom of the accumulation (at the HC-water contact). In contrast, the unconventional accumulations will show HC column heights of 1000s of feet with the pressure in the hydrocarbon phase and the water phase being the same at the top of the accumulation (at the updip transition zone). Those significant differences are critical for understanding and differentiating these two play types. Because the system is a pore throat bottleneck with very little or minimum lateral migration, the type of hydrocarbon s are closely tied to the thermal maturity required to generate those hydrocarbons. Thus the play concept begins with two important geochemical considerations: (1) where are the source rocks and what are the kerogen types and organic richness (TOC), and (2 ) where are they mature in the basin for oil, condensate, and gas in the basin. These parameters will very quickly define the fairway for the play. Then one has to add the critical information on the reservoirs themselves: composition (brittleness), thickness, and reservoir quality (matrix porosity and permeability). In summary, these tight unconventional petroleum systems (1) are dynamic , and (2) create a regionally inverted petroleum system with water over oil over condensate over gas for source rocks wit h Type I or II kerogen types.

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Thanks to advancements in data management and seismic sensing, geophysical modeling has become indispensable in the search for oil. What will it become in the century ahead?

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
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The AAPG European Regional Conference, “Hydrocarbons in the Mediterranean: revisiting mature plays and understanding new and emerging ideas,” will be held Jan. 18-19 in Larnaca, Cyprus.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
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To explore and develop unconventional petroleum resources, our focus should be on improving Knowledge, Technology, and a deeper comprehension of the natural processes controlling their existence.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
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In-Person Training
Houston Texas United States 01 April, 2017 02 April, 2017 34988 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/managing-uncertainty-with-next-gen-modeling-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Conventions, Short Courses, Pre-Convention, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Petroleum Systems, Source Rock, Maturation
 
Houston, Texas, United States
1-2 April 2017

In Conjunction with AAPG 2017 Annual Convention & Exhibition (ACE)
This course provides an introduction to Petroleum Systems Modeling (PSM) in Exploration, with both conventional and unconventional examples.

Houston Texas United States 01 April, 2017 01 April, 2017 34926 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/ace-sc-03-sequence-stratigraphic-analysis-of-shales-and-mudstones-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Short Courses, Conventions, Pre-Convention, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Source Rock, Oil Shale, Shale Gas, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Sequence Stratigraphy
 
Houston, Texas, United States
1 April 2017

In Conjunction with AAPG 2017 Annual Convention & Exhibition (ACE)
This course is designed for geologists who interpret fine-grained rocks, explore for or develop conventional hydrocarbons, shale gas or oil shale

Houston Texas United States 01 April, 2017 01 April, 2017 34922 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/ace-sc-02-applied-geochemistry-for-unconventional-resource-assessment-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Short Courses, Conventions, Pre-Convention, Reservoir Characterization, Engineering, Geochemical Fingerprinting, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Adsorption, Basin Modeling, Kerogen Typing, Maturation, Oil and Gas Analysis, Source Rock
 
Houston, Texas, United States
1 April 2017

In Conjunction with AAPG 2017 Annual Convention & Exhibition (ACE)
The course has multiple objectives: (1) understanding basic geochemical data and applying these data to shale resource plays, (2) advanced approaches to refine and identify sweet spots in existing plays.

Houston Texas United States 01 April, 2017 02 April, 2017 34989 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/Oil-and-Gas-Analysis-Discussion-Group-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Conventions, Short Courses, Pre-Convention, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Isotopes, Maturation, Migration, Oil and Gas Analysis, Petroleum Systems
 
Houston, Texas, United States
1-2 April 2017

In Conjunction with AAPG 2017 Annual Convention & Exhibition (ACE)
The course content will cover both the basics of biomarker interpretation and application and advanced geochemical technologies.

Houston Texas United States 02 April, 2017 02 April, 2017 35013 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/ace17-sc13-Petroleum-Geochemistry-for-Basin-Evaluation-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Conventions, Short Courses, Pre-Convention, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Maturation, Source Rock, Petroleum Systems, Migration, Basin Modeling
 
Houston, Texas, United States
2 April 2017

In Conjunction with AAPG 2017 Annual Convention & Exhibition (ACE)
This course will provide an overview of concepts, tools, and methods commonly used for assessment of exploration risks associated with hydrocarbon charge, with emphasis on geochemical methods and applications.

Houston Texas United States 05 April, 2017 08 April, 2017 36580 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/ace17-ft-07-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Source Rock, Field Trips, Conventions, Post-Convention, Shale Gas
 
Houston, Texas, United States
5-8 April 2017

In Conjunction with AAPG 2017 Annual Convention & Exhibition (ACE)
This Field Trip offers the opportunity to examine the Eagle Ford Group in West Texas. This hiking trip provides a unique opportunity to visit locations on private property with restricted access.

Durham United Kingdom 25 April, 2017 26 April, 2017 32280 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/geothermal-cross-over-technology-workshop.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Petroleum Systems, Geophysics, Seismic, Tertiary Recovery, Production, Engineering, Thermal Recovery Processes, Hydraulic Fracturing
 
Durham, United Kingdom
25-26 April 2017

Save the date!

AAPG Europe are delighted to bring you a Geothermal Cross Over Technology Workshop, hosted at Durham University on 25th - 27th April 2016.

Victoria Island Lagos Nigeria 11 May, 2017 12 May, 2017 38212 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/gtw-ar-enhancing-mature-fields-life-cycles-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Business and Economics, Economics, Reserve Estimation, Risk Analysis, Development and Operations, Engineering, Infill Drilling, Production, Drive Mechanisms, Water Drive, Hydraulic Fracturing, Primary Recovery, Secondary Recovery, Gas Injection, Water Flooding, Tertiary Recovery, Chemical Flooding Processes, Thermal Recovery Processes, Reservoir Characterization, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Basin Modeling, Petroleum Systems, Petrophysics and Well Logs, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Clastics, Structure, Extensional Systems, Diagenetic Traps, Stratigraphic Traps, Bitumen/Heavy Oil
 
Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria
11-12 May 2017

This workshop provides the opportunity to learn and discuss the latest knowledge, techniques & technologies applied to mature fields. The workshop will provide a set-up for networking, interacting & sharing expertise with fellow petroleum scientists interested in enhancing production from maturing fields in the Niger Delta and similar deltaic settings.

Bogota Colombia 17 May, 2017 18 May, 2017 37292 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/ws-optimizing-geoscience-and-engineering-to-explore-and-produce-in-a-low-price-environment-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Business and Economics, Economics, Reserve Estimation, Resource Estimates, Risk Analysis, Development and Operations, Engineering, Conventional Drilling, Coring, Directional Drilling, Production, Secondary Recovery, Tertiary Recovery, Reservoir Characterization, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Petroleum Systems, Geophysics, Seismic, Clastics, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Conventional Sandstones, Diagenetic Traps, Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs
 
Bogota, Colombia
17-18 May 2017

Optimizing Geoscience and Engineering to Explore and Produce in a Low-Price Environment, a Geosciences Technology workshop hosted by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) and the Colombian Association of Petroleum Geologists and Geophysicists (ACGGP)

Marrakech Morocco 18 May, 2017 21 May, 2017 37903 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/gtw-afr-the-paleozoic-hydrocarbon-potential-of-north-africa-past-lessons-and-future-potential-2017-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Engineering, Development and Operations, Production, Infill Drilling, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Petroleum Systems, Source Rock, Thermal History, Geophysics, Clastics, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Conventional Sandstones, Sequence Stratigraphy, Structure, Compressional Systems, Extensional Systems, Tectonics (General), Deep Basin Gas, Stratigraphic Traps, Structural Traps
 
Marrakech, Morocco
18-21 May 2017

This workshop provides the opportunity to learn and discuss the latest knowledge, techniques & technologies applied to petroleum reservoirs in the Paleozoic of North Africa which can be utilized to explore for and develop these reservoirs. The workshop will provide a set-up for networking, interacting & sharing expertise with fellow petroleum scientists interested in developing and producing hydrocarbon resources within the Paleozoic of North Africa.

Port-of-Spain Trinidad and Tobago 20 May, 2017 20 May, 2017 37911 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/sc-lacr-recent-developments-in-understanding-the-regional-tectonics-2017-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Oil and Gas Analysis, Petroleum Systems, Source Rock, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Sequence Stratigraphy, Structure, Compressional Systems, Tectonics (General)
 
Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago
20 May 2017

Learn about the Southeastern Caribbean hydrocarbon-bearing and frontier basins with professors Paul Mann and Tricia Alvarez.

This 1-day course is offered in Port of Spain prior to the 6th Geological Society of Trinidad and Tobago Conference, set for 22-24 May 2017.

Port-of-Spain Trinidad and Tobago 20 May, 2017 21 May, 2017 37919 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/sc-lacr-reservoir-characterization-of-deep-water-systems-impact-from-exploration-to-production-2017-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Business and Economics, Risk Analysis, Production, Engineering, Primary Recovery, Secondary Recovery, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Petroleum Systems, Petrophysics and Well Logs, Clastics, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Conventional Sandstones, Deep Sea / Deepwater, Deepwater Turbidites, Low Stand Deposits, Marine, Regressive Deposits, Slope, Structure, Tectonics (General), Deep Basin Gas, Shale Gas, Stratigraphic Traps, Tight Gas Sands
 
Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago
20-21 May 2017

This course emphasizes key changes in reservoir models that have a major impact in exploration and production of these reservoirs. The course will include lectures, exercises, and observations from cores, well logs and seismic profiles. Participants will learn how to interpret and map environments of deposition (EoD’s) in deep water systems and understand how the different EoD’s and sub-EoD’s behave as reservoirs.

Houston Texas United States 22 May, 2017 22 May, 2017 37787 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/gtw-big-data-deep-learning-in-the-oil-industry-basics-and-applications-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Business and Economics, Reserve Estimation, Resource Estimates, Risk Analysis, Engineering, Reservoir Characterization, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Petroleum Systems, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Carbonates, Clastics, Evaporites, Structure, Shale Gas, Stratigraphic Traps, Tight Gas Sands
 
Houston, Texas, United States
22 May 2017

New analytics involving Big Data, deep learning and machine learning are transforming all aspects of the oil and gas industry.

Rio de Janeiro Brazil 22 August, 2017 23 August, 2017 38190 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/gtw-lacr-optimization-of-e-p-projects-integrating-geosciences-and-engineering-from-block-acquisition-through-production-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Development and Operations, Engineering, Infill Drilling, Directional Drilling, Coring, Conventional Drilling, Reservoir Characterization, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Basin Modeling, Petroleum Systems, Geophysics, Seismic, Petrophysics and Well Logs, Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs, Stratigraphic Traps, Subsalt Traps
 
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
22-23 August 2017

AAPG and ABGP invite you to participate in an interactive, multidisciplinary workshop featuring presentations and discussions exploring opportunities to improve companies’ efficiency and effectiveness throughout the E&P cycle, from block acquisition and exploration to development and production.

Yas Island Abu Dhabi United Arab Emirates 30 January, 2018 01 February, 2018 32793 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/gtw-mer-carbonate-reservoirs-of-the-middle-east-and-their-future-challenges-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Carbonates, Geophysics, Seismic, Engineering, Reservoir Characterization, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Structure, Geomechanics and Fracture Analysis
 
Yas Island, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
30 January - 1 February 2018

This three-day workshop builds on the success of the first AAPG Carbonate Reservoirs of the Middle East GTW, held in Abu Dhabi, UAE in 2015. It is dedicated to addressing the hydrocarbon bearing carbonate reservoirs of the Middle East, in the context of a changing oil market within a more challenging exploration and development environment. These challenges include the shift from traditional anticlinal traps to stratigraphic traps, and development strategies for dealing with maturing, long-producing, giant fields.

Al Ain Abu Dhabi United Arab Emirates 01 February, 2018 01 February, 2018 38233 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/gtw-mer-carbonate-reservoirs-of-the-middle-east-and-their-future-challenges-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Structure, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Geophysics, Engineering, Geomechanics and Fracture Analysis, Carbonates, Seismic, Reservoir Characterization
 
Al Ain, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
1 February 2018

The main objective of this field trip is to offer participants the opportunity to study the structural style and fracturing of carbonate rocks analogous to reservoir units of the globally important UAE Oil Province. The clear exposure of these carbonate rocks in this tectonically complicated area provides a significant opportunity to study and explain the structural style and deformation history of the region. Although the carbonate rocks exposed in Jebal Hafit area are of Early Eocene–Miocene age (Rus, Dammam and Asmari Formations), the emphasis here is to study fractures pattern and fracturing mechanism with relation to the paleostress and the link to fractures conductivity.

The selected stops will demonstrate the stratigraphic relationship of the rock units and their fracture systems that have been developed during long geological deformation. There are significant similarities between these exposed rocks and those units seen in the Abu Dhabi Oil Fields by means of reservoir characteristics and fracture system and fracture related diagenesis (cementation/host rock alteration) with its impact on sealing potential.

Jebal Hafit, an elongated asymmetrical, double‐plunging, NNW‐SSW trending anticline with an elevation reaches up to ~ 1140 m high, is situated at the border between Oman and UAE. It extends ca 30 km in the direction NNW–SSE with average width of 4 to 5 km.

Al Ain Abu Dhabi United Arab Emirates 01 February, 2018 01 February, 2018 38235 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/gtw-mer-carbonate-reservoirs-of-the-middle-east-and-their-future-challenges-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Structure, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Geophysics, Engineering, Geomechanics and Fracture Analysis, Carbonates, Seismic, Reservoir Characterization
 
Al Ain, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
1 February 2018

The modern carbonate-evaporite depositional environments along the Abu Dhabi shoreline and offshore Abu Dhabi belong to the few areas of the world where the geoscientist can observe the interplay between carbonate and evaporite sedimentation.

Supratidal (sabkha) to intertidal and shallow subtidal (microbial mat and peloid-skeletal tidal-flat) environments will be studied in the vicinity of Al-Qanatir Island.

Al-Qanatir Island

In the vicinity of the road to Al-Qanatir Island participants will be able to study a complete and undisturbed lateral facies succession from the upper supratidal to the lower intertidal and shallow subtidal:

  • Upper supratidal stranded beach ridges
  • Topographic highs, some cm above the adjacent upper sabkha environment
  • Upper sabkha (upper supratidal)
  • Surface covered by polygonally-cracked halite crust
  • Middle sabkha (middle supratidal)
  • Surface covered by finely-crystalline, whitish anhydrite polygons
  • Lower sabkha (lower supratidal)
  • Surface covered by shiny, sparkling gypsum crystals
  • Upper to lower intertidal microbial mat
  • Crenulated or crinkled microbial mat above gypsum mush facies
  • Blistered and pinnacle microbial mat
  • Polygonal and tufted microbial mat
  • Lowermost intertidal to shallow sub-tidal
  • Peloid-skeletal tidal-flat

Many of these depositional environments and facies successions correspond to those observed in cores from the subsurface of the Arabian Peninsula.

Online Training
19 March, 2015 19 March, 2015 16283 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/New-Insights-into-the-Stratigraphic-Framework-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
19 March 2015

A detailed biostratigraphic analysis and stratigraphic framework of the Paleocene and Eocene Chicontepec Formation in the Tampico-Misantla basin, onshore eastern Mexico, was conducted using 33 wells.

23 April, 2015 23 April, 2015 16809 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/an-analytical-model-for-shale-gas-permeability-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
23 April 2015
Recent laboratory studies have revealed previously unknown behaviors in shale gas which unlock secrets of permeability and sweet spots in shale gas reservoirs. The presentation presents the findings and also goes into detail about how the new information can be applied in order to potentially improve recovery in reservoirs.
02 December, 2014 02 December, 2014 11967 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/esymp-multiscale-modeling-of-gas-transport-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
2 December 2014

The gas transport in organic-rich shales involves different length-scales, from organic and inorganic pores to macro- and macrofractures. In order to upscale the fluid transport from nanoscale (flow through nanopores) to larger scales (to micro- and macrofractures), multicontinuum methodology is planned to be used.

30 October, 2014 30 October, 2014 11390 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/sc-kerogen-maturity-determinations.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
30 October 2014

Cross disciplinary workflows play an important part of successful characterization of shale reservoirs. This course discusses how the artificial kerogen maturity of organic-rich Green River shale affects the petrophysical, micro-structural, geochemical and elastic properties.

01 January, 2013 01 January, 9999 1459 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-cc-giant-oil-and-gas-fields.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
1 January 2013 - 1 January 9999

There are more approximately 1,000 oil and gas fields in the world that have been classified as "giant," containing more than 500 million barrels of recoverable oil and /or 3 trillion cubic feet of gas.

31 October, 2012 31 October, 2012 1492 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-3-dimensional-approach-t-hydrocarbon-mapping.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
31 October 2012

This e-symposium will focus on how surface geochemical surveys and Downhole Geochemical Imaging technologies can be utilized jointly to directly characterize the composition of hydrocarbons vertically through the prospect section.

20 January, 2012 20 January, 2012 1482 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-eagle-ford-shale-prospecting-with-3d-seismic-data.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
20 January 2012

The Eagle Ford Shale in South Texas is one of the more exciting shale plays in the United States at the current time.

10 May, 2012 10 May, 2012 1486 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-genetic-sequences-in-eagle-ford-austin.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
10 May 2012

Recognition and Correlation of the Eagle Ford, Austin Formations in South Texas can be enhanced with High Resolution Biostratigraphy, fossil abundance peaks and Maximum Flooding Surfaces correlated to Upper Cretaceous sequence stratigraphic cycle chart after Gradstein, 2010.

13 December, 2012 13 December, 2012 1494 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-petrophysics-of-shales.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
13 December 2012

The course will review core data, petrophysical comparisons, rock physics modeling (including pseudo logs and mechanical properties).

16 February, 2012 16 February, 2012 1483 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-seismically-driven-characterization-of-unconventional-shale-plays.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
16 February 2012

This presentation describes a proven workflow that uses a standard narrow azimuth 3D seismic, conventional logs, image logs and core data to build five key reservoir properties required for an optimal development of shale plays.

26 September, 2013 26 September, 2013 1497 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-overpressure-in-shale-gas.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
26 September 2013

The presentation will discuss key reservoir information and how to develop a predictive pressure model.

19 May, 2011 19 May, 2011 1474 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-shale-gas-prospectivity-case-study.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
19 May 2011

This e-symposium presents and discusses the results of laboratory tests and research relating to determining shale prospectivity in general, and specifically in the Black Warrior Basin, Alabama.

28 April, 2011 28 April, 2011 1471 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-niobrara-petroleum-system-a-major-tight-resource-play.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
28 April 2011

The Niobrara Petroleum System of the U.S. Rocky Mountain Region is a major tight petroleum resource play.

17 March, 2011 17 March, 2011 1470 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-basic-tools-for-shale-exploration.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
17 March 2011

This e-symposium will provide information on which tools, processes, and procedures all geoscientists, engineers, and technical professionals working in shale plays need to understand and implement.

14 December, 2010 14 December, 2010 1467 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-sale-gas-in-quebecs-sedimentary-basins.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
14 December 2010

Recent interest in unconventional gas resources has attracted several oil and gas explorers to sedimentary basins in Southern Quebec.

09 December, 2010 09 December, 2010 1466 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-bakken-petroleum-system-of-the-williston-basin.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
9 December 2010

The Mississippian-Devonian Bakken Petroleum System of the Williston Basin is characterized by low-porosity and permeability reservoirs, organic-rich source rocks, and regional hydrocarbon charge.

11 November, 2010 11 November, 2010 1465 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-geochemical-evaluation-of-eagle-ford-group-source.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
11 November 2010

This e-symposium is ideal for geologists, geophysicists, engineers and other geoscientists who are involved in gas shale exploration and production.

29 October, 2009 29 October, 2009 1445 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-application-of-thermal-maturation.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
29 October 2009

Expanded package for CEU credit is $100 for AAPG members, and $145 for non-members. Special Student Pricing: $25 for Webinar only; $35 for Expanded package.

16 August, 2011 16 August, 2011 1436 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-green-river-shales-geochemical-basin-study.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
16 August 2011

The geochemistry of formation fluids (water and hydrocarbon gases) in the Uinta Basin, Utah, is evaluated at the regional scale based on fluid sampling and compilation of past records.

01 January, 2013 01 January, 9999 1472 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-cc-introduction-to-shale-gas.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
1 January 2013 - 1 January 9999

This course introduces the learner to the fundamentals of shale gas, including current theories that explain its origin, and how to determine which reservoirs are commercially viable.

01 November, 2013 01 November, 9999 452 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-toc-petroleum-exploration-production.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
1 November 2013 - 1 November 9999

This online course provides an overview of the petroleum industry from what is natural gas and crude oil to how to explore, drill, and produce oil and gas.

14 February, 3000 14 February, 3000 7817 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-generic-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 

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The talk gives a broad interview to this structurally complex country, which possesses a transform fault comparable to the San Andres. The section on petroleum history also contains structural geology, petroleum geochemistry and sedimentology. There are also some interesting sidelights to history and politics of the Myanmar people. This talk was presented last year in Melbourne, AUS and published in an online journal of the AAPG. The geopolitics are quite interesting, and I know a lot about it, since I was working there during Aung San Suu Chi's Democracy Movement in 1988-1989.

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