Explorer President’s Column

January’s President’s Column in the EXPLORER covered creative and collaborative space in exploration to “recycle” or revitalize petroleum basins for an economic industry. February’s column discussed development and enhanced oil recovery to maximize recovery of reserves for an optimized industry. This month’s column, in turn, addresses the third, and an increasingly important aspect of sustainable petroleum development: carbon capture, use and storage for a viable industry.

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American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer Division Column DEG

When one lives in Louisiana, even in the northern part, February and early March are full of tidings of “laissez les bon temps rouler!” or “let the good times roll!’’ Only geoscience nerds like you and I would apply that to May’s exceptional 2019 AAPG Annual Convention and Exhibition in San Antonio. So, start these good times rolling now by registering early on or before March 21 for a great discount.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer Director’s Corner

“Prediction is difficult, especially of the future,” goes an old Danish proverb. But that doesn’t keep people from trying, as each year government agencies, multilateral organizations, E&P companies and consultancies issue their forecasts on global energy supply and demand.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer Geophysical Corner

Amplitude variation with offset or angle has been widely used for discriminating hydrocarbons from brine-saturated rocks. Such analyses are based on Zoeppritz equations that describe the partitioning of energy at a rock interface into reflected and refracted energy components. These equations are complicated and, to get an intuitive understanding of their capabilities and limitations, various investigators and researchers have provided approximations by adopting some simplifying assumptions.

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American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer Article

It is a well proven fact that a diverse workforce is good for business and improves the bottom line – but the E&P industry, in common with many others, is not making significant progress in this area. A recent report on gender diversity in the energy industry, for example, found that, at 22 percent, oil and gas has one of the lowest shares of female employees of any major industry – an imbalance that transcends seniority, geography and business segment.

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American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer Historical Highlights

The Casablanca oil field, discovered in 1975 and located on the Mediterranean shelf edge, has been greatly significant in the world’s offshore oil industry activity, besides being by far the biggest oil field in Spain.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer Article

The University Centre in Svalbard, in the Norwegian high Arctic archipelago, has created a geoscientific database for high Arctic training and research, a unique approach to the retrieval, coordination and cataloging of data in a less than hospitable area.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer Emphasis Article

While artificial intelligence and data-driven innovation seem to be making significant strides in many industries over the past few decades, specifically in areas of workflow automation and helping to reveal hidden insights from various data, there is a widespread sense within the industry that its pace in oil and gas is not progressing as rapidly.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer Emphasis Article

On the surface, the employment outlook for geoscientists in oil and gas looks wonderful. The projected job-growth percentage for geologists remains in double digits, reduced slightly by softer oil prices. That’s still better than most other occupations and impressive for a well-paying profession. But petroleum geologists don’t make their living on the surface. Drill deeper and some mitigating trends become apparent.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Explorer Emphasis Article

Marches. Protests. Sanctions. Power struggles. Thanks to 24-hour broadcasting and social media, news of Venezuela’s political and economic crisis has reached the four corners of the Earth. But how does South America’s petroleum powerhouse affect the geoscientists living within its borders? What goes on in workplaces and classrooms far away from cameras? The EXPLORER talked with students, professors and professionals to find out how the crisis is affecting them.

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American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Short Course
Virtual Short Course
Thursday, 9 December Friday, 10 December 2021, 10:00 a.m.–12:00 p.m.

This course aims to help teams characterize and interpret deep-water stratigraphy and reservoirs. The course described here will help corporate teams mature exploration concepts in areas of interest, as well as aid in the development decisions of existing fields.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Workshop
Virtual Workshop
Tuesday, 25 January Wednesday, 26 January 2022, 8:00 a.m.–5:00 p.m.

This two-day virtual conference aims to bring together industrial and academic persons to present, explore and develop approaches that will benefit both sectors in the future. The virtual conference will focus on current techniques, the challenges and future solutions in understanding the Triassic stratigraphy of the North Sea, Norwegian Sea, West of Shetland, Atlantic margins, and northern Europe.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Workshop
Netherlands
Tuesday, 5 April Wednesday, 6 April 2022, 8:00 a.m.–5:00 p.m.

Plan to attend Geothermal Crossover Technology workshop 4 on 5-6 April 2022. The workshop will offer an exciting knowledge sharing and discussion platform where industry experts, country representatives and academia can share their visions and perspectives on how the petroleum and geothermal industries can work together to create new opportunities to make geothermal energy exploration and production a reality.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Short Course
Virtual Short Course
Monday, 11 October Thursday, 21 October 2021, 12:00 p.m.–2:00 p.m.

This course is informed by over 20 years working in oil and gas exploration and production with many companies and clients and by a further 15 years teaching structural and petroleum geology at Universities in Australia.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Workshop
Sydney, Australia
Wednesday, 6 July Thursday, 7 July 2022, 8:00 a.m.–5:00 p.m.

As we transition to a new commercial reality for our industries, there has never been a more important time for Earth Scientists to take a seat at the table. This workshop is designed to share our knowledge of the petroleum sector with other branches of the geosciences, while learning from their experiences. Join us for this hybrid online and in-person workshop on 6 July 2022.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Short Course
Virtual Short Course
Wednesday, 3 November 2021, 4:00 p.m.–8:00 p.m.

Join us for 'Multi-Criteria Geothermal Resource Assessment: From Play Analysis to Sustainability Evaluation'. A Masterclass presented by Dr. Luca Guglielmetti from the University of Geneva.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Workshop
Virtual Workshop
Monday, 29 November – Thursday, 2 December 2021, 8:00 a.m.–5:00 p.m.

Politicians around the world are realising that CCS is a critical component in achieving Net Zero. They know in principle what needs to be done but lack insight into which of their many assets is a natural choice for CCS and how to convince stakeholders to commit to financial investment. If it was a horse race, they need to choose the best runners and know how to jump the hurdles to get to the finishing line. In this second AAPG CCS workshop, we'll look deeper into the technologies available and the techniques to make them affordable. The 'Runners' and how to 'get them to the finish line.

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American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Workshop
Naples, Italy
Wednesday, 22 June Thursday, 23 June 2022, 8:00 a.m.–5:00 p.m.

Modelling carbonate sequences and reservoirs has always been a challenging task. Carbonate rocks are generated and subsequently modified by a large variety of biological, physical and chemical processes that start at the time of deposition and end today. To unravel the geological evolution and history of carbonate sequences is fundamental not only for understanding their hydrocarbons potential but also for their role as potential reservoirs for renewable energy (geothermal) or geological gas storage (CO2 and hydrogen). Several science disciplines are often involved to fully understand the characteristics of carbonate rocks and old approaches and new technologies and tools are nowadays applied in these types of sequences. The objective of this meeting is to allow scientists and engineers working on carbonate rocks in academia and industry to share their most recent experience, work, approaches and use of innovative technologies to increase the understanding of the very complex world of carbonates.

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American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Workshop
Muscat, Oman
Monday, 30 May – Wednesday, 1 June 2022, 8:00 a.m.–5:00 p.m.

Save the date! Join us for the upcoming AAPG Exploration in Mature Basins GTW to be held from 30 May – 1 June 2022 in Muscat, Oman. More information to follow soon.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Field Seminar
Barcelona, Spain
Wednesday, 30 March Thursday, 31 March 2022, 8:00 a.m.–5:00 p.m.

Trip leader(s): Josep Anton Muñoz, Pablo Granado and Eduard Roca Limit: 20 Participants The aim of this 2-day field trip is the recognition of the key structural features of a fold and thrust belt detached on salt that has resulted from the inversion of a previous passive margin. To achieve this objective, some of the key and most spectacular localities of the southern Pyrenees have been selected along the ECORS-Pyrenees transect. This is a reference cross-section provided that for many years a huge amount of geological and geophysical data sets has been collected and integrating into a kinematic model of the South-Pyrenean fold and thrust belt. Subsurface data (well logs and seismic sections) will be combined with field observations. One of the main characteristics of the southern Pyrenees is the preservation of the synorogenic sediments since the earlier stages of deformation, which not only provide time constraints but also allow us discussion of kinematics of fault-related folds and thrust systems. Finally, the mild contractional deformation permits deciphering the initial geometry of the rift system and the salt structures that configure the structural grain of the passive margin before the inversion, allowing discussion of the role that these structures play during the fold and thrust belt development. Itinerary: (day by day details of the trip) Day 1 Stop 1.1: The South-Pyrenean thrust front. Sant Llorenç de Montgai Structure of a frontal thrust system and related unconformities. Out of sequence thrusts and synorogenic sediments. The frontal thrust system of the South-central Pyrenees has been detached into the Triassic evaporites and involves a thin Mesozoic succession. It is characterized by an emergent thrust system during the sedimentation of upper Eocene and lower Oligocene continental sediments. Frontal thrusts were progressively buried by conglomerates, triggering a break-back thrusting sequence and the development of out-of-sequence thrusts bringing together strongly different Mesozoic successions, such as the Montroig thrust in the picture. Stop 1.2: The Ager basin and the Montsec thrust sheet. Fontllonga The Ager basin in the footwall of the Montsec thrust. The Montsec thrust sheet developed from the Paleocene to the Early Eocene as recorded by continental to shallow marine sediments deposited in its footwall (Ager basin) as well as in the Tremp-Graus piggy-back basin. The lower Eocene sediments of these basins grade westward into the slope succession filling the Ainsa basin at the footwall of the Montsec thrust. Stop 1.3: The frontal structure of the Montsec thrust sheet. Ametlla (optional: Montrebei) Fault-propagation fold related with the inversion of Early Cretaceous extensional faults and growth deltaic sediments in the footwall syncline. The Montsec thrust sheet involves the northern part of the Upper Cretaceous foreland basin characterised by a strong subsident turbiditic trough at the footwall of the Bóixols thrust. These turbidites grade southward into a carbonatic platform that constitutes the backbone of the Montsec Range (main ridge and cliff of the pictures). Underneath the Upper Cretaceous carbonates, some Early Cretaceous extensional faults are preserved in the hanging wall of the Montsec thrust, but others have controlled the development of a hanging wall frontal anticline. The geometry of this anticline as well as the structure of the growth sediments in the footwall Ager syncline are visible in the field. The subthrust geometry will be discussed integrating surface observations and the available seismic and well data. Overnight in Tremp Day 2 Stop 2.1: The Sant Corneli-Bóixols anticline Inversion of the rift margin The Sant Corneli-Bóixols anticline is the most prominent frontal structure of the Bóixols thrust sheet in the central Pyrenees. This fold trends east–west and crops out for greater than 40 km along strike. The Sant Corneli-Bóixols anticline involves a thick Mesozoic succession detached on top of Triassic evaporites. The prefolding sequence consists of up to 5 km of prerift, synrift, and postrift carbonates ranging in age from Jurassic to Upper Cretaceous. Synfolding Upper Cretaceous sediments start with the upper Santonian carbonates and continue with a succession of Campanian and Maastrichtian marls and turbidites. The Sant Corneli–Bóixols anticline is an example of an inversion fold developed along the rift margin of the Lower Cretaceous basin. Its geometry is related with the inverted extensional system. In particular, the three-dimensional geometry, including the saddles between culminations, is inherited from the previous transfer faults of the segmented rift margin. Available seismic data and 3 exploratory wells constrain the geometry at depth. Stop 2.2: The synororgenic Paleogene conglomerates Inverted Lower Cretaceous basin and Eocene-Oligocene synorogenic conglomerates at Collegats gorge. Stop 2.3 (optional): The Sopeira and Aulet minibasins. Sopeira Minibasins developed by extensional collapse and salt evacuation during the thermal subsidence at the southern Pyrenean rift margin. Inversion of these mini-basins at the early stages of Pyrenean contractional deformation during Late Cretaceous. Additional logistic information Transportation Transportation will be with a small bus, assisted by minivans to have access to some of the outcrops. Physical demand, equipment and safety This is an easy field trip with very easy and limited hikes to get to the outcrops. Outcrops will be from main sealed roads. Safety vests will be available, to be used by everybody of the group wherever required and asked to. There will be First Aid Kits available in each car during fieldwork. Climate The climate during mid-end November in the fieldwork area can be cold and rainy, although dry and sunny days may occur as well. The temperature for November in Tremp can range between 30C and 170C. Participants should be prepared in case we should encounter bad weather and you should bring warm and waterproof clothes and suitable hiking boots. -->

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American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Workshop
Lisbon, Portugal
Wednesday, 18 May Thursday, 19 May 2022, 8:00 a.m.–5:00 p.m.

This 2-day conference brings together diverse experts working on modern and ancient turbidite, MTDs, contourite and hybrid/mixed systems in order to improve the present-day knowledge, models and predictive power.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Field Seminar
Lisbon, Portugal
Monday, 16 May Tuesday, 17 May 2022, 8:00 a.m.–5:00 p.m.

Come along on this 2-day field seminar and tour outcrops in the Serra de Montejunto, just north of Lisbon and on the coast from Porto Novo to Paimogo. Instructors: Ricardo Pereira, (PARTEX Oil and Gas & Instituto Dom Luiz) Gil Machado (ChronSurveys Lda & Instituto Dom Luiz) Fees: To be determined Includes: Hotel Ground Transporation Snacks and Refreshments Lunch and Dinner Guidebook Departure Time/Location 16 May 2020 8:30am SANA Metropolitan Hotel Note:Transportation to start point is not included in the costs of this trip. Please bring clothing for hot day time temperatures (sun hat/ sun glasses/ sun cream etc.). Participants must wear suitable and comfortable light trekking shoes. Aims To gain or increase an understanding of the tectono-sedimentary processes of continental extension and rifting supported by outcrop observations, with focus on deep-depositional marine systems. Discuss implications for prospective petroleum systems. Promote debate and nourish new insights between attendants. About the Field Trip The Lusitanian Basin records the proximal events of syn- to post rift evolution of the hyper-extended West Iberian Margin, showing some outstanding examples of the combined tectono-stratigraphic depositional systems. Here, the Late Jurassic reveals diverse aspects of mixed marine depositional systems including not only submarine fans and turbidites, but also the build-up of carbonate reefs and shoreface to fluvial clastic sequences. Throughout the fieldtrip the different depositional aspects can be observed in detail to demonstrate how such depositional systems can vary in time and space. Observation of these outcrops allows a better understanding on how deep-water depositional systems can change within a sub-basin and help improving the understanding of reservoir properties. Itinerary Day 1 (16th May 2022) Stop # Location Relevant Aspects 1 Vila Franca de Xira Intro-Overview 2 Castanheira Coarse grain proximal depositional systems; Fault slope deposits 3 Arruda Marine shales and interbedded clastic deposits 4 Ota Late Jurassic marine reefs 5 Montejunto-Vila Verde Marine shales and interbedded clastic deposits 6 Wrap-up at the Hotel   Day 2 (17th May 2022) 1 Consolação-São Bernardino Shaly marine deposits of the Abadia Fm. (Kimm.) 2 Paimogo Shoreface to fluvial deposits Late Jurassic 3 Porto Novo Shoreface to fluvial deposits Late Jurassic 4 Santa Cruz Late Jurassic turbidites

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American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Workshop
Barcelona, Spain
Monday, 28 March Tuesday, 29 March 2022, 8:00 a.m.–5:00 p.m.

This workshop brings together experts from academia and industry from a range of disciplines to share experiences, new approaches, new data and new ways of integrating information that can help in reducing the uncertainties related to the exploration activities in Thrust Belt Systems.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Workshop
Manama, Bahrain
Monday, 10 January Wednesday, 12 January 2022, 8:00 a.m.–5:00 p.m.

The workshop aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the source rocks in the Middle East. The technical program is developed in a way that coves the depositional environments and transport processes, basin modeling and detailed rock characterisation including geochemisty, geomechanics and petrophysics.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Field Seminar
Ipoh, Malaysia
Friday, 26 November 2021, 8:00 a.m.–9:00 a.m.

Seri Iskander, Perak, Malaysia Optional Trip Date: 26 November, 2021 Time: To be determined View Information On CO₂ Laboratory Further details to come.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
Workshop
Virtual Workshop
Tuesday, 23 November Thursday, 25 November 2021, 2:00 p.m.–5:45 p.m.

High CO2 fields and marginal fields (due to high levels of contaminants) are some of the challenges that are prevalent in the Asia Pacific petroleum industry. Join AAPG Asia Pacific for a 2-day workshop focused on best practices, risk-based planning and the role geoscientists and engineers will play in these changing times.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
VG Abstract

In comparison with the known boundary conditions that promote salt deformation and flow in sedimentary basins, the processes involved with the mobilization of clay-rich detrital sediments are far less well established. This talk will use seismic examples in different tectonic settings to document the variety of shale geometries that can be formed under brittle and ductile deformations.

Request a visit from Juan I. Soto!

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
VG Abstract

This lecture will discuss the differences between carbonates and siliciclastics from their chemical composition through their distributions in time and space. Building on these fundamental differences, we will explore the challenges carbonates pose to petroleum geologists in terms of seismic interpretation, reservoir quality prediction, field development, etc. Peppered with humorous personal stories, still raging academic debates, and the heartfelt frustrations of real industry professionals, the aim is to inspire students and young professionals to rise to the occasion and embrace the reservoir rocks that petroleum geologists love to hate.

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Request a visit from Noelle Joy Purcell!

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
VG Abstract

The following short course option was developed for geology and geophysics students that have not had much exposure to how geoscience is applied in industry. It can be tailored for undergraduate juniors and seniors or graduate students. The agenda can be modified to meet specific needs and time constraints. Contact the presenter to discuss options.

Request a visit from Fred Schroeder!

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
VG Abstract

The following short course option was developed for geology and geophysics students that have not had much exposure to how geoscience is applied in industry. It can be tailored for undergraduate juniors and seniors or graduate students. The agenda can be modified to meet specific needs and time constraints. Contact the presenter to discuss options.

Request a visit from Fred Schroeder!

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
VG Abstract

The following short course option was developed for geology and geophysics students that have not had much exposure to how geoscience is applied in industry. It can be tailored for undergraduate juniors and seniors or graduate students. The agenda can be modified to meet specific needs and time constraints. Contact the presenter to discuss options.

Request a visit from Fred Schroeder!

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
VG Abstract

Production from unconventional petroleum reservoirs includes petroleum from shale, coal, tight-sand and oil-sand. These reservoirs contain enormous quantities of oil and natural gas but pose a technology challenge to both geoscientists and engineers to produce economically on a commercial scale. These reservoirs store large volumes and are widely distributed at different stratigraphic levels and basin types, offering long-term potential for energy supply. Most of these reservoirs are low permeability and porosity that need enhancement with hydraulic fracture stimulation to maximize fluid drainage. Production from these reservoirs is increasing with continued advancement in geological characterization techniques and technology for well drilling, logging, and completion with drainage enhancement. Currently, Australia, Argentina, Canada, Egypt, USA, and Venezuela are producing natural gas from low permeability reservoirs: tight-sand, shale, and coal (CBM). Canada, Russia, USA, and Venezuela are producing heavy oil from oilsand. USA is leading the development of techniques for exploring, and technology for exploiting unconventional gas resources, which can help to develop potential gas-bearing shales of Thailand. The main focus is on source-reservoir-seal shale petroleum plays. In these tight rocks petroleum resides in the micro-pores as well as adsorbed on and in the organics. Shale has very low matrix permeability (nano-darcies) and has highly layered formations with differences in vertical and horizontal properties, vertically non-homogeneous and horizontally anisotropic with complicate natural fractures. Understanding the rocks is critical in selecting fluid drainage enhancement mechanisms; rock properties such as where shale is clay or silica rich, clay types and maturation , kerogen type and maturation, permeability, porosity, and saturation. Most of these plays require horizontal development with large numbers of wells that require an understanding of formation structure, setting and reservoir character and its lateral extension. The quality of shale-gas resources depend on thickness of net pay (>100 m), adequate porosity (>2%), high reservoir pressure (ideally overpressure), high thermal maturity (>1.5% Ro), high organic richness (>2% TOC), low in clay (<50%), high in brittle minerals (quartz, carbonates, feldspars), and favourable in-situ stress. During the past decade, unconventional shale and tight-sand gas plays have become an important supply of natural gas in the US, and now in shale oil as well. As a consequence, interest to assess and explore these plays is rapidly spreading worldwide. The high production potential of shale petroleum resources has contributed to a comparably favourable outlook for increased future petroleum supplies globally. Application of 2D and 3D seismic for defining reservoirs and micro seismic for monitoring fracturing, measuring rock properties downhole (borehole imaging) and in laboratory (mineralogy, porosity, permeability), horizontal drilling (downhole GPS), and hydraulic fracture stimulation (cross-linked gel, slick-water, nitrogen or nitrogen foam) is key in improving production from these huge resources with low productivity factors.

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Request a visit from Ameed Ghori!

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
VG Abstract

In 1991, Gulf Indonesia and its partners discovered South Sumatra Basin’s first major gas field at Dayung in the Corridor PSC. A key feature of this field is that most of the reserves are held within fractured basement rocks of pre-Tertiary age. 

Request a visit from Charles Caughey!

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
VG Abstract

Analysis of microseismicity induced by hydraulic fracture stimulation in the Marcellus Shale shows changes in stress state for different zones of failure. During the treatment, shear failure occurs on both the J1 and J2 fracture orientations in response to different maximum stress orientations, indicating localized changes in the orientation during the treatment. Reactivation of a fault near the wellbore is associated with failure mechanisms with a higher volumetric component, indicating possible inflation of faults and fractures by the introduction of the slurry. Quantification of the stress conditions that are associated with inflation could potentially be used to optimize the stimulation by identifying which fractures will preferentially take on slurry volume.

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Request a visit from Sherilyn Williams-Stroud!

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
VG Abstract

The following short course option was developed for geology and geophysics students that have not had much exposure to how geoscience is applied in industry. It can be tailored for undergraduate juniors and seniors or graduate students. The agenda can be modified to meet specific needs and time constraints.

Request a visit from Fred Schroeder!

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
VG Abstract

The Betic hinterland, in the westernmost Mediterranean, constitutes a unique example of a stack of metamorphic units. Using a three-dimensional model for the crustal structure of the Betics-Rif area this talk will address the role of crustal flow simultaneously to upper-crustal low-angle faulting in the origin and evolution of the topography.

Request a visit from Juan I. Soto!

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)

Other Interests

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