Unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs, particularly shale-oil and shale-gas, are the future of the oil industry. It took the oil industry about 160 years, since the first oil well in the USA was drilled in 1859, to master oil production from conventional hydrocarbon reservoirs. Even with that we still face some challenges in deep water drilling, completion, and production as well as enhanced oil recovery from heavy oil carbonates, tar sands, and tight gas sands.
On the other hand, exploration, production and development of unconventional shale-gas and shale-oil reservoirs started only about sixteen years ago, when George P. Mitchell asked his engineers to extract natural gas from shale-gas reservoirs. Although shale makes about two thirds of the stratigraphic column, more than siliciclastics and carbonates combined, have been the least studied sedimentary rocks until very recent. Shale was always regarded as a cap-rock “Seal” in the petroleum system due to its low permeability.
In the late 1980’s and early 1990’s many studies on the evaluation of shale as a source rock were published. Only as late as 2008 that we saw noticeable interest in organic-rich shales, both shale-oil and shale-gas, as viable hydrocarbon reservoirs. Recently, hydrocarbon production from unconventional reservoirs made the USA number one oil producer in the world. That prompted oil industries and governments around the globe to increase their investments in unconventional oil resource plays.
Shales are in many ways have been neglected and misunderstood for a long time. Many of the misconceptions about shale reservoirs persist through out the oil community. Since late 2008 literally thousands of research papers and articles were published on different aspects of shale-oil and shale-gas. All that is done to understand unconventional shale reservoirs and increase drilling, completion, stimulation, and production efficiency from unconventional reservoirs. The first part of the class is designed to give attendees better understanding of the risk factors associated with unconventional “shale” hydrocarbon reservoirs, based on the geology, mineralogy, organic-richness, hydrocarbon content, and the reservoir rock mechanical properties.
Petrophysics is an integral part of the detail unconventional reservoir characterization and de-risking of production from unconventional “source” plays. It also serves as the core for integration and collaboration of many disciplines such as geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and earth modeling as well as drilling, completion, reservoir stimulation and production engineering. The attendees will be exposed to ways to identify and mitigate risk factors associated with shale plays.
Finally, the class will address with examples various ways for collaboration between petrophysicists and other disciplines to achieve efficient unconventional asset development through better understanding and proper dealing with the unconventional reservoir.
- Risk factors associated with Unconventional Reservoir
- Compositional Factors
- Geologic Factors
- Engineering Factors
- Defining Unconventional Reservoirs (What is Shale)
- Shale Environments of Deposition
- Shale Petrology
- Shale Heterogeneity
- What makes Unconventional Reservoir
- Clays (Mineralogy, Chemistry, Physical Properties, and SEM)
- Organic Matter (type, amount, and maturity level)
- Kerogen geochemistry
- Unconventional Reservoir Conceptualization
- Matrix Porosity
- Organic Porosity
- Unconventional Reservoir Petrophysical Analyses
- TOC and OOIP calculations
- UCR Petrophysical Characterization
- Facies Identification
- Clay Typing
- Anisotropy and Stress Distribution
- Dynamic Rock Mechanics
- Rock Physics for Seismic ties
- Pay zone characterization
- Lateral placement and completion efficiency optimization
- New and emerging technologies and the use in de-risking
- Digital Rock Physics
- Core GR and X-CT scanning
- NMR logging
- >Dielectric logging
- Multi-array acoustic image logs