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Sequence stratigraphy is an evolving field that has thus defied all attempts at formalization. Part of this resistance to stability is because central assumptions core to the science maintain scrutiny and occasionally undergo either modification or full refute.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
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Channel belts are the principle reservoirs in fluvial systems. The degree to which these belts are merged or separated is a critical determiner for reservoir volumes. The degree to which reservoirs within belts are connected is equally critical.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
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The search for unconventional hydrocarbons is not new. It’s true that almost 100 years separated the early exploration successes in the synclinal valleys of Central Pennsylvania, to the exploitation of Coal-Bed Methane in a number of basins in the U.S. and Canada in the 1980’s. Since the 1980's, however, a quiet revolution began which by today has seen several waves of unconventional resources being pursued with economic success. Coal-bed methane was followed by the search for Center-Basin Gas, Shale Gas and most recently, Liquid-rich Shales (some of which aren't shales).

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The linkage of process to stratigraphic expression is based primarily upon the observation that modern depositional patterns replicate in the ancient. Uniformitarianism implies that this commonality in pattern translates to a commonality in causal mechanism.
American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
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The generation of point bars by lateral accretion during lateral expansion and downstream translation of river meanders is a well described process, and a primary means for generation of sandy bar reservoirs within fluvial strata. Further examination of this process in modern and ancient settings points, however, to a wide variation on this simple theme.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
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The New Madid seismic zone (NMSZ) is the second highest risk area for earthquake hazard in the United States. Its fame arises from a cluster of at least three great earthquakes during the winter of 1811/1812 that shook most of the North American continent. A repeat of these earthquakes would deeply impact the mid-continent region and potentially be devastating to the nearby cities of St. Louis and Memphis.

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
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The past 30+ years have witnessed a wide variety of exploration strategies and a number of technological “revolutions” in the search for oil and gas. Although the exploration landscape and tools of the trade are so different than they were in the early 1980’s, in one aspect we appear to have come full circle, realizing that a deep understanding of our basins is the critical element in any success.
American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
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There’s little that’s conventional about this year’s UnconventionalResources Technology Conference URTeC), slated this year for a newlocation and boasting a technical program that is cutting edge in content and expertise. URTeC 2015 will be held July 20-22 at the Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center in San Antonio.
American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
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Online Training
21 May, 2009 21 May, 2009 1443 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-how-tight-is-your-gas.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
21 May 2009

This e-symposium introduces you to the practical benefits of thermal profiling for a variety of unconventional oil and gas projects, including tight gas sands, oil shale, low-gravity oil.

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Production from unconventional petroleum reservoirs includes petroleum from shale, coal, tight-sand and oil-sand. These reservoirs contain enormous quantities of oil and natural gas but pose a technology challenge to both geoscientists and engineers to produce economically on a commercial scale. These reservoirs store large volumes and are widely distributed at different stratigraphic levels and basin types, offering long-term potential for energy supply. Most of these reservoirs are low permeability and porosity that need enhancement with hydraulic fracture stimulation to maximize fluid drainage. Production from these reservoirs is increasing with continued advancement in geological characterization techniques and technology for well drilling, logging, and completion with drainage enhancement. Currently, Australia, Argentina, Canada, Egypt, USA, and Venezuela are producing natural gas from low permeability reservoirs: tight-sand, shale, and coal (CBM). Canada, Russia, USA, and Venezuela are producing heavy oil from oilsand. USA is leading the development of techniques for exploring, and technology for exploiting unconventional gas resources, which can help to develop potential gas-bearing shales of Thailand.

The main focus is on source-reservoir-seal shale petroleum plays. In these tight rocks petroleum resides in the micro-pores as well as adsorbed on and in the organics. Shale has very low matrix permeability (nano-darcies) and has highly layered formations with differences in vertical and horizontal properties, vertically non-homogeneous and horizontally anisotropic with complicate natural fractures. Understanding the rocks is critical in selecting fluid drainage enhancement mechanisms; rock properties such as where shale is clay or silica rich, clay types and maturation , kerogen type and maturation, permeability, porosity, and saturation. Most of these plays require horizontal development with large numbers of wells that require an understanding of formation structure, setting and reservoir character and its lateral extension.

The quality of shale-gas resources depend on thickness of net pay (>100 m), adequate porosity (>2%), high reservoir pressure (ideally overpressure), high thermal maturity (>1.5% Ro), high organic richness (>2% TOC), low in clay (<50%), high in brittle minerals (quartz, carbonates, feldspars), and favourable in-situ stress.

During the past decade, unconventional shale and tight-sand gas plays have become an important supply of natural gas in the US, and now in shale oil as well. As a consequence, interest to assess and explore these plays is rapidly spreading worldwide. The high production potential of shale petroleum resources has contributed to a comparably favourable outlook for increased future petroleum supplies globally.

Application of 2D and 3D seismic for defining reservoirs and micro seismic for monitoring fracturing, measuring rock properties downhole (borehole imaging) and in laboratory (mineralogy, porosity, permeability), horizontal drilling (downhole GPS), and hydraulic fracture stimulation (cross-linked gel, slick-water, nitrogen or nitrogen foam) is key in improving production from these huge resources with low productivity factors.

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