Sedimentology and Stratigraphy

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Last month in this space we analyzed the relations of fracture patterns and layer curvature in clay models. This month we examine these relations in a central Oklahoma field developed by Pathfinder Exploration, Norman, Okla.

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After decades spent visiting Morocco and neighboring Algeria, an AAPG member who's led countless field trips to some of the earth's most exotic places says the two old countries are evolving into modern times.

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Long captivated by both the onshore and offshore possibilities in Colombia, operators are hoping to turn Caribbean potential into reality soon.

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AAPG members are being asked to help create an educational research facility to study a part of England's Jurassic Coast.

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Sequence stratigraphy and coal cycles based on accommodation trends were investigated in the coal-bearing Lower Cretaceous Mannville Group in the Lloydminster heavy oil field, eastern Alberta. The study area is in a low accommodation setting on the cratonic margin of the Western Canada sedimentary basin. Geophysical log correlation of coal seams, shoreface facies, and the identification of incised valleys has produced a sequence-stratigraphic framework for petrographic data from 3 cored and 115 geophysical-logged wells. Maceral analysis, telovitrinite reflectance, and fluorescence measurements were taken from a total of 206 samples. Three terrestrial depositional environments were interpreted from the petrographic data: ombrotrophic mire coal, limnotelmatic mire coal, and carbonaceous shale horizons. Accommodation-based coal (wetting- and drying-upward) cycles represent trends in depositional environment shifts, and these cycles were used to investigate the development and preservation of the coal seams across the study area.

The low-accommodation strata are characterized by a high-frequency occurrence of significant surfaces, coal seam splitting, paleosol, and incised-valley development. Three sequence boundary unconformities are identified in only 20 m (66 ft) of strata. Coal cycle correlations illustrate that each coal seam in this study area was not produced by a single peat-accumulation episode but as an amalgamation of a series of depositional events. Complex relations between the Cummings and Lloydminster coal seams are caused by the lateral fragmentation of strata resulting from the removal of sediment by subaerial erosion or periods of nondeposition. Syndepositional faulting of the underlying basement rock changed local accommodation space and increased the complexity of the coal cycle development.

This study represents a low-accommodation example from a spectrum of stratigraphic studies that have been used to establish a terrestrial sequence-stratigraphic model. The frequency of changes in coal seam quality is an important control on methane distribution within coalbed methane reservoirs and resource calculations in coal mining. A depositional model based on the coal cycle correlations, as shown by this study, can provide coal quality prediction for coalbed methane exploration, reservoir completions, and coal mining.

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This article reviews the mechanisms of shale gas storage and discusses the major risks or uncertainties for shale gas exploration in China. At a given temperature and pressure, the gas sorption capacities of organic-rich shales are primarily controlled by the organic matter richness but may be significantly influenced by the type and maturity of the organic matter, mineral composition (especially clay content), moisture content, pore volume and structure, resulting in different ratios of gas sorption capacity (GSC) to total organic carbon content for different shales. In laboratory experiments, the GSC of organic-rich shales increases with increasing pressure and decreases with increasing temperature. Under geologic conditions (assuming hydrostatic pressure gradient and constant thermal gradient), the GSC increases initially with depth due to the predominating effect of pressure, passes through a maximum, and then decreases because of the influence of increasing temperature at greater depth. This pattern of variation is quite similar to that observed for coals and is of great significance for understanding the changes in GSC of organic-rich shales over geologic time as a function of burial history. At an elevated temperature and pressure and with the presence of moisture, the gas sorption capacities of organic-rich shales are quite low. As a result, adsorption alone cannot protect sufficient gas for high-maturity organic-rich shales to be commercial gas reservoirs. Two models are proposed to predict the variation of GSC and total gas content over geologic time as a function of burial history. High contents of free gas in organic-rich shales can be preserved in relatively closed systems. Loss of free gas during postgeneration uplift and erosion may result in undersaturation (the total gas contents lower than the sorption capacity) and is the major risk for gas exploration in marine organic-rich shales in China.
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Anomalously high porosities and permeabilities are commonly found in the fluvial channel sandstone facies of the Triassic Skagerrak Formation in the central North Sea at burial depths greater than 3200 m (10,499 ft), from which hydrocarbons are currently being produced. The aim of our study was to improve understanding of sandstone diagenesis in the Skagerrak Formation to help predict whether the facies with high porosity may be found at even greater depths. The Skagerrak sandstones comprise fine to medium-grained arkosic to lithic-arkosic arenites. We have used scanning electron microscopy, petrographic analysis, pressure history modeling, and core analysis to assess the timing of growth and origin of mineral cements, with generation, and the impact of high fluid pressure on reservoir quality. Our interpretation is that the anomalously high porosities in the Skagerrak sandstones were maintained by a history of overpressure generation and maintenance from the Late Triassic onward, in combination with early microquartz cementation and subsequent precipitation of robust chlorite grain coats. Increasing salinity of pore fluids during burial diagenesis led to pore-filling halite cements in sustained phreatic conditions. The halite pore-filling cements removed most of the remaining porosity and limited the precipitation of other diagenetic phases. Fluid flow associated with the migration of hydrocarbons during the Neogene is inferred to have dissolved the halite locally. Dissolution of halite cements in the channel sands has given rise to megapores and porosities of as much as 35% at current production depths.
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Prolific hydrocarbon discoveries in the subsalt, commonly known as the “presalt,” section of Brazil and the conjugate African margin have created a business imperative to predict reservoir quality in lacustrine carbonates. Geothermal convection is a style of groundwater flow known to occur in rift settings, which is capable of diagenetic modification of reservoir quality. We simulated variable density groundwater flow coupled with chemical reactions to evaluate the potential for diagenesis driven by convection in subsalt carbonates.

Rates of calcite diagenesis are critically controlled by temperature gradient and fluid flux following the principles of retrograde solubility. Simulations predict that convection could operate in rift carbonates prior to salt deposition, but with rates of dissolution in the reservoir interval only on the order of 0.01 vol. %/m.y., which is too low to significantly modify reservoir quality. The exception is around permeable fault zones and/or unconformities where flow is focused and dissolution rates are amplified to 1 to 10 vol. %/m.y. and could locally modify reservoir quality. After salt deposition, simulations also predict convection with a critical function for salt rugosity. The greatest potential for dissolution at rates of 0.1 to 1 vol. %/m.y. occurs where salt welds, overlying permeable carbonates thin to 500 m (1640 ft) or less. With tens of million years residence times feasible, convection under these conditions could locally result in reservoir sweet spots with porosity modification of 1% to 10% and potentially an order of magnitude or more in reservoir permeability. Integrating quantitative model–derived predictive diagenetic concepts with traditional subsurface data sets refines exploration to production scale risking of carbonate reservoir presence and quality.

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The Heidrun field, located on the Halten Terrace of the mid-Norwegian continental shelf, was one of the first giant oil fields found in the Norwegian Sea. Traditional reservoir intervals in the Heidrun field lie within the Jurassic synrift sequence. Most Norwegian continental shelf fields have been producing from these Jurassic reservoirs for the past 30 yr. Production has since declined in these mature fields, but recently, exploration for new reservoirs has resurged in this region. The Jurassic rifted fault blocks form a narrow continental shelf in Norway, thereby greatly reducing the areal extent for exploration and development within existing fields. As the rift axis is approached farther offshore, these Jurassic reservoirs become very deep, too risky to drill, and uneconomical. This risk has prompted exploration in more recent years of the shallower Cretaceous, postrift stratigraphic succession. Cretaceous turbidites have been found in the Norwegian and North Seas, and the discovery of the Agat field in the Norwegian North Sea confirms the existence of a working petroleum system capable of charging Cretaceous reservoirs. These Cretaceous reservoirs were deposited as slope- and basin-floor fans within a series of underfilled rifted deeps along the Norwegian continental shelf and are thought to be sourced from the localized erosion of Jurassic rifted highs. We use three-dimensional seismic and well data to document the geomorphology of a deep-water, Lower Cretaceous wedge (Cromer Knoll Group) within the hanging wall of a rift-related half graben formed on the Halten Terrace offshore mid-Norway. Seismic attribute extractions taken within this Lower Cretaceous wedge reveal the presence of several lobate to elongated bodies that seem to cascade over fault-bounded terraces associated with rifted structures. These high-amplitude, elongated bodies are interpreted as deep-water sedimentary conduits that are time equivalent to the Cretaceous basin-floor fans in more distal parts of the basin to the west. These half-graben fills have the potential to contain high-quality Cretaceous sandstones that might represent a potential new reservoir interval within the Heidrun field.
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New dimensions: Geoscientists study how 3-D views of Eagle Ford outcrops are a great tool.

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In-Person Training
Houston Texas United States 01 December, 2015 04 December, 2015 13554 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/sc-Practical-Salt-Tectonics.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Structure, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Salt Tectonics, Fold and Thrust Belts, Evaporites
Houston, Texas, United States
1-4 December 2015
This course is designed to give participants the basic working tools to explore and develop hydrocarbons in salt basins. Because no two basins are alike, the focus is on understanding the processes and styles of salt-related deformation. At course completion participants should be able to under the depositional setting of layered evaporites, describe the mechanics of salt flow, interpret salt and stratal geometries associated with diapirs, salt welds, and minibasins, and assess more accurately the risks in the exploration of salt basins.
Abilene Texas United States 11 January, 2016 11 January, 2016 23513 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/aapg-southwest-section.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Engineering, Petrophysics and Well Logs, Clastics, Carbonates, Reservoir Characterization, Eolian Sandstones, Fluvial Deltaic Systems, Marine, Deepwater Turbidites
Abilene, Texas, United States
11 January 2016

The AAPG Southwest Section presents the 2016 Bill Hailey Memorial Short Course in Abilene, Texas. Dr. Matthew J. Pranter will be speaking on "Fundamentals of Reservoir Characterization and Modeling".

Questions? Contact Jean Campbell, Continuing Education Committee Chair.

Fort Worth Texas United States 12 January, 2016 12 January, 2016 23511 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/aapg-southwest-section.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Engineering, Reservoir Characterization, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Petrophysics and Well Logs, Clastics, Fluvial Deltaic Systems, Eolian Sandstones, Marine, Deepwater Turbidites, Carbonates, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling
Fort Worth, Texas, United States
12 January 2016

The AAPG Southwest Section presents the 2016 Bill Hailey Memorial Short Course in Fort Worth, Texas. Dr. Matthew J. Pranter will be speaking on "Fundamentals of Reservoir Characterization and Modeling".

Questions? Contact Jean Campbell, Continuing Education Committee Chair.

Muscat Oman 18 January, 2016 20 January, 2016 16517 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/gtw2016me-hydrocarbon-seals-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Subsalt Traps, Structural Traps, Stratigraphic Traps, Diagenetic Traps, Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs, Reservoir Characterization, Engineering, Seismic Attributes, Geochemical Fingerprinting, 3D Seismic, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Sequence Stratigraphy, Evaporites, Clastics, Carbonates, Structure, Fold and Thrust Belts, Compressional Systems, Geomechanics and Fracture Analysis, Production, Drive Mechanisms
Muscat, Oman
18-20 January 2016

This workshop has the primary goal to share knowledge, case studies, techniques and workflows pertaining to the understanding and prediction of hydrocarbon seals for exploration and production in the Middle East. These seals range in age from Pre-Cambrian to Tertiary.    

Muscat Oman 19 January, 2016 19 January, 2016 20942 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/muscat-oman-field-trip-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Field Trips, Conventions, Meeting Field Trip, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Carbonates
Muscat, Oman
19 January 2016

Known worldwide for its spectacular geology, the key geological units in the stratigraphy of Oman are exposed in the Muscat area. It is only a short distance to some excellent outcrops ranging from the Permo-Triassic basement to the Permo-Triassic sequence and the Semail Ophiolite found in the oceanic crust and upper mantle emplaced on the autochthonous Mesozoic carbonate succession of the Oman margin during the Late Cretaceous.

Muscat Oman 21 January, 2016 22 January, 2016 21264 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/Stratigraphical-Seals-of-Cretaceous-Platform-Carbonate-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Field Trips, Conventions, Meeting Field Trip, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Carbonates, Structure
Muscat, Oman
21-22 January 2016

This field trip consists of two days discussing concepts related to structural and stratigraphical seals both in exploration and production scales.

Abu Dhabi United Arab Emirates 25 January, 2016 26 January, 2016 16518 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/gtw2016me-source-rocks-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Source Rock, Development and Operations, Engineering, Conventional Drilling, Directional Drilling, Infill Drilling, Clastics, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Conventional Sandstones, Petroleum Systems, Fluvial Deltaic Systems, Structure, Compressional Systems, Extensional Systems, Sequence Stratigraphy, Stratigraphic Traps, Petrophysics and Well Logs, Basin Modeling, Oil and Gas Analysis, Reservoir Characterization
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
25-26 January 2016

This three-day workshop aims to provide a forum for professionals from industry, academia and government agencies, who are actively involved in the study of Middle Eastern Source Rocks, to share their advances in source rock related fields, present their experiences and challenges, and demonstrate relevant technologies and solutions.

Houston Texas United States 26 January, 2016 27 January, 2016 23346 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/Fifth-Annual-AAPG-SPE-Deepwater-Reservoirs-Geosciences-Technology-Workshop.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Clastics, Deep Sea / Deepwater, Deepwater Turbidites
Houston, Texas, United States
26-27 January 2016

Reserve your space now to learn how and where new knowledge and technology geology, engineering, and geophysics come together to make deepwater and shelf exploration and development more successful.

Lagos Nigeria 22 February, 2016 24 February, 2016 21922 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/sequence-stratigraphy-concepts-principles-applications-clastic-depositional-environments-02feb-2016-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Engineering, Reservoir Characterization, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Source Rock, Petrophysics and Well Logs, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Clastics, Conventional Sandstones, Deep Sea / Deepwater, Deepwater Turbidites, Eolian Sandstones, Estuarine Deposits, Fluvial Deltaic Systems, High Stand Deposits, Incised Valley Deposits, Lacustrine Deposits, Low Stand Deposits, Marine, Regressive Deposits, Sheet Sand Deposits, Shelf Sand Deposits, Slope, Transgressive Deposits, Sequence Stratigraphy, Deep Basin Gas, Diagenetic Traps, Stratigraphic Traps, Structural Traps
Lagos, Nigeria
22-24 February 2016
Sequence stratigraphy provides a framework for the integration of geological, geophysical, biostratigraphic and engineering data, with the aim of predicting the distribution of reservoir, source rock and seal lithologies. It gives the geoscientist a powerful predictive tool for regional basin analysis, shelf-to-basin correlation, and characterization of reservoir heterogeneity. This course will examine the underlying geological principles, processes and terminology related to sequence stratigraphic interpretation. The strength of this course is the application of these basic principles to subsurface datasets in a series of well-founded exercises.
Houston Texas United States 29 February, 2016 01 March, 2016 1348 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/ec-wec-carbonate-reservoir-geology-understanding-depositional.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Carbonates, Phanerozoic, Geologic Age, Mesozoic, Paleozoic, Reservoir Characterization/Modeling, Geology, Carbonate Rocks, Petrophysics and Well Logs, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling
Houston, Texas, United States
29 February - 1 March 2016

The course starts with patterns of carbonate deposition and moves on to an examination of modern analogs for ancient sediments, diagenesis, and select case histories of Paleozoic and Mesozoic basin reservoirs.

Bari Italy 26 April, 2016 27 April, 2016 22865 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/Clastics-Discussion-Group-here.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Structure, Fold and Thrust Belts, Structural Analysis (Other), Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Carbonates, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Petroleum Systems, Source Rock, Maturation, Migration
Bari, Italy
26-27 April 2016

Many factors and processes contribute to imparting an extraordinary complexity to carbonate reservoirs and source rocks. This unique complexity makes exploration and production of the huge petroleum resources hosted in carbonate sequences a very challenging task. This meeting follows the success of the conference held in Naples in April 2014 and aims at bringing together experts of different disciplines from the academia and the oil and gas industry. We invite you to share your experience on new approaches, new tools and new ways of integrating geological and geophysical information that can help in reducing the uncertainties related to the characterization and modeling of carbonate sequences and reservoirs.

Online Training
19 March, 2015 19 March, 2015 16283 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/New-Insights-into-the-Stratigraphic-Framework-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
19 March 2015

A detailed biostratigraphic analysis and stratigraphic framework of the Paleocene and Eocene Chicontepec Formation in the Tampico-Misantla basin, onshore eastern Mexico, was conducted using 33 wells.

02 October, 2014 02 October, 2014 10593 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/esymp-concepts-of-scale-horizontal-development-of-wolfcamp-shale-oil-of-the-southern-midland-basin-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
2 October 2014
This course is ideal for individuals involved in Midland Basin exploration and development. Successful development of Wolfcamp shale oil relies on complex inter-relationships (ultimately interdependencies) within and between a wide variety of scientific disciplines, financial entities, and company partnerships. 
09 September, 2014 09 September, 2014 10591 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/esymp-fluid-migration-and-accumulation-within-the-mississippian-why-2-oil-cut-here-15-one-mile-away-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
9 September 2014
Water cut is a big factor in gauging the success of horizontal drilling in the Mississippi Lime Play (MLP). The contributing factors are related in part to the spectrum of producing lithofacies and reservoir quality encountered that varies laterally and vertically, sometimes dramatically. 
30 August, 2012 30 August, 2012 1489 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-mississippian-carbonates-in-kansas.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
30 August 2012

The entire Middle Pennsylvanian–to–top Precambrian basement (500 m) interval was cored in early 2011 in the BEREXCO Wellington KGS #1-32 well in Wellington Field, Sumner County, KS.

05 March, 2014 05 March, 2014 3812 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-virtual-field-trip-grand-canyon-bryce-and-zion.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
5 March 2014

Explore three of the great wonders of the geological world. Take a guided tour of classic geological sites on the Colorado Plateau.

07 November, 2013 07 November, 2013 1500 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-from-qualitative-to-quantitative-interpretations.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
7 November 2013

This e-symposium presentation places the interpretation of deep-water turbidites discernible in 3-D seismic inversion data within a geological context.

10 November, 2011 10 November, 2011 1481 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-heterogeneity-in-carbonate-reservoirs.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
10 November 2011

This work investigates how heterogeneity can be defined and how we can quantify this term by describing a range of statistical heterogeneity (e.g. coefficient of variation and the Lorenz coefficient).

13 December, 2012 13 December, 2012 1494 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-petrophysics-of-shales.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
13 December 2012

The course will review core data, petrophysical comparisons, rock physics modeling (including pseudo logs and mechanical properties).

10 May, 2012 10 May, 2012 1486 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-genetic-sequences-in-eagle-ford-austin.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
10 May 2012

Recognition and Correlation of the Eagle Ford, Austin Formations in South Texas can be enhanced with High Resolution Biostratigraphy, fossil abundance peaks and Maximum Flooding Surfaces correlated to Upper Cretaceous sequence stratigraphic cycle chart after Gradstein, 2010.

07 June, 2012 07 June, 2012 1488 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-new-production-in-oil-fields.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
7 June 2012

Unger Field, discovered in1955, has produced 8.6 million barrels of oil from a thinly (several ft) bedded, locally cherty dolomite containing vuggy and intercrystalline porosity.

21 February, 2013 21 February, 2013 1495 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-petrophysics-of-carbonates.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
21 February 2013

The course will review core data, petrophysical comparisons, rock physics modeling (including pseudo logs and mechanical properties).

24 October, 2013 24 October, 2013 1499 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-geomechanical-data-from-petrophysical-logs.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
24 October 2013

This e-symposium will be introducing signal processing techniques as a means to maximize extracting geomechanical data from petrophysical logs.

08 December, 2011 08 December, 2011 1480 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-connectivity-in-fluvial-systems.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
8 December 2011

This e-symposium focuses on methods for predicting connectivity within clastic fluvial systems.

01 January, 2013 01 January, 9999 1459 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-cc-giant-oil-and-gas-fields.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
1 January 2013 - 1 January 9999

There are more approximately 1,000 oil and gas fields in the world that have been classified as "giant," containing more than 500 million barrels of recoverable oil and /or 3 trillion cubic feet of gas.

25 August, 2011 25 August, 2011 1475 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-overview-of-hydraulic-fracturing-mechanics-analysis-and-design.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
25 August 2011

This e-symposium provides highlights of the hydraulic fracturing mechanics, analysis, and design, and is derived from a two and one-half (2-1/2) day course which is designed for drilling, completion, production engineers, engineering technicians, geologists, well-site and completion supervisors, and managers, who desire to possess a comprehensive and integral knowledge of Hydraulic Fracturing.

28 April, 2011 28 April, 2011 1471 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-niobrara-petroleum-system-a-major-tight-resource-play.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
28 April 2011

The Niobrara Petroleum System of the U.S. Rocky Mountain Region is a major tight petroleum resource play.

17 March, 2011 17 March, 2011 1470 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-basic-tools-for-shale-exploration.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
17 March 2011

This e-symposium will provide information on which tools, processes, and procedures all geoscientists, engineers, and technical professionals working in shale plays need to understand and implement.

17 February, 2011 17 February, 2011 1469 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-siliclastic-sequence-stratigraphy.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
17 February 2011

This presentation is designed for exploration/production geologists and geological managers or reservoir engineers.

09 December, 2010 09 December, 2010 1466 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-bakken-petroleum-system-of-the-williston-basin.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
9 December 2010

The Mississippian-Devonian Bakken Petroleum System of the Williston Basin is characterized by low-porosity and permeability reservoirs, organic-rich source rocks, and regional hydrocarbon charge.

11 November, 2010 11 November, 2010 1465 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-geochemical-evaluation-of-eagle-ford-group-source.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
11 November 2010

This e-symposium is ideal for geologists, geophysicists, engineers and other geoscientists who are involved in gas shale exploration and production.

19 August, 2010 19 August, 2010 1462 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-challenging-the-paradigm-missing-section-normal-fault.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
19 August 2010

This presentation will show where there are cases of missing sections, but none of them can be attributed to normal faulting.

29 April, 2010 29 April, 2010 1457 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-seismic-stratigraphy-seismic-geomorphology-of-deep-water.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
29 April 2010

This presentation will focus on the seismic stratigraphic and seismic geomorphologic expression of deep-water deposits, including both reservoir and non-reservoir facies.

22 October, 2009 22 October, 2009 1452 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-fluvial-stratigraphy.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
22 October 2009

This course can help you gain the ability to describe the complex and highly variable reservoirs, which are typified by complex internal heterogeneity.

01 November, 2013 01 November, 9999 452 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-toc-petroleum-exploration-production.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
1 November 2013 - 1 November 9999

This online course provides an overview of the petroleum industry from what is natural gas and crude oil to how to explore, drill, and produce oil and gas.

14 February, 3000 14 February, 3000 7817 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-generic-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
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