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The geometries of clay smears produced in a series of direct shear experiments on composite blocks containing a clay-rich seal layer sandwiched between sandstone reservoir layers have been analyzed in detail. The geometries of the evolving shear zones and volume clay distributions are related back to the monitored hydraulic response, the deformation conditions, and the clay content and strength of the seal rock. The laboratory experiments were conducted under 4 to 24 MPa (580–3481 psi) fault normal effective stress, equivalent to burial depths spanning from less than approximately 0.8 to 4.2 km (0.5 to 2.6 mi) in a sedimentary basin. The sheared blocks were imaged using medical-type x-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging validated with optical photography of sawn blocks. The interpretation of CT scans was used to construct digital geomodels of clay smears and surrounding volumes from which quantitative information was obtained. The distribution patterns and thickness variations of the clay smears were found to vary considerably according to the level of stress applied during shear and to the brittleness of the seal layer. The stiffest seal layers with the lowest clay percentage formed the most segmented clay smears. Segmentation does not necessarily indicate that the fault seal was breached because wear products may maintain the seal between the individual smear segments as they form. In experiments with the seal layer formed of softer clays, a more uniform smear thickness is observed, but the average thickness of the clay smear tends to be lower than in stiffer clays. Fault drag and tapering of the seal layer are limited to a region close to the fault cutoffs. Therefore, the comparative decrease of sealing potential away from the cutoff zones differs from predictions of clay smear potential type models. Instead of showing a power-law decrease away from the cutoffs toward the midpoint of the shear zone, the clay smear thickness is either uniform, segmented, or undulating, reflecting the accumulated effects of kinematic processes other than drag. Increased normal stress improved fault sealing in the experiments mainly by increasing fault zone thickness, which led to more clay involvement in the fault zone per unit of source layer thickness. The average clay fraction of the fault zone conforms to the prediction of the shale gouge ratio (SGR) model because clay volume is essentially preserved during the deformation process. However, the hydraulic seal performance does not correlate to the clay fraction or SGR but does increase as the net clay volume in the fault zone increases. We introduce a scaled form of SGR called SSGR to account for increased clay involvement in the fault zone caused by higher stress and variable obliquity of the seal layer to the fault zone. The scaled SGR gives an improved correlation to seal performance in our samples compared to the other algorithms.
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The continuity of clay smears evolving in sealed direct shear experiments of initially intact sandstone-mudrock sequences was quantified to large displacements up to more than ten times the thickness of the sealing layer. The sample blocks consisted of a preconsolidated clay-rich seal layer, which was embedded and synthetically cemented in quartz sand. The mineralogy and mechanical properties of the clay layer and the reservoir sandstones were varied systematically to mimic a range of natural clastic rock sequences. The fluid-flow response across the fault zone was monitored continuously during deformation using a new type of direct shear cell. The displacement at which seals break down is closely linked to the amount of phyllosilicates in the seal layer. Contrary to expectations, softer seal layers do not seal better than stiff seal layers for a given clay content. In the testing range of normal effective stresses between 4 to 24 MPa (580–3481 psi) covering maximum burial depth conditions of approximately 800 m (2625 ft) to approximately 4 km (2 mi) (assuming normal fault tectonics), a systematic trend is also observed, indicating better smear continuity by increasing the effective normal stress. Predominantly brittle processes such as slicing and wear, and not ductile drag or plastic flow, appear to be responsible for the generation of clay smears. The test results offer the prospect of incorporating critical shale smear factors (i.e., normalized displacement at which seal breakdown occurs) into probabilistic fault seal algorithms that consider important properties that can be measured or estimated, namely, clay content and fault-normal effective stress.
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Gas generation is a commonly hypothesized mechanism for the development of high-magnitude overpressure. However, overpressures developed by gas generation have been rarely measured in situ, with the main evidence for such overpressures coming from source rock microfractures, the physical necessity of overpressures for primary migration, laboratory experiments, and numerical modeling. Indeed, previous in-situ observations suggest that gas generation only creates highly localized overpressures within rich source rocks. Pore-fluid pressure data and sonic velocity–vertical effective stress plots from 30 wells reveal that overpressures in the northern Malay Basin are primarily generated by fluid expansion and are located basinwide within the Miocene 2A, 2B, and 2C source rock formations. The overpressures are predominantly associated with gas sampled in more than 83% of overpressure measurements and have a sonic-density response consistent with gas generation. The association of fluid expansion overpressures with gas, combined with the sonic-density response to overpressure and a regional geology that precludes other overpressuring mechanisms, provides convincing in-situ evidence for basinwide gas generation overpressuring. Overpressure magnitude analysis suggests that gas generation accounts for approximately one-half to two-thirds of the measured excess pore pressure in the region, with the remainder being generated by coincident disequilibrium compaction. Thus, the data herein suggest that gas generation, if acting in isolation, is producing a maximum pressure gradient of 15.3 MPa/km (0.676 psi/ft) and not lithostatic magnitudes as commonly hypothesized. The gas generation overpressures in this article are not associated with a significant porosity anomaly and represent a major drilling hazard, with traditional pore-pressure prediction techniques underestimating pressure gradients by 2.3 plusmn 1.5 MPa/km (0.1 plusmn 0.07 psi/ft).
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We use samples from undeformed and deformed sandstones (single deformation band, deformation band cluster, slip-surface cataclasite, and fault core slip zone) to characterize their petrophysical properties (porosity, permeability, and capillary pressure). Relationships between permeability and porosity are described by power-law regressions where the power-law exponent (D) decreases with the increasing degree of deformation (strain) experienced by the sample from host rock (D, sim9) to fault core (D, sim5). The approaches introduced in this work will allow geologists to use permeability and/or porosity measurements to estimate the capillary pressures and sealing capacity of different fault-related rocks without requiring direct laboratory measurements of capillary pressure. Results show that fault core slip zones have the highest theoretical sealing capacity (gt140-m [459-ft] oil column in extreme cases), although our calculations suggest that deformation bands can locally act as efficiently as fault core slip zones in sealing nonwetting fluids (in this study, oil and CO2). Higher interfacial tension between brine and CO2 (because of the sensitivity of CO2 to temperature and pressure) results in higher capillary pressure and sealing capacity in a brine and CO2 system than a brine and oil system for the same samples.
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Reservoir properties of Upper Triassic–Middle Jurassic sandstones, Spitsbergen, are studied as part of a CO2 storage pilot project in Longyearbyen. The reservoir formations show large contrasts in sandstone compositions, with unexpected low permeability despite moderate porosity values. Petrographic analyses were performed to investigate the influence and distribution of diagenesis. It is concluded that, because of various compaction, cementation, and dissolution processes, the sandstone porosity is mainly isolated molds and micropores and associated with fibrous illite and chamosite, explaining the low permeability. Diagenesis and the distribution of quartz cement is influenced by lithofacies and detrital compositions. Mineralogically immature sandstones (De Geerdalen Formation) show a homogeneous distribution of quartz cement overgrowths on quartz grains, distributed interstitial to labile grains and other cements (e.g., late calcite). The main silica source was from the dissolution of adjacent feldspar and labile grains as part of the chemical compaction. In contrast, quartz-dominated sandstones (Knorringfjellet Formation) show a heterogeneous patchy distribution of quartz cement influenced by the sedimentary bioturbation pattern, with silica sourced also from dissolution at clay-rich microstylolites. Phosphatic beds at the base and top of the formation are strongly influenced by marine eogenesis and reworking processes and associated with concentration of iron-rich authigenic minerals. The highest porosity appears in sand-supported conglomerate where moldic clay-mineral ooids contributed to reduce quartz cementation. The stratigraphic change from mineralogical immature (Triassic) to mature (uppermost Triassic–Jurassic) sandstone compositions is detected in wide areas of the Barents Shelf and has considerable implications for the distribution of sandstone reservoir properties.
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A joint AAPG–Society of Petroleum Engineers–Society of Exploration Geophysicists Hedberg Research Conference was held in Saint-Cyr sur Mer, France, on July 8 to 13, 2012, to review current research and explore future research directions related to improved production from carbonate reservoirs. Eighty-seven scientists from academia and industry (split roughly equally) attended for five days. A primary objective for the conference was to explore novel connections among different disciplines (primarily within geoscience and reservoir engineering) as a way to define new research opportunities. Research areas represented included carbonate sedimentology and stratigraphy, structural geology, geomechanics, hydrology, reactive transport modeling, seismic imaging (including four-dimensional seismic, tomography, and seismic forward modeling), geologic modeling and forward modeling of geologic processes, petrophysics, statistical methods, numerical methods for simulation, reservoir engineering, pore-scale processes, in-situ flow experiments (e.g., x-ray computed tomography), visualization, and methods for data interaction.
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Outcrops of the Cretaceous high-porosity sandstone of the Southeast Basin, France, show two main types of deformation structures: a large number of small-offset, shear-enhanced cataclastic deformation bands (DBs); and a small number of large (meters to decameters)-offset ultracataclastic fault zones. Microstructural analyses of the cataclastic DBs show that fragmentation produces strands of cataclastic fragment-supported matrix, separated by weakly fractured host rock, which cluster to form the DBs. The ultracataclastic fault zones, however, are composed of a matrix-supported ultracataclasite material. Permeability data show that the DBs reduce host-rock permeability by 0.5 to 2 orders of magnitude, whereas the ultracataclasites reduce permeability by approximately 4 orders. Simple calculations considering the structural frequency, thickness, and permeability of these faults suggest that, although the DBs may have an impact on single-phase flow, it is most likely to be less than a 50% reduction in flow rate in extensional contexts, but it may be more severe in the most extreme cases of structural density in tectonic shortening contexts. The larger ultracataclastic faults, however, despite their much lower frequency, will have a more significant reduction in flow rate, probably of approximately 90 to 95%. Hence, although they are commonly at or below the limit of seismic resolution, the detection and/or prediction of such ultracataclastic faults is likely to be more important for single-phase flow problems than DBs (although important two-phase questions remain). The study also suggests that it is inappropriate to use the petrophysical properties of core-scale DB structures as analogs to larger seismic-scale faults.
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The concept of common stratigraphic framework was previously introduced to construct and cross-validate multilayer static and dynamic petrophysical models by invoking the interactive numerical simulation of well logs both before and after invasion. This article documents the successful implementation of the common stratigraphic framework concept to examine and quantify the effects of mud-filtrate invasion on apparent resistivity, nuclear, and magnetic resonance logs acquired in the San Martin, Cashiriari, and Pagoreni gas fields in Camisea, Peru. Conventional petrophysical interpretation methods yield abnormally high estimates of water saturation in some of the reservoir units that produce gas with null water influx. Such an anomalous behavior is caused by relatively low values of deep apparent electrical resistivity and has otherwise been attributed to the presence of clay-coating grains and/or electrically conductive grain minerals coupled with fresh connate water. Concomitantly, electrical resistivity logs exhibit substantial invasion effects as evidenced by the variable separation of apparent resistivity curves (both logging-while-drilling and wireline) with multiple radial lengths of investigation. In extreme cases, apparent resistivity logs stack because of very deep invasion. We diagnose and quantify invasion effects on resistivity and nuclear logs with interactive numerical modeling before and after invasion. The assimilation of such effects in the interpretation consistently decreases previous estimates of water saturation to those of irreducible water saturation inferred from core data. We show that capillary pressure effects are responsible for the difference in separation of apparent resistivity curves in some of the reservoir units. This unique field study confirms that well logs should be corrected for mud-filtrate invasion effects before implementing arbitrary shaly sand models and parameters thereof in the calculation of connate-water saturation.
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Although conventional reservoirs dominate the Bohai Basin, China, a new type of sandstone reservoir also exists in the Dongpu depression that has a low matrix porosity (tight) in which natural fractures govern both permeability and porosity. These fractured sandstones are located on a structurally modified buried hill underlying Paleogene mudstones, and are truncated along an angular unconformity. The fractured sandstone oils of the Triassic Liujiagou, Heshanggou, and Ermaying Formations are derived from the Paleogene Shahejie Formation, which reached peak oil generation and expulsion during the Oligocene to early Miocene (32.8–15.6 Ma). Gas was generated primarily during the Paleogene from Carboniferous and Permian coals. Petrographic evidence suggests that oil and gas emplacement followed the compaction and cementation of the Triassic sandstone reservoirs. Fluid inclusion evidence and burial history analysis suggest that fractures developed before oil emplacement but may have coincided with peak gas generation, which suggests that oil and gas mainly migrated and accumulated in fractures.
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We do not dispute that the pores shown in the photomicrograph of figure 8G of Beavington-Penney et al. (2008; reproduced here as Figure 1) could have formed at least partly by poststylolite dissolution, but we do not agree that this photomicrograph constitutes evidence for porosity creation by mesogenetic dissolution in the El Garia Formation of offshore Tunisia. Our skepticism is based on two main considerations: (1) that the multiple possible origins of the pores shown in Figure 1 cannot be determined with any meaningful degree of objective certainty and (2) that Figure 1 appears to be unrepresentative of pore types in the El Garia Formation, based on comparison with numerous other published images from this unit.
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In-Person Training
Three Forks Montana United States 23 May, 2016 25 May, 2016 13422 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/hero-lodgepole-bakken-petroleum-system.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Petrophysics and Well Logs, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Source Rock, Sequence Stratigraphy
 
Three Forks, Montana, United States
23-25 May 2016

This field seminar will give participants an overview about the geology, reservoir engineering and operation aspects of the Lodgepole-Bakken-Three Forks Petroleum System.  Excellent outcrops illustrate how facies, reservoir properties and rock strength can vary along a lateral well bore. Engineers, geologists and operators will find this especially interesting.

Denver Colorado United States 07 June, 2016 09 June, 2016 13608 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/sc-basic-petroleum-geology-for-the-non-geologist.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Structure, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Geophysics, Engineering, Petrophysics and Well Logs, Basin Modeling, Source Rock, Petroleum Systems, Production
 
Denver, Colorado, United States
7-9 June 2016

Here is an introduction to the tools and techniques that geologists and geophysicists use to locate gas and oil, that drillers use to drill the wells and that petroleum engineers use to test and complete the wells and produce the gas and oil. Exercises throughout the course provide practical experience in well log correlation, contouring, interpretation of surface and subsurface, contoured maps, seismic interpretation, well log interpretation, and decline curve analysis.

Calgary Alberta Canada 18 June, 2016 19 June, 2016 23840 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/sc9-ace16-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Member, Student, Short Courses, Conventions, Pre-Convention, Engineering, Reservoir Characterization, Petrophysics and Well Logs
 
Calgary, Alberta, Canada
18-19 June 2016

The course provides an introduction to the concepts and methods of geological reservoir characterization and modeling through lectures, exercises, and case studies. A variety of topics are discussed that include sedimentary and reservoir-rock properties, heterogeneity and flow units, well logs and pay determination, unconventional resources, siliciclastic and carbonate deposits and reservoirs, structural controls on reservoir heterogeneity, and reservoir modeling concepts and methods. Exercises and case studies using data from well logs, cores, seismic, and outcrops will be presented to strengthen participant understanding of concepts and methods.

Calgary Alberta Canada 23 June, 2016 24 June, 2016 23904 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/3-d-seismic-revives-dormant-field-in-oman-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Member, Short Courses, Conventions, Post-Convention, Geophysics, Seismic, Petrophysics and Well Logs, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Carbonates
 
Calgary, Alberta, Canada
23-24 June 2016

This two-day workshop provides an introduction to the application of carbonate facies, diagenesis, and seismic sequence stratigraphy to exploration and production. This includes marine and lacustrine systems, and conventional and unconventional carbonate reservoirs. The workshop combines seismic, well log and rock data, and the concepts of sequence stratigraphy to develop interpretations that help predict carbonate hydrocarbon systems, and characterize carbonate reservoirs and seals. At the completion of this workshop, participants will be able to integrate carbonate and sequence stratigraphy principles to their work.

Golden Colorado United States 11 July, 2016 15 July, 2016 1512 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/sc-basic-well-log-analysis.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Petrophysics and Well Logs, Shale Gas
 
Golden, Colorado, United States
11-15 July 2016

This course assumes no logging knowledge and seeks to establish an understanding of basic petrophysical measurements and interpretation techniques which can be applied to routine tasks, and upon which more complex and advanced information and interpretive techniques can be built. It strives to provide a strong and coherent foundation for the understanding of other, specialized interpretation techniques involving well log data.

Lagos Nigeria 11 July, 2016 13 July, 2016 21922 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/sequence-stratigraphy-concepts-principles-applications-clastic-depositional-environments-02feb-2016-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Engineering, Reservoir Characterization, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Source Rock, Petrophysics and Well Logs, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Clastics, Conventional Sandstones, Deep Sea / Deepwater, Deepwater Turbidites, Eolian Sandstones, Estuarine Deposits, Fluvial Deltaic Systems, High Stand Deposits, Incised Valley Deposits, Lacustrine Deposits, Low Stand Deposits, Marine, Regressive Deposits, Sheet Sand Deposits, Shelf Sand Deposits, Slope, Transgressive Deposits, Sequence Stratigraphy, Deep Basin Gas, Diagenetic Traps, Stratigraphic Traps, Structural Traps
 
Lagos, Nigeria
11-13 July 2016
Sequence stratigraphy provides a framework for the integration of geological, geophysical, biostratigraphic and engineering data, with the aim of predicting the distribution of reservoir, source rock and seal lithologies. It gives the geoscientist a powerful predictive tool for regional basin analysis, shelf-to-basin correlation, and characterization of reservoir heterogeneity. This course will examine the underlying geological principles, processes and terminology related to sequence stratigraphic interpretation. The strength of this course is the application of these basic principles to subsurface datasets in a series of well-founded exercises.
Casper Wyoming United States 22 August, 2016 26 August, 2016 24361 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/fs-Casper-Fracture-School.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Structure, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Geophysics, Engineering, Petrophysics and Well Logs, Geomechanics and Fracture Analysis, Clastics, Carbonates, Seismic, Reservoir Characterization, Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs
 
Casper, Wyoming, United States
22-26 August 2016

Take advantage of this unique opportunity to learn all the aspects related to the understanding and modeling of fractured reservoirs. Attendees will take geologic concepts and use them in reservoir modeling through hands-on sessions devoted to the examination of outcrop, core and log data. They will use that information and a software to create 3D fractured reservoir models. Using actual Teapot Dome (Wyoming, USA) field data from the Tensleep and Niobrara Shale formations and a hands-on approach, the workshop allows the geoscientist to identify fractures and to construct predictive 3D fracture models that can be used to identify productive zones, plan wells and to create fracture porosity and permeability models for reservoir simulation.

Houston Texas United States 23 August, 2016 25 August, 2016 13607 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/sc-basic-petroleum-geology-for-the-non-geologist.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Structure, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Geophysics, Engineering, Petrophysics and Well Logs, Basin Modeling, Source Rock, Petroleum Systems, Production
 
Houston, Texas, United States
23-25 August 2016

Here is an introduction to the tools and techniques that geologists and geophysicists use to locate gas and oil, that drillers use to drill the wells and that petroleum engineers use to test and complete the wells and produce the gas and oil. Exercises throughout the course provide practical experience in well log correlation, contouring, interpretation of surface and subsurface, contoured maps, seismic interpretation, well log interpretation, and decline curve analysis.

Salt Lake City Utah United States 18 September, 2016 25 September, 2016 151 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/FS-lacustrine-basin-exploration-2014.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Carbonates, Clastics, Lacustrine Deposits, Oil Shale, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Source Rock, Fluvial Deltaic Systems, Petrophysics and Well Logs, Geophysics, Seismic
 
Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
18-25 September 2016

Participants will learn a specific and comprehensive methodology for finding and developing conventional and unconventional oil and gas resources associated with lake deposits. The seminar will start with the Quaternary Bonneville basin in Utah, to build familiarity with lacustrine depositional processes. Participants then examine world-famous exposures of organic-rich mudstone, fluvial sandstone, and carbonate microbialite facies in Wyoming.

Grand Junction Colorado United States 28 September, 2016 05 October, 2016 86 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/fs-sedimentology-and-sequence-stratigraphic-response-of-paralic-deposits.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Clastics, Sequence Stratigraphy, Fluvial Deltaic Systems, Estuarine Deposits, Marine, Incised Valley Deposits, High Stand Deposits, Low Stand Deposits, Petrophysics and Well Logs
 
Grand Junction, Colorado, United States
28 September - 5 October 2016

Participants will learn through the use of spectacular outcrops, subsurface datasets, and stratigraphic modeling how these systems tracts and key surfaces (flooding surfaces and sequence boundaries) may be recognized.

Houston Texas United States 06 December, 2016 08 December, 2016 13606 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/sc-basic-petroleum-geology-for-the-non-geologist.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true Structure, Geochemistry and Basin Modeling, Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, Geophysics, Engineering, Petrophysics and Well Logs, Basin Modeling, Source Rock, Petroleum Systems, Production
 
Houston, Texas, United States
6-8 December 2016

Here is an introduction to the tools and techniques that geologists and geophysicists use to locate gas and oil, that drillers use to drill the wells and that petroleum engineers use to test and complete the wells and produce the gas and oil. Exercises throughout the course provide practical experience in well log correlation, contouring, interpretation of surface and subsurface, contoured maps, seismic interpretation, well log interpretation, and decline curve analysis.

Online Training
02 October, 2014 02 October, 2014 10593 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/esymp-concepts-of-scale-horizontal-development-of-wolfcamp-shale-oil-of-the-southern-midland-basin-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
2 October 2014
This course is ideal for individuals involved in Midland Basin exploration and development. Successful development of Wolfcamp shale oil relies on complex inter-relationships (ultimately interdependencies) within and between a wide variety of scientific disciplines, financial entities, and company partnerships. 
09 September, 2014 09 September, 2014 10591 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/esymp-fluid-migration-and-accumulation-within-the-mississippian-why-2-oil-cut-here-15-one-mile-away-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
9 September 2014
Water cut is a big factor in gauging the success of horizontal drilling in the Mississippi Lime Play (MLP). The contributing factors are related in part to the spectrum of producing lithofacies and reservoir quality encountered that varies laterally and vertically, sometimes dramatically. 
10 November, 2011 10 November, 2011 1481 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-heterogeneity-in-carbonate-reservoirs.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
10 November 2011

This work investigates how heterogeneity can be defined and how we can quantify this term by describing a range of statistical heterogeneity (e.g. coefficient of variation and the Lorenz coefficient).

07 June, 2012 07 June, 2012 1488 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-new-production-in-oil-fields.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
7 June 2012

Unger Field, discovered in1955, has produced 8.6 million barrels of oil from a thinly (several ft) bedded, locally cherty dolomite containing vuggy and intercrystalline porosity.

16 February, 2012 16 February, 2012 1483 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-seismically-driven-characterization-of-unconventional-shale-plays.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
16 February 2012

This presentation describes a proven workflow that uses a standard narrow azimuth 3D seismic, conventional logs, image logs and core data to build five key reservoir properties required for an optimal development of shale plays.

29 September, 2011 29 September, 2011 1478 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-application-of-inversion-and-clustering-analysis.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
29 September 2011

This study will focus in the combination of λρ – μρ inversion with clustering analysis techniques in order to discriminate brittle zones in the Barnett Shale.

07 November, 2013 07 November, 2013 1500 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-from-qualitative-to-quantitative-interpretations.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
7 November 2013

This e-symposium presentation places the interpretation of deep-water turbidites discernible in 3-D seismic inversion data within a geological context.

13 December, 2012 13 December, 2012 1494 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-petrophysics-of-shales.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
13 December 2012

The course will review core data, petrophysical comparisons, rock physics modeling (including pseudo logs and mechanical properties).

24 October, 2013 24 October, 2013 1499 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-geomechanical-data-from-petrophysical-logs.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
24 October 2013

This e-symposium will be introducing signal processing techniques as a means to maximize extracting geomechanical data from petrophysical logs.

15 March, 2012 15 March, 2012 1484 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-exploring-the-geopressure-risk-in-deep-water-frontier-plays.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
15 March 2012

This e-symposium presents techniques for predicting pore pressure in seals by examining case studies from the Gulf of Mexico and incorporating the relationship between rocks, fluids, stress, and pressure.

10 September, 2013 10 September, 2013 1498 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-using-production-preformance-data-to-improve-geological-models.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
10 September 2013

The goal of this e-symposium is to review an important dimension in the ways geologist can build and update geological models using information from performance data.

31 October, 2012 31 October, 2012 1492 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-3-dimensional-approach-t-hydrocarbon-mapping.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
31 October 2012

This e-symposium will focus on how surface geochemical surveys and Downhole Geochemical Imaging technologies can be utilized jointly to directly characterize the composition of hydrocarbons vertically through the prospect section.

21 February, 2013 21 February, 2013 1495 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-petrophysics-of-carbonates.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
21 February 2013

The course will review core data, petrophysical comparisons, rock physics modeling (including pseudo logs and mechanical properties).

30 August, 2012 30 August, 2012 1489 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-mississippian-carbonates-in-kansas.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
30 August 2012

The entire Middle Pennsylvanian–to–top Precambrian basement (500 m) interval was cored in early 2011 in the BEREXCO Wellington KGS #1-32 well in Wellington Field, Sumner County, KS.

25 August, 2011 25 August, 2011 1475 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-overview-of-hydraulic-fracturing-mechanics-analysis-and-design.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
25 August 2011

This e-symposium provides highlights of the hydraulic fracturing mechanics, analysis, and design, and is derived from a two and one-half (2-1/2) day course which is designed for drilling, completion, production engineers, engineering technicians, geologists, well-site and completion supervisors, and managers, who desire to possess a comprehensive and integral knowledge of Hydraulic Fracturing.

17 March, 2011 17 March, 2011 1470 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-basic-tools-for-shale-exploration.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
17 March 2011

This e-symposium will provide information on which tools, processes, and procedures all geoscientists, engineers, and technical professionals working in shale plays need to understand and implement.

17 February, 2011 17 February, 2011 1469 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-siliclastic-sequence-stratigraphy.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
17 February 2011

This presentation is designed for exploration/production geologists and geological managers or reservoir engineers.

25 March, 2010 25 March, 2010 1458 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-mapping-natural-fractures-using-3d-seismic-and-well-data.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
25 March 2010

The presentation describes a well established fracture modeling workflow that uses a standard 3D seismic, conventional logs, image logs and data from one core to build predictive 3D fracture models that are validated with blind wells.

25 January, 2011 25 January, 2011 1454 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-integrating-discipline-data-and-workflows-in-resource-play.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
25 January 2011

This esymposium takes a close look at workflows associated with resource plays, and analyzes where integration must occur between disciplines, data, and workflows at all phases of the process.

22 October, 2009 22 October, 2009 1452 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-fluvial-stratigraphy.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
22 October 2009

This course can help you gain the ability to describe the complex and highly variable reservoirs, which are typified by complex internal heterogeneity.

11 February, 2010 11 February, 2010 1441 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-predicting-gas-hydrates.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
11 February 2010

Gas hydrates, ice-like substances composed of water and gas molecules (methane, ethane, propane, etc.), occur in permafrost areas and in deep water marine environments.

14 February, 3000 14 February, 3000 7817 Desktop /Portals/0/PackFlashItemImages/WebReady/oc-es-generic-hero.jpg?width=100&height=100&mode=crop&anchor=middlecenter&quality=75amp;encoder=freeimage&progressive=true
 
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