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1760
 

The ability to see ahead of the drillbit while drilling, in real time, helps the driller avoid hazards, increase drilling efficiency and improve well results. Successful SWD captures seismic data without interrupting drilling operations, saving money and reducing risk.

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The Marcellus Shale is considered to be the largest unconventional shale-gas resource in the United States. Two critical factors for unconventional shale reservoirs are the response of a unit to hydraulic fracture stimulation and gas content. The fracture attributes reflect the geomechanical properties of the rocks, which are partly related to rock mineralogy. The natural gas content of a shale reservoir rock is strongly linked to organic matter content, measured by total organic carbon (TOC). A mudstone lithofacies is a vertically and laterally continuous zone with similar mineral composition, rock geomechanical properties, and TOC content. Core, log, and seismic data were used to build a three-dimensional (3-D) mudrock lithofacies model from core to wells and, finally, to regional scale. An artificial neural network was used for lithofacies prediction. Eight petrophysical parameters derived from conventional logs were determined as critical inputs. Advanced logs, such as pulsed neutron spectroscopy, with log-determined mineral composition and TOC data were used to improve and confirm the quantitative relationship between conventional logs and lithofacies. Sequential indicator simulation performed well for 3-D modeling of Marcellus Shale lithofacies. The interplay of dilution by terrigenous detritus, organic matter productivity, and organic matter preservation and decomposition affected the distribution of Marcellus Shale lithofacies distribution, which may be attributed to water depth and the distance to shoreline. The trend of normalized average gas production rate from horizontal wells supported our approach to modeling Marcellus Shale lithofacies. The proposed 3-D modeling approach may be helpful for optimizing the design of horizontal well trajectories and hydraulic fracture stimulation strategies.

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Explorer Emphasis Article

Three new research facilities divide their focus between downstream and upstream technology for Aramco Services.

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Explorer Emphasis Article

Stealth apparently can come in all sizes so some countries are hesitant to accept the use of UAVs for research. Fortunately Norway is one of those places that have permitted geoscientists to drone on.

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I have just returned from Kompong Thom town, the capital of Kompong Thom Province, some 200 kilometers north of Phnom Penh, the capital of Cambodia.

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The McMurray Formation of northern Alberta in Canada contains multiscale complex geologic features that were partially formed in a fluvial-estuarine depositional environment. The inclined heterolithic strata deposited as part of fluvial point bars contain continuous centimeter-scale features that are important for flow characterization of steam-assisted gravity drainage processes. These channels are common, extensive, and imbricated over many square kilometers. Modeling the detailed facies in such depositional systems requires a methodology that reflects heterogeneity over many scales. This article presents an object-based facies modeling technique that (1) reproduces the geometry of multiscale geologic architectural elements seen in the McMurray Formation outcrops and (2) provides a grid-free framework that models these geologic objects without relating them to a grid system. The grid-free object-based modeling can be applied to any depositional environment and allows for the complete preservation of architectural information for consistent application to any gridding scheme, local grid refinements, downscaling, upscaling, drape surface, locally variable azimuths, property trend modeling, and flexible model interaction and manipulation. Features millimeters thick or kilometers in extent are represented very efficiently in the same model.
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The inaugural EAGE-AAPG workshop, titled “Basin-Margin Wedge Exploration Plays,” will be held Nov. 20-22 in Lisbon, Portugal.

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Explorer Historical Highlight

This story is an illustration of how a single geologist working for a major company can develop new exploration concepts in a “mature basin” and turn it into one of that company’s most successful plays in the onshore United States.

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Considerable effort has been devoted to the development of simulation algorithms for facies modeling, whereas a discussion of how to combine those techniques has not existed. The integration of multiple geologic data into a three-dimensional model, which requires the combination of simulation techniques, is yet a current challenge for reservoir modeling. This article presents a thought process that guides the acquisition and modeling of geologic data at various scales. Our work is based on outcrop data collected from a Jurassic carbonate ramp located in the High Atlas mountain range of Morocco. The study window is 1 km (0.6 mi) wide and 100 m (328.1 ft) thick. We describe and model the spatial and hierarchical arrangement of carbonate bodies spanning from largest to smallest: (1) stacking pattern of high-frequency depositional sequences, (2) facies association, and (3) lithofacies. Five sequence boundaries were modeled using differential global position system mapping and light detection and ranging data. The surface-based model shows a low-angle profile with modest paleotopographic relief at the inner-to-middle ramp transition. Facies associations were populated using truncated Gaussian simulation to preserve ordered trends between the inner, middle, and outer ramps. At the lithofacies scale, field observations and statistical analysis show a mosaiclike distribution that was simulated using a fully stochastic approach with sequential indicator simulation.

This study observes that the use of one single simulation technique is unlikely to correctly model the natural patterns and variability of carbonate rocks. The selection and implementation of different techniques customized for each level of the stratigraphic hierarchy will provide the essential computing flexibility to model carbonate settings. This study demonstrates that a scale-dependent modeling approach should be a common procedure when building subsurface and outcrop models.

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Thus far, the subject of deep-marine sands emplaced by baroclinic currents associated with internal waves and internal tides as potential reservoirs has remained an alien topic in petroleum exploration. Internal waves are gravity waves that oscillate along oceanic pycnoclines. Internal tides are internal waves with a tidal frequency. Internal solitary waves (i.e., solitons), the most common type, are commonly generated near the shelf edge (100–200 m [328–656 ft] in bathymetry) and in the deep ocean over areas of sea-floor irregularities, such as mid-ocean ridges, seamounts, and guyots. Empirical data from 51 locations in the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic oceans reveal that internal solitary waves travel in packets. Internal waves commonly exhibit (1) higher wave amplitudes (5–50 m [16–164 ft]) than surface waves (lt2 m [6.56 ft]), (2) longer wavelengths (0.5–15 km [0.31–9 mi]) than surface waves (100 m [328 ft]), (3) longer wave periods (5–50 min) than surface waves (9–10 s), and (4) higher wave speeds (0.5–2 m s–1 [1.64–6.56 ft s–1]) than surface waves (25 cm s–1 [10 in. s–1]). Maximum speeds of 48 cm s–1 (19 in. s–1) for baroclinic currents were measured on guyots. However, core-based sedimentologic studies of modern sediments emplaced by baroclinic currents on continental slopes, in submarine canyons, and on submarine guyots are lacking. No cogent sedimentologic or seismic criteria exist for distinguishing ancient counterparts. Outcrop-based facies models of these deposits are untenable. Therefore, potential exists for misinterpreting deep-marine baroclinic sands as turbidites, contourites, basin-floor fans, and others. Economic risks associated with such misinterpretations could be real.
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In-Person Training
Tulsa Oklahoma United States 07 October, 2014 09 October, 2014 1511
 
Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States
7-9 October 2014

Here is an introduction to the tools and techniques that geologists and geophysicists use to locate gas and oil, that drillers use to drill the wells and that petroleum engineers use to test and complete the wells and produce the gas and oil. Exercises throughout the course provide practical experience in well log correlation, contouring, interpretation of surface and subsurface, contoured maps, seismic interpretation, well log interpretation, and decline curve analysis.

Houston Texas United States 02 December, 2014 04 December, 2014 1516
 
Houston, Texas, United States
2-4 December 2014

Here is an introduction to the tools and techniques that geologists and geophysicists use to locate gas and oil, that drillers use to drill the wells and that petroleum engineers use to test and complete the wells and produce the gas and oil. Exercises throughout the course provide practical experience in well log correlation, contouring, interpretation of surface and subsurface, contoured maps, seismic interpretation, well log interpretation, and decline curve analysis.

Wellington New Zealand 21 April, 2015 23 April, 2015 10641
 
Wellington, New Zealand
21-23 April 2015

Make plans to attend an AAPG Geosciences Technology Workshop (GTW) to be held in Wellington between April 21-23, 2015. The workshop will comprise four half-day sessions focused on broad depositional environment settings. The aim is to better understand modern depositional systems, and how they can help us to better interpret ancient petroleum reservoirs.

Dubai United Arab Emirates 11 May, 2015 13 May, 2015 12236
 
Dubai, United Arab Emirates
11-13 May 2015

Check the website for details as they develop.

14 February, 3000 14 February, 3000 7815
 
14 February, 3000 14 February, 3000 7813
 
14 February, 3000 14 February, 3000 7816
 
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Online Training
01 January, 2013 01 January, 9999 1459
 
1 January 2013 - 1 January 9999

There are more approximately 1,000 oil and gas fields in the world that have been classified as "giant," containing more than 500 million barrels of recoverable oil and /or 3 trillion cubic feet of gas.

14 December, 2010 14 December, 2010 1467
 
14 December 2010

Recent interest in unconventional gas resources has attracted several oil and gas explorers to sedimentary basins in Southern Quebec.

14 February, 3000 14 February, 3000 7817
 
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