enough rhetoric -- much of it conflicting -- about oil supply/demand
these days to prompt even the hardiest observer to reach for the
Global demand continues unabated vs. prices cooling China demand;
OPEC can produce however much oil needed vs. OPEC is at capacity,
to the uncertainty is OPEC's recent out-of-the-blue call for the
United States to release oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve
to help cool prices. The plea received little attention despite
the fact OPEC prides itself in being able to control prices, ideally
holding them just high enough to keep the coffers full yet low enough
to discourage major consumers from serious development of alternative
kingpin Saudi Arabia recently announced a production increase, there
was scant mention the increase was mostly in the form of low quality
crude rather than sweet.
these recent actions can be viewed as red flags is a matter of opinion.
One observer, longtime energy investment banker Matt Simmons, CEO
of Simmons and Company International in Houston, says there's ample
cause to be concerned about Middle East oil supply, particularly
that of Saudi Arabia.
basically created a global energy plan built on a house of sand,"
Simmons said, "and there's no Plan B if their production actually
starts to decline, just like the U.S. did and like the North Sea
Arabia's last giant field, Shaybah, was discovered in 1967, and
what we have in Saudi Arabia is a handful of fields all too old
for a world that assumes oil is anywhere you want to find it in
the Middle East," he said. "It's the last Great Myth: Oil is everyplace.
out there's an unbelievably tiny concentration in the Middle East
of what I call the golden triangle of energy," he continued.
starts with Kirkuk at the top of Iraq, comes down the eastern side
and in 20-30 miles east of the Iranian-Persian border, drops down
to the bottom of the UAE and comes across to a leg back up to Kirkuk,
which is about 40 miles west of the western border of the Persian
about a 1,000-mile by 450-mile by 800-mile triangle," Simmons said.
"And in that triangle is every significant oil field ever found
in the Middle East.
Arabia has searched for 30 years to find oil outside this very tiny
area in the eastern province to try to find 'Plan 2'," he said,
"but the only few commercial discoveries ever made were modest in
terms of Middle East oil fields."
major commercial discovery was 50 miles southwest of Riyadh in 1989
at the Hawtah Field, which became known as the Hawtah trend. Production
peaked at 200,000 barrels of oil a day.
injected, according to Simmons, was corrosive and laden with bacteria,
severely damaging the reservoir's long-term sustainability.
A Lot From
his own growing list of questions and gain insight into Saudi field
discoveries, production methods and volumes, Simmons analyzed more
than 200 SPE technical papers on the subject. His findings were
reviewed by a number of technical experts.
read carefully, a totally different picture emerges than you get
by listening to people who say they have 260 billion barrels of
reserves and, conservatively, they'll get 70 to 80 percent recovery,"
Simmons said, "which no else in the world has ever done.
they're on the last legs of easily recoverable oil, and they'll
end up with 35 to 45 percent recovery of original oil in place,
just like the performance of other carbonate reservoirs," he said.
far more will require using artificial lift and exponentially more
the Saudi oil picture so uncomfortable overall, Simmons noted, is
the asymmetry of the oil supply.
fields have effectively been 98 percent of all they've ever produced,
and six fields are basically 95 percent," he said. Ghawar (see related
story, page 4) is one, and it's consistently been 60 to 65 percent
of all the oil they've ever produced from the late '50s to 2004.
We could find these fields are about to roll over like all great
fields have done, and when Ghawar goes into decline, the world's
Ghawar continues to churn out about 5 millions barrels of oil per
day, thanks in large part to an extensive water maintenance program.
The question is, can the status quo be maintained?
now shut down most vertical wells doing anything but water injection,
with all new wells being extended reach horizontal multi-lateral
wells," Simmons said. "These are basically just hiding from a rapidly
emerging gas cap and hiding in the middle of the ever-thinning oil
column as the water column is rising to the top of the field.
day is over, these fabulous wells creating this productivity through
eight to ten wellbores will all water up."
has a far different take on the future of Saudi oil.
the company sent two of its high-ranking executives to Washington,
D.C., in February to refute Simmons' assertions when he presented
his findings to the Center for Strategic and International Studies.
of the presentations included comments by Nansen Saleri, manager
of reservoir management at Aramco, regarding current and future
company plan is to maintain capacity of 10 million barrels/day and
to replace reserves to the tune of 15 billion barrels between 2005
and 2009, Saleri said. He declared if Aramco ramps up to 12 million
barrels daily production by 2014, this can be sustained comfortably
for 50 years or more.
the numbers even more, stating the company actually could produce
and maintain as much as 15 million barrels a day until 2054.
qualified his remarks somewhat by noting this depends on world market
his predictions, Saleri emphasized the company's capabilities, including
extensive use of advanced technologies and the ability to ride herd
on water cut levels. He emphasized the reduction in water cut on
average at Ghawar.
production numbers may be impressive, but Simmons maintains that
Saudi Aramco has not been forthcoming with production data to back
up its claims.
say how they would be able to do this," he said, "and I say we're
badly in need of massive data reform. We need true energy transparency.
field by field disclosure of historical production and the average
number of producing wellbores that created it," Simmons said, "so
analysts for the first time ever can do productivity decline rate
analysis versus 'trust me, we don't have a problem.'
need three specific pieces of proven reserve data by field, verified
by a third party, just as someone like, for example, GE needs their
books audited even though they know them better than anyone," he
said. "Then, if three years from now, there is no sign of any problem,
I'll publicly say I was an alarmist to raise this.
getting now is 'trust me', and I say we're in the mode of 'trust