of Ron Broadhead, photos by Steven Moise
Click on figures to enlarge
of deeper wells were drilled scattered throughout the Tucumcari
Basin in the 1950s and 1960s.
of those wells went all the way to the Precambrian, and some had
intriguing gas shows on the mud logs," said Ron Broadhead,
with the New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources.
shows were generally not tested because the region was remote from
any gas pipeline infrastructure, and the San Juan Basin had just
come on as a big gas producer, so there was little demand for gas,
particularly if a pipeline was necessary."
Humble found a shallow deposit of heavy oil in the Triassic-age
Newkirk oil pool at 600 feet, but the heavy oil was not produced.
Activity died down until the early 1980s when additional exploration
programs were undertaken.
Pecos tested gas at Latigo Ranch, and they encountered some in Pennsylvanian
sandstones," Broadhead said. "The wells were later abandoned."
Petroleum out of Artesia, New Mexico, drilled the No. 1 T-4 Cattle
Co. well in Quay County, where they tested flow rates of 1.1 million
cubic feet of gas plus 40 barrels of light oil per day from a Pennsylvanian
that time the thinking was you should go higher on the structure,
which Yates did with two offset wells," he continued. "Unfortunately,
the Pennsylvanian section was absent in these wells."
of infrastructure and a bust cycle in the oil business conspired
to once again wither interest in the Tucumcari Basin.
While rank exploration in the lower 48 states is becoming
as rare as a rainstorm in the desert, some areas in the continental
United States remain rarely touched despite their exciting potential
for oil and gas reserves.
For one such area, that may be about to change.
A genuine exploration play seems to be gathering steam in eastern
New Mexico, thanks to some good old fashioned geologic detective
work by professionals at the state's Bureau of Geology & Mineral
years of inactivity, New Mexico's Tucumcari Basin is drawing much
Ron F. Broadhead and his bureau colleagues have developed a new
geologic interpretation of the Tucumcari Basin that shows great
promise for oil and gas exploration -- and based on those findings,
several independent companies are staking claims in what would be
the basin's first sustained drilling program.
Broadhead calls the basin, which has four discovered but unexploited
occurrences of oil and gas, "prime hunting ground."
One reason for the general neglect of the region is the area's
Santa Rosa tar sands -- briefly produced in the 1930s for road surfacing
material -- which led to an opinion of some operators that the basin
contained only heavy oil in shallow zones, which would never amount
Sporatic activity occurred over the next four decades, but since
the early 1980s the basin was dormant until the turn of the century,
when Broadhead's 20 years of geologic study in the area attracted
A Lift from the Elevators
So what has the New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources
determined that could change the fortunes of the Tucumcari Basin?
of the basin
The most important finding was that favorable source rocks and
reservoirs are present in elevator sub basins, where the depth to
Precambrian may exceed 12,000 feet.
"Recent activity has been prompted by recognition that there is
potential oil and gas resources in the basin," Broadhead said. "We
have done a fair amount of research that indicates there are significant
mature source rocks within these elevator sub-basins."
And that is "always the big question in modern exploration," he
added. "Do you have a source, do you have a reservoir and do you
have a trap?
"Certainly the documentation of thick mature sections of organic
rich source rocks in the elevator basins -- combined with all the
shows that have been encountered over the years and heavy oil in
Triassic-age reservoirs -- indicate that a significant amount of
hydrocarbons have been generated in the Tucumcari Basin," he said.
"That, in conjunction with a virtually wide open lease play where
a small company can lease fairly large amounts of acreage relatively
inexpensively and a strong gas market makes this region attractive."
Significant Source Rocks
Most recently Broadhead and his colleagues have focused on identifying
the potential of source rocks in the Tucumcari -- work that has
helped touch off the current interest in the area.
According to him, the Pennsylvanian sediments contain the most
significant petroleum source rocks.
"Underlying Mississippian strata, although thermally mature, contain
insufficient total organic carbon for petroleum generation," he
said. "Shallower Permian age and younger sediments either contain
insufficient total organic carbon for major petroleum generation
or are thermally immature."
The Pennsylvanian shales, however, contain enhanced levels of
total organic carbon within the elevator basins. On the shelf areas
the shales typically contain 1 to 2 percent total organic carbon,
but in the elevator basins they contain 2 to 10 percent total organic
Thin coal beds also contributed to hydrocarbon generation in the
elevator basins. Thermal maturity of the Pennsylvanian source rocks
is higher in the elevator basins due to greater depth of burial.
In the elevator basins most of the Pennsylvanian section is in the
oil window, and in the deepest areas those sections may be in the
condensate-wet gas window.
On the shelf areas, Pennsylvanian sediments are only moderately
mature to mature and are generally in the oil window's uppermost
part. The basin's heavy oil was thought to have been generated in
Pennsylvanian source rocks and migrated into basal Triassic sandstones
through major high-angle faults that form the elevator basins' boundaries.
After emplacement of the oil, it was biodegraded.
Broadhead cites several analogous occurrences of oil and gas from
an elevator basin, including:
- The Rhombochasm Field, which was discovered in 1989 in the
Broken Bone graben on the Matador Arch in central Texas, produces
from a similar setting.
- The Wolf Flat Field, which produces from the southern rim of
the Palo Duro Basin.
This greater understanding of the elevator sub-basins is a big
reason why several small independents have flocked to the Tucumcari.
"We have seen, among other things, a large lease play develop
in the basin with several companies participating," Broadhead said.
The most currently active companies are Yates Petroleum, Coulthurst
Management and Ceja Corp. Other active parties include Ace Petroleum,
Roy Barton, Blanco Corp., Caza, CKG Energy, David Petroleum, DMT
Energy, Ben Donegan, Ibis Petroleum, Inter-American Corp., Pitch
Energy, Charles Reynolds, SDX Resources, Craig Settle, Strata View,
Gene Wilson and Xeric, as well as local ranchers and land holders.
"Today large parts of the basin are under lease," he said.
So far three different companies have actually drilled wells:
- CKG Energy has drilled several wells, and most have reported
promising occurrences of gas and light liquids.
"I don't know what they have established as far as production
tests," Broadhead said. "We do know they have flared gas and
had shows on the mud logs."
The wells went to about 7,000 feet in the Lower Canyon.
- Coulthurst Management in association with Gene Wilson drilled
a well and reported good shows, and is now drilling a second well.
Rig limitations precluded both companies from drilling to
"Expect the most mature source rocks to be present in the
deeper parts," he said. "Although these wells did not test the
lower Pennsylvanian section, it should be favorable."
- Yates Petroleum has recently drilled a couple of wells, but
results have not been released. Other operators will likely follow
suit, "particularly if production can be established," Broadhead
said. "The wells drilled to date confirm our geologic model."
The encouraging aspect of this round of activity is the number
of operators taking a position.
"This time we are not dependent on one operator to drill wells,"
he said. "All these companies are pursuing their own ideas concerning
reservoirs and traps, which increases the chances of seeing
several wells drilled based on a variety of concepts.
"That is something this basin has never seen," he added.