Demand for energy is growing rapidly, forcing the oil and gas industry to explore in more challenging environments for higher risk petroleum system plays. To be able to describe, identify and predict these complex plays and new prospects successfully, integration of all risk elements and processes (e.g., reservoir, seal, overburden, source rock, trap formation, generation, migration, accumulation, preservation and timing) is necessary. Integration is more important than ever before due to the increasing complexity of the challenges. One of the best ways to test the potential for a working petroleum system and the interplay of all risk elements and processes is to use numerical Basin and Petroleum System Modeling. BPSM has become an indispensable tool in frontier basins to identify risk, reduce uncertainty, and identify new potential areas. This technology has become more important over time as a result of increased understanding of processes and the rapid development of computing power. Both the hardware and the software are evolving to quantify more complex processes.