When evaluating paleosystems, there will always be a shortage of data constraints and a surplus of plausible geological scenarios for a basin evaluation. Modelling paleosystems with constraints from the modern has been used as a successful approach to better understand petroleum systems. However, as geological data spans both time and space and paleosystems are influenced from lithosphere to atmosphere so should the modelling approach. The modelling approach should be represented through geological time and encompass the effects and implications of the whole earth system. Modelling paleosystems as an integrated earth system requires the integration of tectonics, paleoclimate, source distribution and sediment routing which are all rooted in the prediction of paleotopography. Unfortunately, prediction of paleotopography comes with high uncertainty and is often poorly constrained. Source to sink concepts address the fundamental principles that influence paleotopography but the challenge exists on how to integrate these concepts into meaningful methods for the prediction of petroleum systems. These challenges are being met through industry-driven advances in novel iterative workflows and integrated technology that evaluates the petroleum system holistically through geologic time. Iterative workflows and integrated technology allow for the efficient evaluation of multiple geological scenarios to better constrain the uncertainties in the prediction of petroleum systems.